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Classical period (music)

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The dates of the Classical period in Western music are generally accepted as being between about 1750 and 1820. [1]

127 relations: Absolute monarchy, Alberti bass, Anton Bruckner, Antonio Salieri, Antonio Soler, Architecture, Arnold Schoenberg, Axiom, Étienne Méhul, Barbara Russano Hanning, Baroque music, Basset clarinet, Basset horn, Broadwood and Sons, Bruce Alan Brown, Buccin, Cadence (music), Carl Czerny, Carl Friedrich Abel, Carl Maria von Weber, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Chalumeau, Chamber music, Charles Rosen, Chord (music), Christoph Willibald Gluck, Chromaticism, Clarinet, Clarinette d'amour, Classical antiquity, Classical Greece, Classical music, Classicism, Clavichord, Concerto, Counterpoint, Court (royal), Da capo aria, Divertimento, Domenico Scarlatti, Dynamics (music), Europe, Felix Mendelssohn, Fernando Sor, Figured bass, Fortepiano, François-Joseph Gossec, Franz Liszt, Franz Schubert, Frédéric Chopin, ..., French horn, Friedrich Kuhlau, Fugue, Galant music, Galant style, Grand opera, Gustav Mahler, Harmony, Harpsichord, Homophony, Igor Stravinsky, Interval (music), Isaac Newton, Italy, Jan Ladislav Dussek, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, Johann Stamitz, Johannes Brahms, John Field (composer), Joseph Haydn, Kapellmeister, Les Six, List of Classical-era composers, London, Louis Spohr, Ludwig van Beethoven, Luigi Boccherini, Luigi Cherubini, Mannheim school, Mauro Giuliani, Melody, Michael Kennedy (music critic), Mode (music), Modulation (music), Muzio Clementi, Natural philosophy, Neoclassicism (music), Obbligato, Opera, Ophicleide, Orchestra, Organ (music), Overture, Paris, Piano, Piano Sonata No. 14 (Beethoven), Polyphony, Rococo, Roger Kamien, Romantic music, Romanticism, Rome, Second Viennese School, Serenade, Sergei Prokofiev, Serpent (instrument), Sinfonia, Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra (Mozart), Sonata, Sonata form, Spain, Stephen Fry, Stephen Fry's Incomplete and Utter History of Classical Music, String quartet, String Quartets, Op. 33 (Haydn), Sturm und Drang, Subdominant, Symphony, Symphony No. 45 (Haydn), Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven), The Rite of Spring, Tonality, Tuba, Variation (music), Vienna, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Woodwind instrument. Expand index (77 more) »

Absolute monarchy

Absolute monarchy or absolutism is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.

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Alberti bass

Alberti bass is a particular kind of accompaniment figure in music, often used in the Classical era, and sometimes the Romantic era.

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Anton Bruckner

Anton Bruckner was an Austrian composer known for his symphonies, masses, and motets.

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Antonio Salieri

Antonio Salieri (18 August 17507 May 1825) was an Italian classical composer, conductor and teacher born in Legnago, south of Verona, in the Republic of Venice, but who spent his adult life and career as a subject of the Habsburg Monarchy.

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Antonio Soler

Antonio Francisco Javier José Soler Ramos, usually known as Padre ('Father', in the religious sense) Antonio Soler, known in Catalan as Antoni Soler i Ramos (baptized 3 December 1729, died 20 December 1783) was a Spanish composer whose works span the late Baroque and early Classical music eras.

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Architecture (Latin architectura, after the Greek ἀρχή τέχνη – arkhḗ tékhnē – composed by ἀρχή "origin" and τέχνη "art, craft") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures.

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Arnold Schoenberg

Arnold Schoenberg or Schönberg (13 September 187413 July 1951) was an Austrian composer and painter, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School.

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An axiom or postulate is a premise or starting point of reasoning.

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Étienne Méhul

Étienne Nicolas Méhul (22 June 1763 – 18 October 1817) was a French composer, "the most important opera composer in France during the Revolution." He was also the first composer to be called a "Romantic".

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Barbara Russano Hanning

Barbara Russano Hanning (born 1940) is an American musicologist who specializes in 16th- and 17th-century Italian music.

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Baroque music

Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.

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Basset clarinet

The basset clarinet is a clarinet similar to the usual soprano clarinet but longer and with additional keys to enable playing several additional lower notes.

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Basset horn

The basset horn (sometimes written basset-horn) is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family.

