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Aëtius of Amida (Ἀέτιος Ἀμιδηνός; Latin: Aëtius Amidenus; fl. mid-5th century to mid-6th century) was a Byzantine Greek physician and medical writer, particularly distinguished by the extent of his erudition.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Achillas (Ἀχιλλᾶς) was one of the guardians of the Egyptian king Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator, and commander of the king's troops, when Pompey fled to Egypt in 48 BC.
Acre (or, עַכּוֹ, ʻAko, most commonly spelled as Akko; عكّا, ʻAkkā) is a city in the coastal plain region of Israel's Northern District at the extremity of Haifa Bay.
Actium (Greek: Ἄκτιον) was the name of an ancient town on a promontory of western Greece in northwestern Acarnania, at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf). Actium is chiefly famous as the name given to the nearby naval Battle of Actium, in which Octavian won a decisive victory over Mark Antony on September 2, 31 BC. Actium was situated on the southern side of the strait opposite the later city of Nicopolis built by Octavian. Since 2002 the peninsular of Actium has been linked with Preveza on the north shore of the Ambracian Gulf by the Aktio-Preveza Undersea Tunnel.
Adrian Keith Goldsworthy (born 1969) is a British historian and author who specialises in ancient Roman history.
The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula.
The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.
The agricultural cycle is the annual cycle of activities related to the growth and harvest of a crop.
Al-Mas‘udi (أبو الحسن علي بن الحسين بن علي المسعودي,; –956) was an Arab historian and geographer.
The Alban Hills are the site of a quiescent volcanic complex in Italy, located southeast of Rome and about north of Anzio.
Alessandro Vittoria funerary monument - San Zaccaria, Venice Alessandro Vittoria (1525–1608) was an Italian Mannerist sculptor of the Venetian school, "one of the main representatives of the Venetian classical style" and rivalling Giambologna as the foremost sculptors of the late 16th century in Italy.
Alexander Helios (Ἀλέξανδρος Ἥλιος; late 40 BC – unknown, but possibly between 29 and 25 BC) was a Ptolemaic prince and was the eldest son of the Macedonian queen Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt by Roman triumvir Mark Antony.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Altes Museum (German for Old Museum) is a museum building on Museum Island in Berlin, Germany.
Amanirenas (also spelled Amanirena) was a queen of the Meroitic Kingdom of Kush.
The Ambracian Gulf, also known as the Gulf of Arta or the Gulf of Actium, and in some official documents as the Amvrakikos Gulf (Αμβρακικός κόλπος), is a gulf of the Ionian Sea in northwestern Greece.
Amyntas (Ἀμύντας), Tetrarch of the Trocmi was a King of Galatia and of several adjacent countries between 36 and 25 BC, mentioned by StraboStrabo, Geographia, xii as contemporary with himself.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Egyptian architecture is the architecture of one of the most influential civilizations throughout history, which developed a vast array of diverse structures and great architectural monuments along the Nile, including pyramids and temples.
Ancient Egyptian deities are the gods and goddesses worshipped in ancient Egypt.
The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of funerary practices that they believed were necessary to ensure their immortality after death (the afterlife).
The offering formula, also known under transliterated forms of its incipit as the ḥtp-dỉ-nsw or ḥtp-dj-nswt formula, was a conventional dedicatory formula found on Ancient Egyptian funerary objects, believed to allow the deceased to partake in offerings presented to the major deities in the name of the king, or in offerings presented directly to the deceased by family members.
Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
There are few survivals of ancient Greek and Roman furniture, but a number of images in reliefs, painted pottery and other media.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The history of ancient Greek coinage can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms) into four periods, the Archaic, the Classical, the Hellenistic and the Roman.
Ancient Greek law consists of the laws and legal institutions of Ancient Greece.
Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.
The study of ancient Greek personal names is a branch of onomastics, the study of names, and more specifically of anthroponomastics, the study of names of persons.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Ancient Greek sculpture is the sculpture of ancient Greece.
Ancient Greek units of measurement varied according to location and epoch.
The ancient history of Cyprus shows a precocious sophistication in the neolithlic era visible in settlements such as at Choirokoitia dating from the 9th millennium BC, and at Kavalassos from about 7500 BC.
Ancient Macedonian, the language of the ancient Macedonians, either a dialect of Ancient Greek or a separate language closely related to Greek, was spoken in the kingdom of Macedonia during the 1st millennium BC and belongs to the Indo-European language family.
The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece.
