240 relations: A Mathematical Theory of Communication, A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits, Academy of Achievement, Alan Turing, Alan Turing Year, Alan Turing: The Enigma, Albert Einstein, Alfred Noble Prize, Alzheimer's disease, Analog computer, Apoliticism, AT&T Corporation, AT&T Laboratories, Atheism, Atlantic Ocean, Audio Engineering Society, Bachelor's degree, Backward pawn, Barcelona, Bell Labs, Bell System Technical Journal, Ben Barzman, Bert Sutherland, Beta distribution, Betty Shannon, Binary code, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, Bletchley Park, Block cipher, Boole's expansion theorem, Boole's inequality, Boolean algebra, Breakup of the Bell System, Brute-force search, Carnegie Mellon University, Channel capacity, Checkmate, Chess, Chess piece relative value, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Claude E. Shannon Award, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Communication theory, Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems, Computational linguistics, Computer, Computer chess, Confusion and diffusion, Cryptanalysis, Cryptography, ..., Danny Hillis, Data compression, Data processing, Differential analyser, Digital electronics, Digital Revolution, Digital subscriber line, Diversity index, Doubled pawns, Edge coloring, Eduard Rhein Foundation, Edward O. Thorp, Electrical engineering, Electromechanics, Electronic engineering, Entropy (information theory), Entropy in thermodynamics and information theory, Entropy power inequality, Error-correcting codes with feedback, Eugene Daub, Evaluation function, Financial signal processing, Fire-control system, Firstpost, Fortune (magazine), Frank Lauren Hitchcock, Franklin Institute, Game complexity, Gaylord High School, Gaylord, Michigan, Genetics, Geocaching, George Boole, Germany, Glossary of chess, Google Doodle, Government Communications Headquarters, Gregor Mendel, Haifa, Harold Pender, Harold Pender Award, Harvey Prize, Hendrik Wade Bode, Hermann Weyl, Howard Gardner, IEEE Information Theory Society, IEEE Medal of Honor, IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Information, Information Age, Information processing, Information theory, Information-theoretic security, Innovation (signal processing), Institute for Advanced Study, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Institute of Radio Engineers, Isolated pawn, Israel, Ivan Sutherland, James Gleick, Jimmy Soni, John Fritz Medal, John Ogden (colonist), John R. Pierce, John von Neumann, John Wiley & Sons, Joseph Marie Jacquard, Juggling, Juggling robot, Kerckhoffs's principle, Key size, Kriegsmarine, Kurt Gödel, Kyoto Prize, Library of Congress, List of pioneers in computer science, Logic gate, Logic synthesis, Lyndon B. Johnson, MakerBot, Mark Levinson (film director), Marvin Minsky, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Master's degree, Mathematician, Mathematics, Maze, Medford, Massachusetts, Microcontroller, Microprocessor, Minimax, Minivac 601, MIT Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems, MIT Museum, Models of communication, Museum of Science (Boston), N-gram, Nanyang Technological University, National Defense Research Committee, National Inventors Hall of Fame, National Medal of Science, National Museum of Mathematics, Natural language processing, Neil Sloane, New Jersey, Ninoslav Marina, Noisy-channel coding theorem, Norbert Wiener, Northwestern University, Nursing home care, Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, Ohrid, One-time pad, Petoskey, Michigan, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, Probate, Product cipher, Public switched telephone network, Pulse-code modulation, Ralph Beebe Blackman, Rate–distortion theory, Rector (academia), Relay, Republic of Macedonia, Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT, Rice University, Roman numerals, Roulette, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Rubik's Cube, Sampling (signal processing), Sergio Verdú, Shannon (unit), Shannon multigraph, Shannon number, Shannon switching game, Shannon's source coding theorem, Shannon–Fano coding, Shannon–Hartley theorem, Shannon–Weaver model, Signal processing, Signal-flow graph, Solving chess, Stream cipher, Stuart Ballantine Medal, Switching circuit theory, Symbolic dynamics, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Telecommunication, Telegraphy, The Independent, The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood, The New Yorker, The Star-Ledger, Thomas Edison, Tufts University, Twitter, U-boat, Uncertainty coefficient, Unicycle, United States Navy, United States Postal Service, Units of information, Universal Turing machine, Universitas Jember, University of California, San Diego, University of East Anglia, University of Edinburgh, University of Information Science and Technology "St. Paul The Apostle", University of Michigan, University of Oxford, University of Pennsylvania, University of Pittsburgh, Useless machine, Vannevar Bush, Vintage Books, Warren Weaver, Wearable computer, Western Union, Whitespace character, Whittaker–Shannon interpolation formula, Winchester, Massachusetts, Wolfram Research, World War II, Yale University, YouTube. 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"A Mathematical Theory of Communication" is an article by mathematician Claude E. Shannon published in Bell System Technical Journal in 1948.
