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Classical period (music)

Index Classical period (music)

The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. [1]

160 relations: Accompaniment, Alberti bass, Anton Bruckner, Antonio Salieri, Antonio Soler, Architecture, Arnold Schoenberg, Art music, Art song, Axiom, Étienne Méhul, Barbara Russano Hanning, Baroque music, Basset clarinet, Basset horn, Bassline, Bassoon, Buccin, Cadence (music), Carl Czerny, Carl Maria von Weber, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Cello, Chalumeau, Chamber music, Charles Rosen, Choir, Chord (music), Chord progression, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Chromaticism, Clarinet, Clarinette d'amour, Classical antiquity, Classical Greece, Classical guitar, Classical music, Classicism, Clavichord, Comic opera, Concerto, Counterpoint, Da capo aria, Divertimento, Domenico Scarlatti, Dominant (music), Double bass, Dynamics (music), Equal temperament, Felix Mendelssohn, ..., Figured bass, First Viennese School, Flute, Fortepiano, Franz Liszt, Franz Schubert, Frédéric Chopin, French horn, Friedrich Blume, Fugue, Galant music, Galant style, Gaspare Spontini, George Frideric Handel, Gioachino Rossini, Grand opera, Gustav Mahler, Harmony, Harpsichord, Historically informed performance, Homophony, Igor Stravinsky, Interval (music), Isaac Newton, Italy, Jan Ladislav Dussek, Johann Christian Bach, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Johann Sebastian Bach, Johannes Brahms, John Broadwood & Sons, John Field (composer), Joseph Haydn, Kapellmeister, Leopold Mozart, Les Six, List of Classical-era composers, London, Louis Spohr, Ludwig van Beethoven, Luigi Boccherini, Luigi Cherubini, Mannheim school, Mass (music), Melody, Michael Kennedy (music critic), Mode (music), Modulation (music), Musical form, Muzio Clementi, Natural philosophy, Neoclassicism (music), Obbligato, Oboe, Opera, Ophicleide, Orchestra, Orchestration, Organ (music), Overture, Paris, Phrase (music theory), Physics, Piano, Piano Sonata No. 14 (Beethoven), Pipe organ, Polyphony, Rhythm, Rococo, Roger Kamien, Romantic music, Romanticism, Rome, Second Viennese School, Serenade, Sergei Prokofiev, Serpent (instrument), Sinfonia, Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra (Mozart), Sonata, Sonata form, Spain, Stephen Fry, Stephen Fry's Incomplete and Utter History of Classical Music, String quartet, String Quartets, Op. 33 (Haydn), String section, Sturm und Drang, Subdominant, Subject (music), Symphony, Symphony No. 45 (Haydn), Symphony No. 5 (Schubert), Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven), The Classical Style, The Rite of Spring, Theorbo, Tonality, Tonic (music), Trombone, Trumpet, Tuba, Variation (music), Vienna, Viol, Viola, Viola d'amore, Violin, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Woodwind instrument. Expand index (110 more) »


Accompaniment is the musical part which provides the rhythmic and/or harmonic support for the melody or main themes of a song or instrumental piece.

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Alberti bass

Alberti bass is a particular kind of accompaniment figure in music, often used in the Classical era, and sometimes the Romantic era.

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Anton Bruckner

Josef Anton Bruckner was an Austrian composer, organist, and music theorist best known for his symphonies, masses, Te Deum and motets.

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Antonio Salieri

Antonio Salieri (18 August 17507 May 1825) was an Italian classical composer, conductor, and teacher.

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Antonio Soler

Antonio Francisco Javier José Soler Ramos, usually known as Padre ('Father', in the religious sense) Antonio Soler, known in Catalan as Antoni Soler i Ramos (baptized 3 December 1729 – died 20 December 1783) was a Spanish composer whose works span the late Baroque and early Classical music eras.

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Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.

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Arnold Schoenberg

Arnold Franz Walter Schoenberg or Schönberg (13 September 187413 July 1951) was an Austrian-American composer, music theorist, teacher, writer, and painter.

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Art music

Art music (alternately called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music that implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musique Savante (Serious music)", Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.

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Art song

An art song is a vocal music composition, usually written for one voice with piano accompaniment, and usually in the classical art music tradition.

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An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

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Étienne Méhul

Étienne Nicolas Méhul (22 June 1763 – 18 October 1817) was a French composer, "the most important opera composer in France during the Revolution".

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Barbara Russano Hanning

Barbara Russano Hanning (born 1940) is an American musicologist who specializes in 16th- and 17th-century Italian music.

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Baroque music

Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.

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Basset clarinet

The basset clarinet is a clarinet similar to the usual soprano clarinet but longer and with additional keys to enable playing several additional lower notes.