Ancient navies had a large impact on the navies of today.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Antigonus II Mattathias (מתתיהו אנטיגונוס השני, Matityahu), also known as Antigonus the Hasmonean (died 37 BCE) was the last Hasmonean king of Judea.
The Antikensammlung Berlin (Berlin antiquities collection) is one of the most important collections of classical art in the world, now held in the Altes Museum and Pergamon Museum in Berlin, Germany.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antipater I the Idumaean (died 43 BC) was the founder of the Herodian Dynasty and father of Herod the Great. According to Josephus, he was the son of Antipas and had formerly held that name. A native of Idumaea, southeast of Judea between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba, which during the time of the Hebrew Bible had been known as the land of Edom, Antipater became a powerful official under the later Hasmonean kings and subsequently became a client of the Roman general Pompey the Great when Pompey conquered Judea in the name of Roman Republic. When Julius Caesar defeated Pompey, Antipater rescued Caesar in Alexandria, and was made chief minister of Judea, with the right to collect taxes. Antipater eventually made his sons Phasaelus and Herod the Governors of Jerusalem and Galilee respectively. After the assassination of Caesar, Antipater was forced to side with Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony. The pro-Roman politics of Antipater led to his increasing unpopularity among the devout, non-Hellenized Jews. He died by poison. The diplomacy and artful politics of Antipater, as well as his insinuation into the Hasmonean court, paved the way for the rise of his son Herod the Great, who used this position to marry the Hasmonean princess Mariamne, endear himself to Rome and become king of Judea under Roman influence.
Anton is a common given first name throughout Europe.
Antonia Minor (PIR2 A 885), also known as Julia Antonia Minor, Antonia the Younger or simply Antonia (31 January 36 BC - 1 May AD 37) was the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor.
Antonia Major also known as Julia Antonia Major (Latin: Antonia Maior, PIR2 A 884) (born August/September 39 BC), also known as Antonia the Elder, was a daughter of Triumvir Mark Antony and Octavia the Younger and a relative of the first Roman emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty.
Antony and Cleopatra is a tragedy by William Shakespeare.
Antony's Parthian War or the Roman–Parthian War of 40–33 BC was a major conflict between the Roman Republic, represented in the East by the triumvir Mark Antony, and the Parthians.
Apama (Apáma), sometimes known as Apama I or Apame I, was the wife of the first ruler of the Seleucid Empire, Seleucus I Nicator.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
The Appian Way (Latin and Italian: Via Appia) is one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic.
The applied arts are the application of design and decoration to everyday objects to make them aesthetically pleasing.
Aqaba (العقبة) is the only coastal city in Jordan and the largest and most populous city on the Gulf of Aqaba.
An aquiline nose (also called a Roman nose or, derogatorily, hook nose) is a human nose with a prominent bridge, giving it the appearance of being curved or slightly bent.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabic literature (الأدب العربي / ALA-LC: al-Adab al-‘Arabī) is the writing, both prose and poetry, produced by writers in the Arabic language.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The Archaeological Museum of Cherchell is an archaeological museum located in the center of the seaport town of Cherchell in Tipaza Province, Algeria.
Archelaus (Ἀρχέλαος; fl. 1st century BC, died January/February 55 BC) was a high priest of the temple-state of Comana, Cappadocia.
Archelaus (Ἀρχέλαος; fl. 1st century BC and 1st century, died 17 AD) was a Roman client prince and the last king of Cappadocia.
Arius Didymus (Ἄρειος Δίδυμος Areios Didymos; fl. 1st century BC) of Alexandria, was a Stoic philosopher and teacher of Augustus.
Armant (Egyptian jwnj, jwnj šm'j "southern Heliopolis" or jwnj-mntw "the Heliopolis of the Nomad"; Coptic:; known in Koine Greek as Hermonthis), is a town located about 12 miles south of Thebes.
Arsinoë II (Ἀρσινόη, 316 BC – unknown date between July 270 and 260 BC) was a Ptolemaic Queen and co-regent of Ancient Egypt.
Arsinoë IV (Ἀρσινόη; between 68 and 59 BC – 41 BC) was the fourth of six children and the youngest daughter of Ptolemy XII Auletes, and queen and co-ruler of Egypt with her brother Ptolemy XIII from 48 BC – 47 BC, making her one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of ancient Egypt.
Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization of ancient Egypt in the lower Nile Valley from about 3000 BC to 30 AD.