A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits is the title of a master's thesis written by computer science pioneer Claude E. Shannon while attending the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1937.
The Academy of Achievement, officially known as the American Academy of Achievement, was founded in 1961 by Sports Illustrated and LIFE magazine photographer Brian Reynolds to bring together accomplished people from diverse fields in order to network and to encourage the next generation of young leaders.
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
The Alan Turing Year, 2012, marked the celebration of the life and scientific influence of Alan Turing during the centenary of his birth on 23 June 1912.
Alan Turing: The Enigma (1983) is a biography of the British mathematician, codebreaker, and early computer scientist, Alan Turing (1912–1954) by Andrew Hodges.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
The Alfred Noble Prize is an award presented by the American Society of Civil Engineers and funded by combined engineering societies of the United States.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
An analog computer or analogue computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.
Apoliticism is apathy or antipathy towards all political affiliations.
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
AT&T Laboratories, Inc. was the research & development division of AT&T Corporation.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Established in 1948, the Audio Engineering Society (AES) draws its membership from engineers, scientists, other individuals with an interest or involvement in the professional audio industry.
A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).
In chess, a backward pawn is a pawn that is behind all pawns of the same color on the adjacent files and cannot be safely advanced.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
The Bell System Technical Journal was a periodical publication by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) in New York devoted to the scientific and engineering aspects of electrical communication.
Ben Barzman (October 12, 1910 – December 15, 1989) was a Canadian journalist, screenwriter, and novelist, blacklisted during the McCarthy Era and best known for his screenplays for the films Back to Bataan (1945), El Cid (1961), and The Blue Max (1966).
William Robert "Bert" Sutherland (born May 10, 1936), older brother of Ivan Sutherland, was the longtime manager of three prominent research labs, including Sun Microsystems Laboratories (1992–1998), the Systems Science Laboratory at Xerox PARC (1975–1981), and the Computer Science Division of Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc.
In probability theory and statistics, the beta distribution is a family of continuous probability distributions defined on the interval parametrized by two positive shape parameters, denoted by α and β, that appear as exponents of the random variable and control the shape of the distribution.
Betty Shannon (née Mary Elizabeth Moore) (April 14, 1922 – May 1, 2017) was a mathematician and wife of Claude Shannon.
A binary code represents text, computer processor instructions, or any other data using a two-symbol system.
The Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society is an academic journal on the history of science published annually by the Royal Society.
Bletchley Park was the central site for British (and subsequently, Allied) codebreakers during World War II.
In cryptography, a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called a block, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key.
Boole's expansion theorem, often referred to as the Shannon expansion or decomposition, is the identity: F.
In probability theory, Boole's inequality, also known as the union bound, says that for any finite or countable set of events, the probability that at least one of the events happens is no greater than the sum of the probabilities of the individual events.
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.
The breakup of the Bell System was mandated on January 8, 1982, by an agreed consent decree providing that AT&T Corporation would, as had been initially proposed by AT&T, relinquish control of the Bell Operating Companies that had provided local telephone service in the United States and Canada up until that point.
In computer science, brute-force search or exhaustive search, also known as generate and test, is a very general problem-solving technique that consists of systematically enumerating all possible candidates for the solution and checking whether each candidate satisfies the problem's statement.
Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Channel capacity, in electrical engineering, computer science and information theory, is the tight upper bound on the rate at which information can be reliably transmitted over a communication channel.
Checkmate (often shortened to mate) is a game position in chess and other chess-like games in which a player's king is in check (threatened with) and there is no way to remove the threat.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
In chess, the chess piece relative value system conventionally assigns a point value to each piece when assessing its relative strength in potential exchanges.
Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications (Simplified Chinese: 重庆邮电大学; abbreviation: CQUPT) is a public university in China's fourth municipality: Chongqing.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Claude E. Shannon Award of the IEEE Information Theory Society was created to honor consistent and profound contributions to the field of information theory.