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Basset horn

The basset horn (sometimes written basset-horn) is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family.

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A bassline (also known as a bass line or bass part) is the term used in many styles of music, such as jazz, blues, funk, dub and electronic, traditional music, or classical music for the low-pitched instrumental part or line played (in jazz and some forms of popular music) by a rhythm section instrument such as the electric bass, double bass, cello, tuba or keyboard (piano, Hammond organ, electric organ, or synthesizer).

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The bassoon is a woodwind instrument in the double reed family that typically plays music written in the bass and tenor clefs, and occasionally the treble.

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The buccin is a visually distinctive trombone popularized in military bands in France between 1810 and 1845 which subsequently faded into obscurity.

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Cadence (music)

In Western musical theory, a cadence (Latin cadentia, "a falling") is "a melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of resolution."Don Michael Randel (1999).

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Carl Czerny

Carl Czerny (21 February 17919 August 1857) was an Austrian composer, teacher, and pianist of Czech origin whose vast musical production amounted to over a thousand works.

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Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (18 or 19 November 1786 5 June 1826) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, and was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.

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Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach

Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (8 March 1714 – 14 December 1788), also formerly spelled Karl Philipp Emmanuel Bach, was a German Classical period musician and composer, the fifth child and second (surviving) son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach.

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The cello (plural cellos or celli) or violoncello is a string instrument.

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The chalumeau (plural chalumeaux) is a single-reed woodwind instrument of the late baroque and early classical eras.

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Chamber music

Chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or a large room.

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Charles Rosen

Charles Welles Rosen (May 5, 1927December 9, 2012) was an American pianist and writer on music.

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A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.

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Chord (music)

A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches consisting of two or more (usually three or more) notes (also called "pitches") that are heard as if sounding simultaneously.

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Chord progression

A chord progression or harmonic progression is a succession of musical chords, which are two or more notes, typically sounded simultaneously.

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Christoph Willibald Gluck

Christoph Willibald (Ritter von) Gluck (born on 2 July, baptized 4 July 1714As there is only a documentary record with Gluck's date of baptism, 4 July. According to his widow, he was born on 3 July, but nobody in the 18th century paid attention to the birthdate until Napoleon introduced it. A birth date was only known if the parents kept a diary. The authenticity of the 1785 document (published in the Allgemeinen Wiener Musik-Zeitung vom 6. April 1844) is disputed, by Robl. (Robl 2015, pp. 141–147).--> – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.

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Chromaticism is a compositional technique interspersing the primary diatonic pitches and chords with other pitches of the chromatic scale.

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The clarinet is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments.

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Clarinette d'amour

The clarinette d'amour is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical Greece

Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.

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Classical guitar

The classical guitar (also known as concert guitar, classical acoustic, nylon-string guitar, or Spanish guitar) is the member of the guitar family used in classical music.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.

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The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument that was used largely in the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras.

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Comic opera

Comic opera denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending.

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A concerto (plural concertos, or concerti from the Italian plural) is a musical composition usually composed in three movements, in which, usually, one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.

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In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.

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Da capo aria

The da capo aria is a musical form for arias that was prevalent in the Baroque era.

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Divertimento (from the Italian divertire "to amuse") is a musical genre, with most of its examples from the 18th century.

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Domenico Scarlatti

Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (Naples, 26 October 1685 Madrid, 23 July 1757) was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families.

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Dominant (music)

In music, the dominant is the fifth scale degree of the diatonic scale, called "dominant" because it is next in importance to the tonic, and a dominant chord is any chord built upon that pitch, using the notes of the same diatonic scale.

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Double bass

The double bass, or simply the bass (and numerous other names), is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra.

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Dynamics (music)

In music, the dynamics of a piece is the variation in loudness between notes or phrases.

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Equal temperament

An equal temperament is a musical temperament, or a system of tuning, in which the frequency interval between every pair of adjacent notes has the same ratio.

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Felix Mendelssohn

Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (3 February 1809 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early romantic period.

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Figured bass

Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals) indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones that a musician playing piano, harpsichord, organ, lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below.

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First Viennese School

The First Viennese School is a name mostly used to refer to three composers of the Classical period in Western art music in late-18th-century Vienna: Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig van Beethoven.

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The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.

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A fortepiano is an early piano.

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Franz Liszt

Franz Liszt (Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. 22 October 181131 July 1886) was a prolific 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, organist, philanthropist, author, nationalist and a Franciscan tertiary during the Romantic era.

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Franz Schubert

Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras.

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Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric François Chopin (1 March 181017 October 1849) was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano.

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French horn

The French horn (since the 1930s known simply as the "horn" in some professional music circles) is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell.

