47 relations: Adjunct (grammar), Adverbial clause, Argument (linguistics), Balancing and deranking, Conjunction (grammar), Constituent (linguistics), Construction grammar, Content clause, Contour (linguistics), Control (linguistics), Copula (linguistics), Dependency grammar, Dependent clause, English grammar, English relative clauses, Finite verb, Gerund, Government (linguistics), Government and binding theory, Grammar, Head-driven phrase structure grammar, Imperative mood, Independent clause, Interrogative word, Minimalist program, Non-finite clause, Nonfinite verb, Null-subject language, Object (grammar), Phrase structure grammar, Predicate (grammar), Predicative expression, PRO (linguistics), Proposition, Relative clause, Relative pronoun, Selection (linguistics), Sentence (linguistics), Small clause, Subject (grammar), Subject–auxiliary inversion, T-unit, Thematic equative, V2 word order, Verb, Verb phrase, X-bar theory.
In linguistics, an adjunct is an optional, or structurally dispensable, part of a sentence, clause, or phrase that, if removed or discarded, will not otherwise affect the remainder of the sentence.
An adverbial clause is a dependent clause that functions as an adverb; that is, the entire clause modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
In linguistics, an argument is an expression that helps complete the meaning of a predicate, the latter referring in this context to a main verb and its auxiliaries.
In linguistics, balancing and deranking are terms used to describe the form of verbs used in various types of subordinate clauses and also sometimes in co-ordinate constructions.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure.
In linguistics, construction grammar groups a number of models of grammar that all subscribe to the idea that knowledge of a language is based on a collection of "form and function pairings".
In grammar, a content clause is a subordinate clause that provides content implied or commented upon by its main clause.
In phonetics, contour describes speech sounds which behave as single segments, but which make an internal transition from one quality, place, or manner to another.
In linguistics, control is a construction in which the understood subject of a given predicate is determined by some expression in context.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
Dependency grammar (DG) is a class of modern grammatical theories that are all based on the dependency relation (as opposed to the constituency relation) and that can be traced back primarily to the work of Lucien Tesnière.
A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.
English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language.
Relative clauses in the English language are formed principally by means of relative pronouns.
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.
A gerund (abbreviated) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages, most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun.
In grammar and theoretical linguistics, government or rection refers to the relationship between a word and its dependents.
Government and binding (GB, GBT) is a theory of syntax and a phrase structure grammar in the tradition of transformational grammar developed principally by Noam Chomsky in the 1980s.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) is a highly lexicalized, constraint-based grammar developed by Carl Pollard and Ivan Sag.
The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.
; An independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself as a simple sentence.
An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.
In linguistics, the minimalist program (MP) is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside generative grammar since the early 1990s, starting with a 1993 paper by Noam Chomsky.
In linguistics, a non-finite clause is a dependent or embedded clause whose verbal chain is non-finite; for example, using Priscian's categories for Latin verb forms, in many languages we find texts with non-finite clauses containing infinitives, participles and gerunds.
A nonfinite verb is of any of several verb forms that are not finite verbs; they cannot perform action as the root of an independent clause.
In linguistic typology, a null-subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject; such a clause is then said to have a null subject.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
The term phrase structure grammar was originally introduced by Noam Chomsky as the term for grammar studied previously by Emil Post and Axel Thue (Post canonical systems).
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.
A predicative expression (or just predicative) is part of a clause predicate, and is an expression that typically follows a copula (or linking verb), e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appears as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e.g. call, make, name, etc.
In generative linguistics, PRO (called "big PRO", distinct from pro, "small pro" or "little pro") is a pronominal determiner phrase (DP) without phonological content.
The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy.
A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.
A relative pronoun marks a relative clause; it has the same referent in the main clause of a sentence that the relative modifies.
In linguistics, selection denotes the ability of predicates to determine the semantic content of their arguments.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
In linguistics, a small clause is a frequently occurring construction that has the semantic subject-predicate characteristics of a clause, but that lacks the tense of a finite clause and appears to lack the status of a constituent.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
Subject–auxiliary inversion (also called subject–operator inversion) is a frequently occurring type of inversion in English, whereby a finite auxiliary verb – taken here to include finite forms of the copula be – appears to "invert" (change places) with the subject.
In linguistics, the term T-unit was coined by Kellogg Hunt in 1965.
In systemic functional grammar, a thematic equative is a thematic resource in which two or more separate elements in a clause are grouped together to form a single constituent of the theme-plus-rheme structure.
In syntax, verb-second (V2) word order places the finite verb of a clause or sentence in second position with a single major constituent preceding it, which functions as the clause topic.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
In linguistics, a verb phrase (VP) is a syntactic unit composed of at least one verb and its dependentsobjects, complements and other modifiersbut not always including the subject.
X-bar theory is a theory of syntactic category formation.