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is a private, non-profit institution with research programs focusing on cancer, neuroscience, plant genetics, genomics, and quantitative biology.
Communication theory is a field of information theory and mathematics that studies the technical process of information and the process of human communication.
"Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems" is a paper published in 1949 by Claude Shannon discussing cryptography from the viewpoint of information theory.
Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer chess is a game of computer architecture encompassing hardware and software capable of playing chess autonomously without human guidance.
In cryptography, confusion and diffusion are two properties of the operation of a secure cipher identified by Claude Shannon in his 1945 classified report A Mathematical Theory of Cryptography. These properties, when present, work to thwart the application of statistics and other methods of cryptanalysis.
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
William Daniel "Danny" Hillis (born September 25, 1956) is an American inventor, entrepreneur, scientist, and writer who is particularly known for his work in computer science.
In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.
Data processing is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information." In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing, "the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer." Data processing is distinct from word processing, which is manipulation of text specifically rather than data generally.
The differential analyser is a mechanical analogue computer designed to solve differential equations by integration, using wheel-and-disc mechanisms to perform the integration.
Digital electronics or digital (electronic) circuits are electronics that operate on digital signals.
The Digital Revolution, also known as the Third Industrial Revolution, is the shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day.
Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to transmit digital data over telephone lines.
A diversity index is a quantitative measure that reflects how many different types (such as species) there are in a dataset (a community), and simultaneously takes into account how evenly the basic entities (such as individuals) are distributed among those types.
In chess, doubled pawns are two pawns of the same color residing on the same file.
In graph theory, an edge coloring of a graph is an assignment of "colors" to the edges of the graph so that no two adjacent edges have the same color.
The Eduard Rhein Foundation was founded in 1976 in Hamburg (Germany) by Eduard Rhein.
Edward Oakley Thorp (born August 14, 1932) is an American mathematics professor, author, hedge fund manager, and blackjack player.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
In engineering, electromechanics combines processes and procedures drawn from electrical engineering and mechanical engineering.
Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active electrical components (such as semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits) to design electronic circuits, devices, VLSI devices and their systems.
Information entropy is the average rate at which information is produced by a stochastic source of data.
There are close parallels between the mathematical expressions for the thermodynamic entropy, usually denoted by S, of a physical system in the statistical thermodynamics established by Ludwig Boltzmann and J. Willard Gibbs in the 1870s, and the information-theoretic entropy, usually expressed as H, of Claude Shannon and Ralph Hartley developed in the 1940s.
In information theory, the entropy power inequality is a result that relates to so-called "entropy power" of random variables.
In mathematics, computer science, telecommunication, information theory, and searching theory, error-correcting codes with feedback refers to error correcting codes designed to work in the presence of feedback from the receiver to the sender.
Eugene Daub (born November 13, 1942) is an American contemporary figure sculptor, best known for his portraits and figurative monument sculpture created in the classic heroic style.
An evaluation function, also known as a heuristic evaluation function or static evaluation function, is a function used by game-playing programs to estimate the value or goodness of a position in the minimax and related algorithms.
Financial signal processing is a branch of signal processing technologies which applies to financial signals.
A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target.
Firstpost is an Indian news and media website.
Fortune is an American multinational business magazine headquartered in New York City, United States.
Frank Lauren Hitchcock (March 6, 1875 – May 31, 1957) was an American mathematician and physicist known for his formulation of the transportation problem in 1941.
The Franklin Institute is a science museum and the center of science education and research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Combinatorial game theory has several ways of measuring game complexity.
Gaylord High School is located in Gaylord, Michigan, United States.
Gaylord is a city in and the county seat of Otsego County, Michigan, United States.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Geocaching is an outdoor recreational activity, in which participants use a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver or mobile device and other navigational techniques to hide and seek containers, called "geocaches" or "caches", at specific locations marked by coordinates all over the world.
George Boole (2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely self-taught English mathematician, philosopher and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order.
A Google Doodle is a special, temporary alteration of the logo on Google's homepages that commemorates holidays, events, achievements, and people.
The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Harold Pender (1879–1959) was an American academic, author, and inventor.
The Harold Pender Award, initiated in 1972 and named after founding Dean Harold Pender, is given by the Faculty of the School of Engineering and Applied Science of the University of Pennsylvania to an outstanding member of the engineering profession who has achieved distinction by significant contributions to society.