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Friedrich Blume

Friedrich Blume (5 January 1893, in Schlüchtern, Hesse-Nassau – 22 November 1975, in Schlüchtern) was professor of Musicology in Kiel University from 1938–1958.

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In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and which recurs frequently in the course of the composition.

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Galant music

In music, galant refers to the style which was fashionable from the 1720s to the 1770s.

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Galant style

The galant style was an 18th-century movement in music, visual arts and literature.

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Gaspare Spontini

Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini (14 November 177424 January 1851) was an Italian opera composer and conductor.

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George Frideric Handel

George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.

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Gioachino Rossini

Gioachino Antonio Rossini (29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as some sacred music, songs, chamber music, and piano pieces.

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Grand opera

Grand opera is a genre of 19th-century opera generally in four or five acts, characterized by large-scale casts and orchestras, and (in their original productions) lavish and spectacular design and stage effects, normally with plots based on or around dramatic historic events.

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Gustav Mahler

Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation.

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In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing.

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A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.

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Historically informed performance

Historically informed performance (also referred to as period performance, authentic performance, or HIP) is an approach to the performance of classical music, which aims to be faithful to the approach, manner and style of the musical era in which a work was originally conceived.

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In music, homophony (Greek: ὁμόφωνος, homóphōnos, from ὁμός, homós, "same" and φωνή, phōnē, "sound, tone") is a texture in which a primary part is supported by one or more additional strands that flesh out the harmony and often provide rhythmic contrast.

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Igor Stravinsky

Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.

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Interval (music)

In music theory, an interval is the difference between two pitches.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jan Ladislav Dussek

Jan Ladislav Dussek (baptized Jan Václav Dusík,Černušák, p. 271 with surname also written as Duschek or Düssek; 12 February 176020 March 1812) was a Czech composer and pianist.

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Johann Christian Bach

Johann Christian Bach (September 5, 1735 – January 1, 1782) was a composer of the Classical era, the eleventh surviving child and youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach.

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Johann Nepomuk Hummel

Johann Nepomuk Hummel (14 November 177817 October 1837) was an Austrian composer and virtuoso pianist.

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Johann Sebastian Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach (28 July 1750) was a composer and musician of the Baroque period, born in the Duchy of Saxe-Eisenach.

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Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period.

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John Broadwood & Sons

John Broadwood & Sons is an English piano manufacturer, founded in 1728 by Burkat Shudi and continued after his death in 1773 by John Broadwood.

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John Field (composer)

John Field (26 July 1782, baptised 5 September 178223 January 1837) was an Irish pianist, composer, and teacher.

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Joseph Haydn

(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.

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Kapellmeister is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making.

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Leopold Mozart

Johann Georg Leopold Mozart (November 14, 1719 – May 28, 1787) was a German composer, conductor, teacher, and violinist.

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Les Six

"Les Six" is a name given to a group of six French composers who worked in Montparnasse.

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List of Classical-era composers

This is a list of composers of the Classical music era, roughly from 1730 to 1820.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louis Spohr

Louis Spohr (5 April 178422 October 1859), baptized Ludewig Spohr, later often in the modern German form of the name Ludwig, was a German composer, violinist and conductor.

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Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 1770Beethoven was baptised on 17 December. His date of birth was often given as 16 December and his family and associates celebrated his birthday on that date, and most scholars accept that he was born on 16 December; however there is no documentary record of his birth.26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.

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Luigi Boccherini

Ridolfo Luigi Boccherini (February 19, 1743 – May 28, 1805) was an Italian composer and cellist of the Classical era whose music retained a courtly and "galante" style even while he matured somewhat apart from the major European musical centers.

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Luigi Cherubini

Luigi Cherubini (8 or 14 SeptemberWillis, in Sadie (Ed.), p. 833 1760 – 15 March 1842) was a Classical and pre-Romantic composer from Italy who spent most of his working life in France.

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Mannheim school

Mannheim school refers to both the orchestral techniques pioneered by the court orchestra of Mannheim in the latter half of the 18th century as well as the group of composers of the early classical period, who composed for the orchestra of Mannheim.

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Mass (music)

The Mass (italic), a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the invariable portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and Lutheranism) to music.

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A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.

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Michael Kennedy (music critic)

George Michael Sinclair Kennedy CBE (19 February 1926 – 31 December 2014) was an English biographer, journalist and writer on classical music.

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Mode (music)

In the theory of Western music, a mode is a type of musical scale coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviors.

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Modulation (music)

In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another.

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Musical form

The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music; it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections.

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Muzio Clementi

Muzio Filippo Vincenzo Francesco Saverio Clementi (23 January 1752 – 10 March 1832) was an Italian-born English composer, pianist, pedagogue, conductor, music publisher, editor, and piano manufacturer.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Neoclassicism (music)

Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the interwar period, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint.