Artavasdes I of Media Atropatene, also known as Artavasdes I of Atropatene, Artavasdes I and Artavasdes (before or about 59 BC-about 20 BC) was a Prince who served as a King of Media Atropatene.
Artavasdes II (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΡΤΑΥΑΖΔΟΥ Basileos Artavazdou, Արտավազդ Երկրորդ Artavazd Yerkrord) was a King of the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 BC until 34 BC and a member of the Artaxiad Dynasty.
Ashkelon (also spelled Ashqelon and Ascalon; help; عَسْقَلَان) is a coastal city in the Southern District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast, south of Tel Aviv, and north of the border with the Gaza Strip.
"Asp" is the modern Anglicisation of the word "aspis," which in antiquity referred to any one of several venomous snake species found in the Nile region.
The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus.
Atropatene (in Ἀτροπατηνή; in Middle Iranian: Atropatkan and Atorpatkan) was an ancient kingdom established and ruled under local ethnic Iranian dynasties, first with Darius III of Persia and later Alexander the Great of Macedonia starting in the 4th century BC and includes the territory of modern-day Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Kurdistan, and a small part of the contemporary Azerbaijan Republic.
Augustan literature is the period of Latin literature written during the reign of Augustus (27 BC–AD 14), the first Roman emperor.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Aulus Gabinius (?-48 or 47 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and supporter of Pompey.
Aulus Hirtius (c. 90 – 43 BC) was one of the consuls of the Roman Republic and a writer on military subjects.
Sextus Aurelius Victor (c. 320 – c. 390) was a historian and politician of the Roman Empire.
An avunculate marriage is any marriage between an uncle/aunt and a niece/nephew.
Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the 15th century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia.
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
Bartolommeo (or Baccio) Bandinelli, actually Bartolommeo Brandini (17 October 1493 – shortly before 7 February 1560), was a Renaissance Italian sculptor, draughtsman and painter.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.
The Battle of Carrhae was fought in 53 BC between the Roman Republic and the Parthian Empire near the town of Carrhae.
The Battle of Mount Gindarus or battle of Cyrrhestica in 38 BC was a decisive victory for the Roman general Publius Ventidius Bassus over the Parthian army of Pacorus, son of King Orodes, in the Greater Syria district of Cyrrhestica.
The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War.
The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (of the Second Triumvirate) and the leaders of Julius Caesar's assassination, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia.
The Battle of the Nile in 47 BC saw the combined Roman–Egyptian armies of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra VII defeat those of the rival Queen Arsinoe IV and King Ptolemy XIII and secure the throne of Egypt.
Beirut (بيروت, Beyrouth) is the capital and largest city of Lebanon.
The Berdan River, also called the Tarsus River (Latin:Cydnus), is a river in Mersin Province, south Turkey.
Berenice II (267 or 266 BC – 221 BC) was a ruling queen of Cyrene by birth, and a queen and co-regent of Egypt by marriage to her cousin Ptolemy III Euergetes, the third ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt.
Berenice III (Greek: Βερενίκη; 120–80 BC), sometimes called Cleopatra Berenice, ruled as queen regnant of Egypt from 81 to 80 BC.
Berenice IV Epiphaneia (Βερενίκη; 77–55 BC, born and died in Alexandria, Egypt) was a Greek Princess and Queen of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Berytus (Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus) was a Roman colonia that was the center of Roman presence in the eastern Mediterranean shores south of Anatolia.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.
The Boscoreale Treasure is the name for a large collection of exquisite silver and gold Roman objects discovered in the ruins of an ancient villa at Boscoreale, near Pompeii, southern Italy.
The Boucicaut Master or Master of the Hours for Marshal Boucicaut was an anonymous French or Flemish miniaturist and illuminator active between 1400 and 1430 in Paris.
In cities of ancient Greece, the boule (βουλή, boulē; plural βουλαί, boulai) was a council of over 500 citizens (βουλευταί, bouleutai) appointed to run daily affairs of the city.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
Brindisi (Brindisino: Brìnnisi; Brundisium; translit; Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
In Egyptian mythology, Buchis (also spelt Bakh and Bakha) was the manifestation of the deification of Ka (power/life-force) of the war god Montu, worshipped in the region of Hermonthis.
A burlesque is a literary, dramatic or musical work intended to cause laughter by caricaturing the manner or spirit of serious works, or by ludicrous treatment of their subjects.
A bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure, depicting a person's head and neck, and a variable portion of the chest and shoulders.
