125 relations: Adobe, Aluminium oxide, Ankara, Argillaceous minerals, Armenian bole, Atterberg limits, Bentonite, Brick, Canada, Carbonic acid, Cement, Ceramic, Ceramic building material, Chemist, Chimney, Chlorite group, Clay animation, Clay chemistry, Clay court, Clay minerals, Clay panel, Clay pit, Clay–water interaction, Cob (material), Colloid, Cordwood construction, Cuneiform script, Dam, Deposition (geology), Depositional environment, Earth, Earthenware, Encyclopædia Britannica, Erosion, Expansive clay, Filtration, Geologist, Geophagia, Geotechnical engineering, Geotextile, Glacial lake, Graham Cairns-Smith, Heavy metals, Honshu, Hydrothermal circulation, Illite, Industrial plasticine, International Organization for Standardization, Japan, Jōmon period, ..., Kaolinite, Kiln, Landfill, Landslide, Leaching (pedology), Loam, London Clay, Magnesium oxide, Marine clay, Medicinal clay, Micrometre, Middle East Technical University, Mineral, Modelling clay, Montmorillonite, Mortar (masonry), Musical instrument, Natural building, Northern Ireland, Norway, Ocarina, Organic matter, Oxide, Paint, Palygorskite, Paper, Paper clay, Parrot, Particle size, Permeability (earth sciences), Physical chemistry, Pig, Plasticine, Plasticity (physics), Porcelain, Pottery, Powder diffraction, Prehistory, Puddling (civil engineering), Quartz, Quick clay, Radiocarbon dating, Rammed earth, Reactivity (chemistry), Reed (plant), Rock (geology), San Francisco, Sand, Sand casting, Sedimentary rock, Sedimentology, Silicate minerals, Silt, Sintering, Soil, Soil classification, Soil liquefaction, Soil science, Solvent, Sorption, Stomach, Stoneware, Stylus, Sweden, Tableware, Tobacco pipe, Turkey, University College London, University of Waikato, Varve, Vertisol, Water, Wattle and daub, Weathering, Wood. Expand index (75 more) » « Shrink index
Adobe is a building material made from earth and other organic materials.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
Ankara (English; Turkish Ottoman Turkish Engürü), formerly known as Ancyra (Ἄγκυρα, Ankyra, "anchor") and Angora, is the capital of the Republic of Turkey.
Argillaceous minerals may appear silvery upon optical reflection and are minerals containing substantial amounts of clay-like components (ἄργιλλος.
Armenian bole, also known as bolus armenus or bole armoniac, is an earthy clay, usually red, native to Armenia.
The Atterberg limits are a basic measure of the critical water contents of a fine-grained soil: its shrinkage limit, plastic limit, and liquid limit.
Bentonite (/ˈbɛntənʌɪt/) is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite.
A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Ceramic building material, often abbreviated to CBM, is an umbrella term used in archaeology to cover all building materials made from baked clay.
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
A chimney is a structure that provides ventilation for hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere.
The chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate minerals.
Clay animation or claymation, sometimes plasticine animation, is one of many forms of stop motion animation.
Clay chemistry is an applied subdiscipline of chemistry which studies the chemical structures, properties and reactions of or involving clays and clay minerals.
A clay court is one of many different types of tennis court.
Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.
Clay panel (also known as clay board, clay wallboard, clay building board, clay building panel) is a panel made of clay with some additives.
A clay pit is a quarry or mine for the extraction of clay, which is generally used for manufacturing pottery, bricks or Portland cement.
Clay-water interaction is an all-inclusive term to describe various progressive interactions between clay minerals and water.
Cob, cobb or clom (in Wales) is a natural building material made from subsoil, water, fibrous organic material (typically straw), and sometimes lime.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
Cordwood construction (also called "cordwood masonry", "stackwall construction", "stovewood construction" or "stackwood construction") is a term used for a natural building method in which "cordwood" or short pieces of debarked tree are laid up crosswise with masonry or cob mixtures to build a wall.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
In geology, depositional environment or sedimentary environment describes the combination of physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deposition of a particular type of sediment and, therefore, the rock types that will be formed after lithification, if the sediment is preserved in the rock record.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1200°C.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Expansive clay is a clay soil that is prone to large volume changes (swelling and shrinking) that are directly related to changes in water content.
Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it.
Geophagia, also known as geophagy, is the practice of eating earth or soil-like substrates such as clay or chalk.
Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials.
Geotextiles are permeable fabrics which, when used in association with soil, have the ability to separate, filter, reinforce, protect, or drain.
A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier.
Alexander Graham Cairns-Smith FRSE (24 November 1931 – 26 August 2016) was an organic chemist and molecular biologist at the University of Glasgow.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Honshu is the largest and most populous island of Japan, located south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Straits.
Hydrothermal circulation in its most general sense is the circulation of hot water (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, water,Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press. and θέρμη, heat). Hydrothermal circulation occurs most often in the vicinity of sources of heat within the Earth's crust.
Illite is a group of closely related non-expanding clay minerals.
Industrial plasticine is a modeling material which is mainly used by automotive design studios.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The is the time in Japanese prehistory, traditionally dated between 14,000–300 BCE, recently refined to about 1000 BCE, during which Japan was inhabited by a hunter-gatherer culture, which reached a considerable degree of sedentism and cultural complexity.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
A kiln (or, originally pronounced "kill", with the "n" silent) is a thermally insulated chamber, a type of oven, that produces temperatures sufficient to complete some process, such as hardening, drying, or chemical changes.
A landfill site (also known as a tip, dump, rubbish dump, garbage dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
In pedology, leaching is the loss of mineral and organic solutes due to very heavy rainfall, high temperature and percolation.