The Harvey Prize is an Israeli scientific distinction awarded annually for breakthroughs in science and technology, as well as contributions to Peace in the Middle East, by Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa.
Hendrik Wade BodeVan Valkenburg, M. E. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, "In memoriam: Hendrik W. Bode (1905-1982)", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Vol.
Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl, (9 November 1885 – 8 December 1955) was a German mathematician, theoretical physicist and philosopher.
Howard Earl Gardner (born July 11, 1943) is an American developmental psychologist and the John H. and Elisabeth A. Hobbs Professor of Cognition and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education at Harvard University.
The IEEE Information Theory Society (ITS or ITSoc), formerly the IEEE Information Theory Group, is a professional society of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) focused on several aspects of information: its processing, transmission, storage, and usage; and the "foundations of the communication process".
The IEEE Medal of Honor is the highest recognition of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
The initially called Morris Liebmann Memorial Prize provided by the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE), the IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award was created in 1919 in honor of Colonel Morris N. Liebmann.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (also known as IIT Kanpur or IITK) is a public engineering institution located in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a 21st century period in human history characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.
Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
Information-theoretic security is a cryptosystem whose security derives purely from information theory.
In time series analysis (or forecasting) — as conducted in statistics, signal processing, and many other fields — the innovation is the difference between the observed value of a variable at time t and the optimal forecast of that value based on information available prior to time t. If the forecasting method is working correctly, successive innovations are uncorrelated with each other, i.e., constitute a white noise time series.
The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
The Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE) was a professional organization which existed from 1912 until December 31, 1962.
In chess, an isolated pawn is a pawn that has no friendly pawn on an adjacent.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Ivan Edward Sutherland (born May 16, 1938) is an American computer scientist and Internet pioneer, widely regarded as the "father of computer graphics." His early work in computer graphics as well as his teaching with David C. Evans in that subject at the University of Utah in the 1970s was pioneering in the field.
James Gleick (born August 1, 1954) is an American author and historian of science whose work has chronicled the cultural impact of modern technology.
Jimmy Soni is an American author and former managing editor of The Huffington Post.
The John Fritz Medal has been awarded annually since 1902 by the American Association of Engineering Societies for "outstanding scientific or industrial achievements".
John Ogden (19 September 1609 – 30 May 1682), known as "The Pilgrim", was an early settler in New England, originally on Long Island, and an original patentee of the Elizabethtown Purchase, "the first English settlement in the Colony of New Jersey.".
John Robinson Pierce (March 27, 1910 – April 2, 2002), was an American engineer and author.
John von Neumann (Neumann János Lajos,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American mathematician, physicist, computer scientist, and polymath.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Joseph Marie Charles dit (called or nicknamed) Jacquard (7 July 1752 – 7 August 1834), was a French weaver and merchant.
Juggling is a physical skill, performed by a juggler, involving the manipulation of objects for recreation, entertainment, art or sport.
A juggling robot is a robot designed to be able to successfully carry out bounce or toss juggling.
In cryptography, Kerckhoffs's principle (also called Kerckhoffs's desideratum, assumption, axiom, doctrine or law) was stated by Netherlands born cryptographer Auguste Kerckhoffs in the 19th century: A cryptosystem should be secure even if everything about the system, except the key, is public knowledge.
In cryptography, key size or key length is the number of bits in a key used by a cryptographic algorithm (such as a cipher).
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.
The is Japan's highest private award for global achievement.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
This article presents a list of individuals who made transformative breakthroughs in the creation, development and imagining of what computers and electronics could do.
In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.
In electronics, logic synthesis is a process by which an abstract form of desired circuit behavior, typically at register transfer level (RTL), is turned into a design implementation in terms of logic gates, typically by a computer program called a synthesis tool.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
MakerBot Industries, LLC is an American desktop 3D printer manufacturer company headquartered in New York City.
Mark Levinson is an American film director.
Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive scientist concerned largely with research of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's AI laboratory, and author of several texts concerning AI and philosophy.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
A maze is a path or collection of paths, typically from an entrance to a goal.
Medford is a city 3.2 miles northwest of downtown Boston on the Mystic River in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
Minimax (sometimes MinMax or MM) is a decision rule used in decision theory, game theory, statistics and philosophy for minimizing the possible loss for a worst case (maximum loss) scenario.
Minivac 601 Digital Computer Kit was an electromechanical digital computer system created by information theory pioneer Claude Shannon as an educational kit using digital circuits.