The Bust of Cleopatra VII is a granite bust currently on display in the Gallery of Ancient Egypt at the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM).
The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Caesareum of Alexandria is an ancient temple in Alexandria, Egypt.
Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr Philomḗtōr Kaĩsar "Ptolemy, Beloved of his Father, Beloved of his Mother, Caesar"; June 23, 47 BC – August 23, 30 BC), better known by the nicknames Caesarion (Καισαρίων, Kaisaríōn ≈ Little Caesar; Caesariō) and Ptolemy Caesar (Πτολεμαῖος Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaios Kaisar; Ptolemaeus Caesar), was the last Pharaoh of Egypt.
Caligula (Latin: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 31 August 12 – 24 January 41 AD) was Roman emperor from AD 37 to AD 41.
Calpurnia was the third and last wife of Julius Caesar.
Cameo is a method of carving an object such as an engraved gem, item of jewellery or vessel.
Cameo glass is a luxury form of glass art produced by etching and carving through fused layers of differently colored glass to produce designs, usually with white opaque glass figures and motifs on a dark-colored background.
The Campus Martius (Latin for the "Field of Mars", Italian Campo Marzio), was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about in extent.
Cape Matapan (Κάβο Ματαπάς, or Ματαπά in the Maniot dialect), also named as Cape Tainaron (Ακρωτήριον Ταίναρον), or Cape Tenaro, is situated at the end of the Mani Peninsula, Greece.
The Capitoline Hill (Mōns Capitōlīnus; Campidoglio), between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the Seven Hills of Rome.
The Capitoline Museums (Italian: Musei Capitolini) are a single museum containing a group of art and archaeological museums in Piazza del Campidoglio, on top of the Capitoline Hill in Rome, Italy.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oval with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war" (literally, "a case of war").
In law, medicine, and statistics, cause of death is a term which refers to an official determination of conditions resulting in a human's death.
The Center for Hellenic Studies (CHS) is a research institute for classics located in Washington, D.C. at 3100 NW Whitehaven Street.
Charmion (Χάρμιον), alternatively Charmian, was a trusted servant and advisor to Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
Cherchell (older Cherchel, شرشال) is a seaport town in the Province of Tipaza, Algeria, 55 miles west of Algiers.
The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.
Christendom has several meanings.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
Claudette Colbert (born Émilie Claudette Chauchoin; September 13, 1903 – July 30, 1996) was an American stage and film actress and a leading lady in Hollywood for over two decades, and has been called "The mixture of inimitable beauty, sophistication, wit, and vivacity".
Titus Flavius Clemens, also known as Clement of Alexandria (Κλήμης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 150 – c. 215), was a Christian theologian who taught at the Catechetical School of Alexandria.
Cleopatra is a 1917 American silent historical drama film based on H. Rider Haggard's 1889 novel Cleopatra and the plays Cleopatre by Émile Moreau and Victorien Sardou and Antony and Cleopatra by William Shakespeare.
Cleopatra is a 1934 epic film directed by Cecil B. DeMille and distributed by Paramount Pictures, which retells the story of Cleopatra VII of Egypt.
Cleopatra is a 1963 American epic historical drama film chronicling the struggles of Cleopatra, the young Queen of Egypt, to resist the imperial ambitions of Rome.
Cleopatra: Being an Account of the Fall and Vengeance of Harmachis is a novel written by the author H. Rider Haggard, the author of King Solomon's Mines and She.
Cleopatra is a character from the HBO/BBC original television series Rome, played by Lyndsey Marshal from October 16, 2005 through March 25, 2007 and based on the historical Ancient Egyptian Queen Cleopatra.
Cleopatra Alcyone (Kleopátrē Alkuónē) was the daughter of Idas and Marpessa and the wife of Meleager.
Cleopatra I Syra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Σύρα; c. 204 – 176 BC) was a princess of the Seleucid Empire, Queen of Ptolemaic Egypt by marriage to Ptolemy V of Egypt, and regent of Egypt during the minority of their son, Ptolemy VI, from her husband’s death in 180 BC until her own death in 176 BC.
Cleopatra II (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα; c. 185 BC – 116/115 BC) was a queen of Ptolemaic Egypt who ruled from 175 to 116 BC with two successive brother-husbands and her daughter—often in rivalry with her brother Ptolemy VIII.
Cleopatra III (Κλεοπάτρα; c.160–101 BC) was a queen of Egypt.