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Broadwood and Sons

Broadwood and Sons is an English piano manufacturer, founded in 1728 by Burkat Shudi and continued after his death in 1773 by John Broadwood.

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Bruce Alan Brown

Bruce Alan Brown, professor of musicology at the USC Thornton School of Music Los Angeles, California.

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The buccin is a visually distinctive trombone popularized in military bands in France between 1810–1845 which subsequently faded into obscurity.

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Cadence (music)

In Western musical theory, a cadence (Latin cadentia, "a falling") is, "a melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of resolution."Don Michael Randel (1999).

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Carl Czerny

Carl Czerny (21 February 179115 July 1857) was an Austrian composer, teacher, and pianist of Czech origin whose vast musical production amounted to over a thousand works.

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Carl Friedrich Abel

Carl Friedrich Abel (22 December 1723 – 20 June 1787) was a German composer of the Classical era.

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Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (18 or 19 November 1786 5 June 1826) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.

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Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach

Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (8 March 1714 – 14 December 1788) was a German Classical period musician and composer, the fifth child and second (surviving) son of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach.

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This article is about the historical musical instrument.

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Chamber music

Chamber music is a form of classical music that is composed for a small group of instruments—traditionally a group that could fit in a palace chamber or any small chamber.

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Charles Rosen

Charles Welles Rosen (May 5, 1927December 9, 2012) was an American pianist and writer on music.

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Chord (music)

A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of three or more notes that is heard as if sounding simultaneously.

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Christoph Willibald Gluck

Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck (2 July 1714 – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.

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Chromaticism is a compositional technique interspersing the primary diatonic pitches and chords with other pitches of the chromatic scale.

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The clarinet is a family of woodwind instruments that have a single-reed mouthpiece, a straight cylindrical tube with an approximately cylindrical bore, and a flaring bell.

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Clarinette d'amour

The clarinette d'amour is a musical instrument, a member of the clarinet family.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical Greece

Classical Greece was a 200-year period in Greek culture lasting from the 5th through 4th centuries BC.

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Classical music

Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.

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Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate.

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The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras.

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A concerto (from the concerto, plural concerti or, often, the anglicised form concertos) is a musical composition usually composed in three parts or movements, in which (usually) one solo instrument (for instance, a piano, violin, cello or flute) is accompanied by an orchestra or concert band.

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In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are interdependent harmonically (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.

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Court (royal)

The court of a monarch, or at some periods an important nobleman, is a term for the extended household and all those who regularly attended on the ruler or central figure.

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Da capo aria

The da capo aria is a musical form that was prevalent in the Baroque era.

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Divertimento (from the Italian divertire "to amuse") is a musical genre, with most of its examples from the 18th century.

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Domenico Scarlatti

Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (26 October 168523 July 1757) was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families.

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Dynamics (music)

In music, dynamics normally refers to the pitch of a tempo or note, but can also refer to every aspect of the execution of a given piece, either stylistic (staccato, legato etc.) or functional (velocity).

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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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Felix Mendelssohn

Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (3 February 1809 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period.

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Fernando Sor

Josep Ferran Sorts i Muntades (baptized 14 February 1778 – died 10 July 1839) was a Spanish classical guitarist and composer.

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Figured bass

Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones, in relation to the bass note they are placed above or below.

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Fortepiano designates the early version of the piano, from its invention by the Italian instrument maker Bartolomeo Cristofori around 1700 up to the early 19th century.

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François-Joseph Gossec

François-Joseph Gossec (17 January 1734 – 16 February 1829) was a French composer of operas, string quartets, symphonies, and choral works.

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Franz Liszt

Franz Liszt (Hungarian Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. (October 22, 1811July 31, 1886) was a 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, teacher and Franciscan tertiary. Liszt gained renown in Europe during the early nineteenth century for his virtuosic skill as a pianist. He was said by his contemporaries to have been the most technically advanced pianist of his age, and in the 1840s he was considered to be the greatest pianist of all time. Liszt was also a well-known and influential composer, piano teacher and conductor. He was a benefactor to other composers, including Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg and Alexander Borodin. As a composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the New German School (Neudeutsche Schule). He left behind an extensive and diverse body of work in which he influenced his forward-looking contemporaries and anticipated some 20th-century ideas and trends. Some of his most notable contributions were the invention of the symphonic poem, developing the concept of thematic transformation as part of his experiments in musical form, and making radical departures in harmony. He also played an important role in popularizing a wide array of music by transcribing it for piano.

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Franz Schubert

Franz Peter Schubert (31 January 179719 November 1828) was an Austrian composer.