The MIT Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems (LIDS) is an interdisciplinary research laboratory of MIT, working on research in the areas of communications, control, and signal processing combining faculty from the School of Engineering (including the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics), the Department of Mathematics and the MIT Sloan School of Management.
The MIT Museum, founded in 1971 is located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Models of communication are conceptual models used to explain the human communication process.
The Museum of Science (MoS) is a science museum and indoor zoo in Boston, Massachusetts, located in Science Park, a plot of land spanning the Charles River.
In the fields of computational linguistics and probability, an n-gram is a contiguous sequence of n items from a given sample of text or speech.
The Nanyang Technological University (Abbreviation: NTU) is an autonomous research university in Singapore.
The National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) was an organization created "to coordinate, supervise, and conduct scientific research on the problems underlying the development, production, and use of mechanisms and devices of warfare" in the United States from June 27, 1940, until June 28, 1941.
The National Inventors Hall of Fame (NIHF) is an American not-for-profit organization which recognizes individual engineers and inventors who hold a U.S. patent of highly significant technology.
The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, biology, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and physics.
The National Museum of Mathematics or MoMath is a museum dedicated to mathematics in Manhattan, New York City.
Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.
Neil James Alexander Sloane (born October 10, 1939) is a British-American mathematician.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Ninoslav Marina (Нинослав Марина; born 25 September 1974) is Rector of the University of Information Science and Technology "St. Paul the Apostle" located in Ohrid, Macedonia and President of the Rectors' Conference of the public universities in the Republic of Macedonia.
In information theory, the noisy-channel coding theorem (sometimes Shannon's theorem or Shannon's limit), establishes that for any given degree of noise contamination of a communication channel, it is possible to communicate discrete data (digital information) nearly error-free up to a computable maximum rate through the channel.
Norbert Wiener (November 26, 1894 – March 18, 1964) was an American mathematician and philosopher.
Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.
Nursing homes are a type of residential care that provide around-the-clock nursing care for elderly people.
In the field of digital signal processing, the sampling theorem is a fundamental bridge between continuous-time signals (often called "analog signals") and discrete-time signals (often called "digital signals").
Ohrid (Охрид) is a city in the Republic of Macedonia and the seat of Ohrid Municipality.
In cryptography, the one-time pad (OTP) is an encryption technique that cannot be cracked, but requires the use of a one-time pre-shared key the same size as, or longer than, the message being sent.
Petoskey is a city and coastal resort community in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey.
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.
Probate is the judicial process whereby a will is "proved" in a court of law and accepted as a valid public document that is the true last testament of the deceased, or whereby the estate is settled according to the laws of intestacy in the state of residence of the deceased at time of death in the absence of a legal will.
In cryptography, a product cipher combines two or more transformations in a manner intending that the resulting cipher is more secure than the individual components to make it resistant to cryptanalysis.
The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication.
Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals.
Ralph Beebe Blackman (August 29, 1904 – May 24, 1990) was an American mathematician and engineer who was among the pioneers of the information age along with Claude E. Shannon, Hendrik Wade Bode, and John Tukey.
Rate–distortion theory is a major branch of information theory which provides the theoretical foundations for lossy data compression; it addresses the problem of determining the minimal number of bits per symbol, as measured by the rate R, that should be communicated over a channel, so that the source (input signal) can be approximately reconstructed at the receiver (output signal) without exceeding a given distortion D.
A rector ("ruler", from meaning "ruler") is a senior official in an educational institution, and can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school.
A relay is an electrically operated switch.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Research Laboratory of Electronics (RLE) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was founded in 1946 as the successor to the famed MIT Radiation Laboratory (Rad Lab) of World War II.
William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.
Roulette is a casino game named after the French word meaning little wheel.
The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands.
Rubik's Cube is a 3-D combination puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik.
In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.
Sergio Verdú (born Barcelona, Spain, August 15, 1958) is the Eugene Higgins Professor of Electrical Engineering at Princeton University, where he teaches and conducts research on Information Theory in the Information Sciences and Systems Group.
The shannon (symbol: Sh), more commonly known as the bit, is a unit of information and of entropy defined by IEC 80000-13.
In the mathematical discipline of graph theory, Shannon multigraphs, named after Claude Shannon by, are a special type of triangle graphs, which are used in the field of edge coloring in particular.