Cleopatra IV (Κλεοπάτρα) was Queen of Egypt briefly from 116 to 115 BC, jointly with her husband Ptolemy IX Lathyros.
Cleopatra of Macedonia (Κλεοπάτρα; c. 355/354 BC – 308 BC), or Cleopatra of Epirus, was a Greek Epirote-Macedonian princess and later queen regent of Epirus.
Cleopatra Selene II (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Σελήνη; late 40 BC – c. 6 BC; the numeration is modern), also known as Cleopatra VIII of Egypt or Cleopatra VIII, was a Ptolemaic Princess and was the only daughter to Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman triumvir Mark Antony.
Cleopatra Selene (Κλεοπάτρα Σελήνη; – 69 BC) was the monarch of Syria as Cleopatra II Selene (82–69 BC).
Cleopatra the Alchemist who likely lived during the 3rd century, was a Greek Egyptian alchemist, author, and philosopher.
Cleopatra V Tryphaena of Egypt (Κλεοπάτρα Τρύφαινα, born c. 95 BC, died c. 69/68 BC or c. 57 BC) was a Ptolemaic Queen of Egypt.
Cleopatra VI Tryphaena (Κλεοπάτρα Τρύφαινα) was an Egyptian Ptolemaic queen.
Cleopatra's Barge was an opulent yacht built in Massachusetts in 1816.
Cleopatra's Needle is the popular name for each of three Ancient Egyptian obelisks re-erected in London, Paris, and New York City during the nineteenth century.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Clothing in ancient Greece primarily consisted of the chiton, peplos, himation, and chlamys.
In lending agreements, collateral is a borrower's pledge of specific property to a lender, to secure repayment of a loan.
The Constitutional reforms of Augustus were a series of laws that were enacted by the Roman Emperor Augustus between 30 BC and 2 BC, which transformed the Constitution of the Roman Republic into the Constitution of the Roman Empire.
Cornelia Africana (c. 190 – c. 100 BC) was the second daughter of Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, the hero of the Second Punic War, and Aemilia Paulla.
Gaius Cornelius Gallus (c. 70 BC – 26 BC) was a Roman poet, orator and politician.
In classical antiquity, the cornucopia (from Latin cornu copiae), also called the horn of plenty, was a symbol of abundance and nourishment, commonly a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce, flowers or nuts.
A coronation was an extremely important ritual in early and ancient Egyptian history, concerning the change of power and rulership between two succeeding pharaohs.
Countersigning means writing a second signature onto a document.
Courtly love (or fin'amor in Occitan) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.
Crete and Cyrenaica (Provincia Creta et Cyrenaica) was a senatorial province of the Roman Empire, established in 67 BC.
The Crisis of the Third Century, also known as Military Anarchy or the Imperial Crisis (AD 235–284), was a period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasion, civil war, plague, and economic depression.
Julius Caesar's crossing the Rubicon river was an event in 49 BC that precipitated the Roman Civil War, which ultimately led to Caesar's becoming dictator for life and the rise of the imperial era of Rome.
The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history.
The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire.
In classical mythology, Cupid (Latin Cupīdō, meaning "desire") is the god of desire, erotic love, attraction and affection.
The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
Cyrene (translit) was an ancient Greek and Roman city near present-day Shahhat, Libya.
A dais or daïs is any raised platform located either inside or outside a room or enclosure, often for dignified occupancy, as at the front of a lecture hall or sanctuary.
Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase literally meaning "condemnation of memory", meaning that a person must not be remembered.
De Bello Alexandrino (also Bellum Alexandrinum; On the Alexandrine War) is a Latin work continuing Julius Caesar's commentaries, De Bello Gallico and De Bello Civili.
De Casibus Virorum Illustrium (On the Fates of Famous Men) is a work of 56 biographies in Latin prose composed by the Florentine poet Giovanni Boccaccio of Certaldo in the form of moral stories of the falls of famous people, similar to his work of 106 biographies De Mulieribus Claris.
De Mulieribus Claris or De Claris Mulieribus (Latin for "Concerning Famous Women") is a collection of biographies of historical and mythological women by the Florentine author Giovanni Boccaccio, composed in 1361-62.
The death of Alexander the Great and subsequent related events have been the subjects of debates.
The death of Cleopatra VII, the last reigning ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt, occurred on either 10 or 12 August 30 BC in Alexandria, when she was 39 years old.
Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency.
Demotic (from δημοτικός dēmotikós, "popular") is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, and the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic.