Loam is soil composed mostly of sand (particle size > 63 µm), silt (particle size > 2 µm), and a smaller amount of clay (particle size These proportions can vary to a degree, however, and result in different types of loam soils: sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam. In the USDA textural classification triangle, the only soil that is not predominantly sand, silt, or clay is called "loam". Loam soils generally contain more nutrients, moisture, and humus than sandy soils, have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silt and clay-rich soils, and are easier to till than clay soils. The different types of loam soils each have slightly different characteristics, with some draining liquids more efficiently than others. The soil's texture, especially its ability to retain nutrients and water are crucial. Loam soil is suitable for growing most plant varieties. Bricks made of loam, mud, sand, and water, with an added binding material such as rice husks or straw, have been used in construction since ancient times.
The London Clay Formation is a marine geological formation of Ypresian (early Eocene Epoch, c. 56–49 Ma) age which crops out in the southeast of England.
Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).
Marine clay is a type of clay found in coastal regions around the world.
The use of medicinal clay in folk medicine goes back to prehistoric times.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Middle East Technical University (commonly referred to as METU; in Turkish, Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi ODTÜ) is a public technical university located in Ankara, Turkey.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Modelling clay is any of a group of malleable substances used in building and sculpting.
Montmorillonite is a very soft phyllosilicate group of minerals that form when they precipitate from water solution as microscopic crystals, known as clay. It is named after Montmorillon in France. Montmorillonite, a member of the smectite group, is a 2:1 clay, meaning that it has two tetrahedral sheets of silica sandwiching a central octahedral sheet of alumina. The particles are plate-shaped with an average diameter around 1 μm and a thickness of 9.6 nm; magnification of about 25,000 times, using an electron microscope, is required to "see" individual clay particles. Members of this group include saponite. Montmorillonite is a subclass of smectite, a 2:1 phyllosilicate mineral characterized as having greater than 50% octahedral charge; its cation exchange capacity is due to isomorphous substitution of Mg for Al in the central alumina plane. The substitution of lower valence cations in such instances leaves the nearby oxygen atoms with a net negative charge that can attract cations. In contrast, beidellite is smectite with greater than 50% tetrahedral charge originating from isomorphous substitution of Al for Si in the silica sheet. The individual crystals of montmorillonite clay are not tightly bound hence water can intervene, causing the clay to swell. The water content of montmorillonite is variable and it increases greatly in volume when it absorbs water. Chemically, it is hydrated sodium calcium aluminium magnesium silicate hydroxide (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2·nH2O. Potassium, iron, and other cations are common substitutes, and the exact ratio of cations varies with source. It often occurs intermixed with chlorite, muscovite, illite, cookeite, and kaolinite.
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
A natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The ocarina is an ancient wind musical instrument—a type of vessel flute.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.
Palygorskite or attapulgite is a magnesium aluminium phyllosilicate with formula (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH)·4(H2O) that occurs in a type of clay soil common to the Southeastern United States.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Paper clay (sometimes referred to as fiberclay) is any clay body to which processed cellulose fiber (paper being the most common) has been added.
Parrots, also known as psittacines, are birds of the roughly 393 species in 92 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions.
Particle size is a notion introduced for comparing dimensions of solid particles (flecks), liquid particles (droplets), or gaseous particles (bubbles).
Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
Physical Chemistry is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium.
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.
Plasticine, a brand of modelling clay, is a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids.
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
Powder diffraction is a scientific technique using X-ray, neutron, or electron diffraction on powder or microcrystalline samples for structural characterization of materials.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Puddling is both the material and the process of lining a water body such as a channel or pond with puddle clay (puddle, puddling) - a watertight (low hydraulic conductivity) material based on clay and water mixed to be workable,.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Quick clay, also known as Leda clay and Champlain Sea clay in Canada, is any of several distinctively sensitive glaciomarine clays found in Canada, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Finland, the United States and other locations around the world.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Rammed earth, also known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, pisé (de terre) in French, and hangtu, is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel.
In chemistry, reactivity is the impetus for which a chemical substance undergoes a chemical reaction, either by itself or with other materials, with an overall release of energy.
Reed is a common name for several tall, grass-like plants of wetlands.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material.
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand, silt, and clay, and the processes that result in their formation (erosion and weathering), transport, deposition and diagenesis.
Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals with predominantly silicate anions.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
Soil classification deals with the systematic categorization of soils based on distinguishing characteristics as well as criteria that dictate choices in use.
Soil liquefaction describes a phenomenon whereby a saturated or partially saturated soil substantially loses strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress, usually earthquake shaking or other sudden change in stress condition, causing it to behave like a liquid.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Sorption is a physical and chemical process by which one substance becomes attached to another.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
--> Stoneware is a rather broad term for pottery or other ceramics fired at a relatively high temperature.
A stylus, plural styli or styluses, is a writing utensil or a small tool for some other form of marking or shaping, for example, in pottery.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Tableware are the dishes or dishware used for setting a table, serving food and dining.
A tobacco pipe, often called simply a pipe, is a device specifically made to smoke tobacco.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The University of Waikato (Te Whare Wānanga o Waikato), informally Waikato University, is a comprehensive university in Hamilton, New Zealand established in 1964, with a satellite campus located in Tauranga.
A varve is an annual layer of sediment or sedimentary rock.
In both the FAO and USDA soil taxonomy, a vertisol (Vertosol in the Australian Soil Classification) is a soil in which there is a high content of expansive clay known as montmorillonite that forms deep cracks in drier seasons or years.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Wattle and daub is a composite building material used for making walls, in which a woven lattice of wooden strips called wattle is daubed with a sticky material usually made of some combination of wet soil, clay, sand, animal dung and straw.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.