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Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric François Chopin (22 February or 1 March 181017 October 1849), born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin, was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era, who wrote primarily for the solo piano.

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French horn

The French horn (commonly known simply as the horn, while the term "French horn" is also used to distinguish a particular type of horn used mainly in French orchestras) is a brass instrument made of tubing wrapped into a coil with a flared bell.

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Friedrich Kuhlau

Friedrich Daniel Rudolf Kuhlau (German; Danish sometimes Frederick Kulav) (11 September 1786 – 12 March 1832) was a German-born Danish composer during the Classical and Romantic periods.

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In music, a fugue is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and recurs frequently in the course of the composition.

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Galant music

In music, galant refers to the style which was fashionable from the 1720s to the 1770s.

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Galant style

The galant style was an 18th-century movement in music, visual arts and literature.

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Grand opera

Grand opera is a genre of 19th-century opera generally in four or five acts, characterised by large-scale casts and orchestras, and (in their original productions) lavish and spectacular design and stage effects, normally with plots based on or around dramatic historic events.

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Gustav Mahler

Gustav Mahler (7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austrian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation.

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In music, harmony is the use of simultaneous pitches (tones, notes), or chords.

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A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard.

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In music, homophony (Greek: ὁμόφωνος, homóphōnos, from ὁμός, homós, "same" and φωνή, phōnē, "sound, tone") is a texture in which two or more parts move together in harmony, the relationship between them creating chords.

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Igor Stravinsky

Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (sometimes spelled Strawinski, Strawinsky, or Stravinskii; ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian (and later, a naturalized French and American) composer, pianist and conductor.

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Interval (music)

In music theory, an interval is the difference between two pitches.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 164220 March 1726/7) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.

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Jan Ladislav Dussek

Jan Ladislav Dussek (baptized Václav Jan Dusík,Černušák, p. 271 with surname also written as Duschek or Düssek; February 12, 1760March 20, 1812) was a Czech composer and pianist.

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Johann Nepomuk Hummel

Johann Nepomuk Hummel (14 November 177817 October 1837) was an Austrian composer and virtuoso pianist.

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Johann Stamitz

Jan Václav Antonín Stamic (later, during his life in Mannheim, Germanized as Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz; June 18, 1717, Deutschbrod, Bohemia – March 27, 1757, Mannheim, Electorate of the Palatinate) was a Czech composer and violinist.

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Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist.

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John Field (composer)

John Field (26 July 1782, baptised 5 September 178223 January 1837) was an Irish pianist, composer, and teacher.

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Joseph Haydn

(Franz) Joseph HaydnSee Haydn's name.

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"Kapellmeister" is a German word designating a person in charge of music-making.

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Les Six

Les Six is a name given to a group of six French composers who worked in Montparnasse.

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List of Classical-era composers

This is a list of composers of the Classical music era, roughly from 1730 to 1820.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Louis Spohr

Louis Spohr (5 April 178422 October 1859), born Ludwig Spohr, was a German composer, violinist and conductor.

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Ludwig van Beethoven

Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 177026 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.

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Luigi Boccherini

Luigi Rodolfo Boccherini (February 19, 1743 – May 28, 1805) was an Italian classical era composer and cellist whose music retained a courtly and galante style while he matured somewhat apart from the major European musical centers.

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Luigi Cherubini

Luigi Cherubini (8 or 14 SeptemberWillis, in Sadie (Ed.), p. 833 1760 – 15 March 1842) was an Italian composer who spent most of his working life in France.

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Mannheim school

Mannheim school refers to both the orchestral techniques pioneered by the court orchestra of Mannheim in the latter half of the 18th century as well as the group of composers who wrote such music for the orchestra of Mannheim and others.

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Mauro Giuliani

Mauro Giuseppe Sergio Pantaleo Giuliani (27 July 1781 – 8 May 1829) was an Italian guitarist, cellist, singer, and composer.

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A melody (from Greek μελῳδία, melōidía, "singing, chanting"), also tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity.

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Michael Kennedy (music critic)

George Michael Sinclair Kennedy CBE (19 February 1926 – 31 December 2014) was an English biographer, journalist and writer on classical music.

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Mode (music)

In the theory of Western music, mode (from Latin modus, "measure, standard, manner, way, size, limit of quantity, method") (OED) generally refers to a type of scale, coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviours.

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Modulation (music)

In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another.

