44 relations: Blood, Blood plasma, Body water, Concentration, Creatinine, Derivative, Differential equation, E (mathematical constant), Excretion, Exponential decay, Glomerulus, Hemodialysis, Inulin, Kidney, Kt/V, Limit (mathematics), Mass balance, Mass transfer, Mass transfer coefficient, Membrane transport protein, Natural logarithm, Nephron, Peritubular capillaries, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacology, Physiology, Plasma protein binding, Product rule, Proportionality (mathematics), Recurrence relation, Renal clearance ratio, Renal function, Sieving coefficient, Standardized Kt/V, Table of medication secernated in kidney, Thomas Addis, Time, Time constant, University of Edinburgh Medical School, Urea reduction ratio, Urine, Volume, Volume of distribution, Volumetric flow rate.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
In physiology, body water is the water content of an animal body that is contained in the tissues, the blood, the bones and elsewhere.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).
A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.
The number is a mathematical constant, approximately equal to 2.71828, which appears in many different settings throughout mathematics.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.
Glomerulus is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, fibers, or neurons.
Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, commonly called kidney dialysis or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally.
Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted from chicory.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
In medicine, Kt/V is a number used to quantify hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis treatment adequacy.
In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function (or sequence) "approaches" as the input (or index) "approaches" some value.
A mass balance, also called a material balance, is an application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems.
Mass transfer is the net movement of mass from one location, usually meaning stream, phase, fraction or component, to another.
In engineering, the mass transfer coefficient is a diffusion rate constant that relates the mass transfer rate, mass transfer area, and concentration change as driving force: k_c.
A membrane transport protein (or simply transporter) is a membrane protein involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a biological membrane.
The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant ''e'', where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to.
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
In the renal system, peritubular capillaries are tiny blood vessels, supplied by the efferent arteriole, that travel alongside nephrons allowing reabsorption and secretion between blood and the inner lumen of the nephron.
Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
Plasma protein binding refers to the degree to which medications attach to proteins within the blood.
In calculus, the product rule is a formula used to find the derivatives of products of two or more functions.
In mathematics, two variables are proportional if there is always a constant ratio between them.
In mathematics, a recurrence relation is an equation that recursively defines a sequence or multidimensional array of values, once one or more initial terms are given: each further term of the sequence or array is defined as a function of the preceding terms.
The renal clearance ratio or fractional excretion is a measure of the speed at which a constituent of urine passes through the kidneys.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
In mass transfer, the sieving coefficient is a measure of equilibration between the concentrations of two mass transfer streams.
Standardized Kt/V, also std Kt/V, is a way of measuring (renal) dialysis adequacy.
This is a table of medications that are secreted in the kidney.
Thomas Addis Jr. (July 27, 1881 – June 4, 1949) was a British physician-scientist from Edinburgh, Scotland who made important contributions to the understanding of how blood clots.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
In physics and engineering, the time constant, usually denoted by the Greek letter τ (tau), is the parameter characterizing the response to a step input of a first-order, linear time-invariant (LTI) system.
The University of Edinburgh Medical School (also known as Edinburgh Medical School) is the medical school of the University of Edinburgh in Scotland and part of the College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, the head of which is Sir John Savill.
The urea reduction ratio (URR), is a dimensionless number used to quantify dialysis treatment adequacy.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.
In pharmacology, the volume of distribution (VD, also known as apparent volume of distribution) is the theoretical volume that would be necessary to contain the total amount of an administered drug at the same concentration that it is observed in the blood plasma.
In physics and engineering, in particular fluid dynamics and hydrometry, the volumetric flow rate (also known as volume flow rate, rate of fluid flow or volume velocity) is the volume of fluid which passes per unit time; usually represented by the symbol (sometimes). The SI unit is m3/s (cubic metres per second).