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In Western classical music, obbligato (also spelled obligato) usually describes a musical line that is in some way indispensable in performance.

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Oboes are a family of double reed woodwind instruments.

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Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.

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The ophicleide is a keyed brass instrument similar to the tuba.

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An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.

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Orchestration is the study or practice of writing music for an orchestra (or, more loosely, for any musical ensemble, such as a concert band) or of adapting music composed for another medium for an orchestra.

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Organ (music)

In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet using pedals.

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Overture (from French ouverture, "opening") in music is the term originally applied to the instrumental introduction to an opera.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Phrase (music theory)

In music theory, a phrase (φράση) is a unit of musical meter that has a complete musical sense of its own, built from figures, motifs, and cells, and combining to form melodies, periods and larger sections.

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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers.

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Piano Sonata No. 14 (Beethoven)

The Piano Sonata No.

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Pipe organ

The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through organ pipes selected via a keyboard.

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In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work.

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Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".

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Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.

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Roger Kamien

Roger Kamien (born 1934) is a retired professor emeritus of musicology in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.

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Romantic music

Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.

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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Second Viennese School

The Second Viennese School (Zweite Wiener Schule, Neue Wiener Schule) is the group of composers that comprised Arnold Schoenberg and his pupils and close associates in early 20th century Vienna, where he lived and taught, sporadically, between 1903 and 1925.

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In music, a serenade (also sometimes called serenata, from the Italian) is a musical composition and/or performance delivered in honor.

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Sergei Prokofiev

Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (r; 27 April 1891 – 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.

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Serpent (instrument)

The serpent is a bass wind instrument, descended from the cornett, and a distant ancestor of the tuba, with a mouthpiece like a brass instrument but side holes like a woodwind.

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Sinfonia is the Italian word for symphony, from the Latin symphonia, in turn derived from Ancient Greek συμφωνία symphōnia (agreement or concord of sound), from the prefix σύν (together) and ϕωνή (sound).

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Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra (Mozart)

The Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra in E-flat major, K. 364 (320d), was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

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Sonata (Italian:, pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare, "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.

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Sonata form

Sonata form (also sonata-allegro form or first movement form) is a musical structure consisting of three main sections: an exposition, a development, and a recapitulation.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Stephen Fry

Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957) is an English comedian, actor, writer, presenter, and activist.

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Stephen Fry's Incomplete and Utter History of Classical Music

Stephen Fry's Incomplete and Utter History of Classical Music is a book ghostwritten by Tim Lihoreau for author, actor, comedian and director Stephen Fry.

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String quartet

A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group.

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String Quartets, Op. 33 (Haydn)

The Op.

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String section

The string section is composed of bowed instruments belonging to the violin family.

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Sturm und Drang

Sturm und Drang (literally "storm and drive", "storm and urge", though conventionally translated as "storm and stress") was a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music that occurred between the late 1760s and the early 1780s.

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In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth tonal degree of the diatonic scale.

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Subject (music)

In music, a subject is the material, usually a recognizable melody, upon which part or all of a composition is based.

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A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.

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Symphony No. 45 (Haydn)

Joseph Haydn's Symphony No.

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Symphony No. 5 (Schubert)

Franz Schubert's Symphony No.

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Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven)

The Symphony No.

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The Classical Style

The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven is a book by the American pianist and author Charles Rosen.

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The Rite of Spring

The Rite of Spring (Le Sacre du printemps; sacred spring) is a ballet and orchestral concert work by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky.

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The theorbo is a plucked string instrument of the lute family, with an extended neck and a second pegbox.

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Tonality is the arrangement of pitches and/or chords of a musical work in a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities, attractions and directionality.

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Tonic (music)

In music, the tonic is the first scale degree of a diatonic scale (the first note of a scale) and the tonal center or final resolution tone that is commonly used in the final cadence in tonal (musical key-based) classical music, popular music and traditional music.

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The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family.

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A trumpet is a brass instrument commonly used in classical and jazz ensembles.

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The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family.

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Variation (music)

In music, variation is a formal technique where material is repeated in an altered form.

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Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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The viol, viola da gamba, or (informally) gamba, is any one of a family of bowed, fretted and stringed instruments with hollow wooden bodies and pegboxes where the tension on the strings can be increased or decreased to adjust the pitch of each of the strings.

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The viola is a string instrument that is bowed or played with varying techniques.

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Viola d'amore

The viola d'amore (Italian for "love viol") is a 7- or 6-stringed musical instrument with sympathetic strings used chiefly in the baroque period.

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The violin, also known informally as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era.

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Woodwind instrument

Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments within the more general category of wind instruments.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_period_(music)

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