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Muzio Clementi

Muzio Clementi (24 January 1752 – 10 March 1832) was an Italian composer, pianist, pedagogue, conductor, music publisher, editor, and piano manufacturer.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Neoclassicism (music)

Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the period between the two World Wars, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint.

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In classical music obbligato usually describes a musical line that is in some way indispensable in performance.

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Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto) and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting.

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The ophicleide is a keyed brass instrument similar to the tuba.

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An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string (violin, viola, cello and double bass), brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments.

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Organ (music)

In music, the organ (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ, instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more divisions, each played with its own keyboard, played either with the hands or with the feet.

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Overture (French ouverture, lit. "opening"; German Ouvertüre, Vorspiel, i.e., "prelude", lit. "play before") in music is the term originally applied to the instrumental introduction to an opera.

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Paris (UK:; US:; French) is the capital and most-populous city of France.

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The piano (an abbreviation of pianoforte) is a musical instrument played using a keyboard.

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Piano Sonata No. 14 (Beethoven)

The Piano Sonata No.

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In music, polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice which is called monophony, and in difference from musical texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords which is called homophony.

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Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre.

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Roger Kamien

Roger Kamien (born 1934) is a retired professor emeritus of musicology in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.

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Romantic music

Romantic music is a term denoting an era of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.

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Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Rome (Roma, Rōma) is a city and special comune (named "Roma Capitale") in Italy.

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Second Viennese School

The Second Viennese School (Zweite Wiener Schule, Neue Wiener Schule) is the group of composers that comprised Arnold Schoenberg and his pupils and close associates in early 20th century Vienna, where he lived and taught, sporadically, between 1903 and 1925.

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In music, a serenade (or sometimes serenata, from the Italian word) is a musical composition, and/or performance, in someone's honor.

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Sergei Prokofiev

Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (r; 15/27 April, 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.

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Serpent (instrument)

The serpent is the bass wind instrument, descended from the cornett, and a distant ancestor of the tuba, with a mouthpiece like a brass instrument but side holes like a woodwind.

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Sinfonia is the Italian word for symphony, from the Latin symphonia, in turn derived from Ancient Greek συμφωνία sumphōnia (agreement or concord of sound), from the prefix σύν (together) and ϕωνή (sound).

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Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra (Mozart)

The Sinfonia Concertante for Violin, Viola and Orchestra in E-flat major, K. 364 (320d), was written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

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Sonata (Italian:, pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare, "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.

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Sonata form

Sonata form (also sonata-allegro form or first movement form) is a large-scale musical structure used widely since the middle of the 18th century (the early Classical period).

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

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Stephen Fry

Stephen John Fry (born 24 August 1957) is an English comedian, actor, writer, presenter, and activist.

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Stephen Fry's Incomplete and Utter History of Classical Music

Stephen Fry's Incomplete and Utter History of Classical Music is a book ghostwritten by Tim Lihoreau for author, actor, comedian and director Stephen Fry.

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String quartet

A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string players – two violin players, a viola player and a cellist – or a piece written to be performed by such a group.

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String Quartets, Op. 33 (Haydn)

The Op.

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Sturm und Drang

Sturm und Drang (literally "Storm and Drive", "Storm and Urge", though conventionally translated as "Storm and Stress") is a proto-Romantic movement in German literature and music taking place from the late 1760s to the early 1780s, in which individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated aesthetic movements.

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In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth tonal degree of the diatonic scale.

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A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written for orchestra.

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Symphony No. 45 (Haydn)

Symphony No.

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Symphony No. 9 (Beethoven)

The Symphony No.

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The Rite of Spring

The Rite of Spring (Le Sacre du printemps, '''«Весна священная»''', ''Vesna svyashchennaya''.) is a ballet and orchestral concert work by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky.

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Tonality is a musical system in which pitches or chords are arranged so as to induce a hierarchy of perceived relations, stabilities, and attractions.

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The tuba is the largest and lowest-pitched musical instrument in the brass family.

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Variation (music)

In music, variation is a formal technique where material is repeated in an altered form.

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Vienna (Wien) is the capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (English see fn.; 27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era.

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Woodwind instrument

Woodwind instruments are a family of musical instruments within the more general category of wind instruments.

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Classical Era (Music), Classical Music Era, Classical Period (music), Classical era in music, Classical era music, Classical era of music, Classical music era, Classical period in music, Classical period music, Classical period of music, Classical-era music, Classical-period music, Vienese classic, Viennese classical, Viennese classicism, Wiener Klassik.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_period_(music)

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