The Shannon number, named after Claude Shannon, is a conservative lower bound (not an estimate) of the game-tree complexity of chess of 10120, based on an average of about 103 possibilities for a pair of moves consisting of a move for White followed by one for Black, and a typical game lasting about 40 such pairs of moves.
The Shannon switching game is an abstract strategy game for two players, invented by American mathematician and electrical engineer Claude Shannon, the "father of information theory" some time before 1951.
In information theory, Shannon's source coding theorem (or noiseless coding theorem) establishes the limits to possible data compression, and the operational meaning of the Shannon entropy.
In the field of data compression, Shannon–Fano coding, named after Claude Shannon and Robert Fano, is a technique for constructing a prefix code based on a set of symbols and their probabilities (estimated or measured).
In information theory, the Shannon–Hartley theorem tells the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over a communications channel of a specified bandwidth in the presence of noise.
The Shannon–Weaver model of communication has been called the "mother of all models." Social Scientists use the term to refer to an integrated model of the concepts of information source, message, transmitter, signal, channel, noise, receiver, information destination, probability of error, encoding, decoding, information rate, channel capacity, etc.
Signal processing concerns the analysis, synthesis, and modification of signals, which are broadly defined as functions conveying "information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon", such as sound, images, and biological measurements.
A signal-flow graph or signal-flowgraph (SFG), invented by Claude Shannon, but often called a Mason graph after Samuel Jefferson Mason who coined the term, is a specialized flow graph, a directed graph in which nodes represent system variables, and branches (edges, arcs, or arrows) represent functional connections between pairs of nodes.
Solving chess means finding an optimal strategy for playing chess, i.e. one by which one of the players (White or Black) can always force a victory, or both can force a draw (see Solved game).
A stream cipher is a symmetric key cipher where plaintext digits are combined with a pseudorandom cipher digit stream (keystream).
The Stuart Ballantine Medal was a science and engineering award presented by the Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Switching circuit theory is the mathematical study of the properties of networks of idealized switches.
In mathematics, symbolic dynamics is the practice of modeling a topological or smooth dynamical system by a discrete space consisting of infinite sequences of abstract symbols, each of which corresponds to a state of the system, with the dynamics (evolution) given by the shift operator.
The Technion – Israel Institute of Technology (הטכניון – מכון טכנולוגי לישראל Ha-Tekhniyon — Makhon Tekhnologi le-Yisrael) is a public research university in Haifa, Israel.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood is a book by science history writer James Gleick published in March 2011 which covers the genesis of our current information age.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Star-Ledger is the largest circulated newspaper in the U.S. state of New Jersey and is based in Newark.
Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.
Tufts University is a private research university incorporated in the municipality of Medford, Massachusetts, United States.
Twitter is an online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets".
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
In statistics, the uncertainty coefficient, also called proficiency, entropy coefficient or Theil's U, is a measure of nominal association.
A unicycle is a vehicle that touches the ground with only one wheel.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.
In computing and telecommunications, a unit of information is the capacity of some standard data storage system or communication channel, used to measure the capacities of other systems and channels.
In computer science, a universal Turing machine (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input.
UNEJ (Universitas Jember) is a university in Jember region, Indonesia.
The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States.
The University of East Anglia (abbreviated as UEA) is a public research university in Norwich, England.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The University of Information Science and Technology (UIST) "St.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.
The University of Pittsburgh (commonly referred to as Pitt) is a state-related research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
A useless machine is a device which has a function but no direct purpose.
Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.
Vintage Books is a publishing imprint established in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf.
Warren Weaver (July 17, 1894 – November 24, 1978) was an American scientist, mathematician, and science administrator.
Wearable computers, also known as wearables or body-borne computers, are small computing devices (nowadays usually electronic) that are worn under, with, or on top of clothing.
The Western Union Company is an American financial services and communications company.
In computer programming, white space is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.
The Whittaker–Shannon interpolation formula or sinc interpolation is a method to construct a continuous-time bandlimited function from a sequence of real numbers.
Winchester is a small suburban town located 8.2 miles north of downtown Boston, Massachusetts, United States in Middlesex County.
Wolfram Research is a private company that creates computational technology.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
An Algebra for Theoretical Genetics, An algebra for theoretical genetics, C. E. Shannon, C.E. Shannon, Claude E. Shannon, Claude Elwood Shannon, Father of information theory, Shannonian, THROBAC, The father of information theory, Ultimate Machine.