Dendera (دندرة Dandarah; ⲛⲓⲧⲉⲛⲧⲱⲣⲓ), also spelled Denderah, ancient Iunet, Tentyris or Tentyra is a small town and former bishopric in Egypt situated on the west bank of the Nile, about south of Qena, on the opposite side of the river.
Dendera Temple complex (Ancient Egyptian: Iunet or Tantere; the 19th-century English spelling in most sources, including Belzoni, was Tentyra) is located about south-east of Dendera, Egypt.
Despotism (Δεσποτισμός, Despotismós) is a form of government in which a single entity rules with absolute power.
A diadem is a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
The Donations of Alexandria (Autumn 34 BC) were a political act by Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony in which they distributed lands held by Rome and Parthia amongst Cleopatra's children, and granted them many titles, especially for Caesarion, son of Julius Caesar.
The dram (alternative British spelling drachm; apothecary symbol ʒ or ℨ; abbreviated dr) Earlier version first published in New English Dictionary, 1897.
Duane W. Roller (born 7 October 1946) is an American archaeologist, author, and professor emeritus of Classics, Greek and Latin at the Ohio State University.
The early life of Cleopatra VII (r. 51 – 10 or 12 August 30 BC)Theodore Cressy Skeat, in, uses historical data to calculate the death of Cleopatra as having occurred on 12 August 30 BC.
Education in Ancient Greece was vastly "democratized" in the 5th century BCE, influenced by the Sophists, Plato and Isocrates.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed Queen Cleopatra VII, and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
The Egyptian cobra (Naja haje) is a species of venomous snake in the family Elapidae.
The Egyptian language was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum or Museum of Cairo, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to an extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities.
Egyptian mythology is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt, which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world.
Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and in commemoration of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt and regions under Egyptian control.
Egyptians (مَصريين;; مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are an ethnic group native to Egypt and the citizens of that country sharing a common culture and a common dialect known as Egyptian Arabic.
Egyptomania was the renewed interest of Europeans in ancient Egypt during the nineteenth century as a result of Napoleon's Egyptian Campaign (1798–1801) and, in particular, as a result of the extensive scientific study of ancient Egyptian remains and culture inspired by this campaign.
Elections in the Roman Republic were an essential part to its governance, although all citizens did not always play a consistently equal part in them.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, (February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011) was a British-born American actress, businesswoman, and humanitarian.
Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.
Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
English Renaissance theatre—also known as early modern English theatre and Elizabethan theatre—refers to the theatre of England between 1562 and 1642.
Ephebos (ἔφηβος) (often in the plural epheboi), also anglicised as ephebe (plural: ephebes) or archaically ephebus (plural: ephebi), is a Greek term for a male adolescent, or for a social status reserved for that age, in Antiquity.
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.
Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Ἐρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος,; –) was a Greek mathematician, geographer, poet, astronomer, and music theorist.
In Greek mythology, Eros (Ἔρως, "Desire") was the Greek god of sexual attraction.
An esplanade or promenade is a long, open, level area, usually next to a river or large body of water, where people may walk.
The Esquiline Hill (Collis Esquilinus; Esquilino) is one of the celebrated Seven Hills of Rome.
The Esquiline Venus, depicting the goddess Venus (i.e. Greek Aphrodite), is a smaller-than-life-size Roman nude marble sculpture of a female in a sandal and diadem headdress.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Ethiopian Semitic (also known as Ethiosemitic or Ethiopic, or in the past by a few linguists as Abyssinian due to geographyIgor Mikhailovich Diakonov: Nauka, Central Department of Oriental Literature, (1965) pp 12) is a language group which forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
Sir Francis Cowley Burnand (29 November 1836 – 21 April 1917), usually known as F. C. Burnand, was an English comic writer and prolific playwright, best known today as the librettist of Arthur Sullivan's opera Cox and Box.
Faiyum (الفيوم; ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ or Ⲫⲓⲱⲙ) is a city in Middle Egypt.
The Ancient Roman family was a complex social structure based mainly on the nuclear family, but could also include various combinations of other members, such as extended family members, household slaves, and freed slaves.
Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits (also Faiyum mummy portraits) is the modern term given to a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to Egyptian mummies from Roman Egypt.
The Final War of the Roman Republic, also known as Antony's Civil War or The War between Antony and Octavian, was the last of the Roman civil wars of the Roman Republic, fought between Mark Antony (assisted by Cleopatra) and Octavian.
In European academic traditions, fine art is art developed primarily for aesthetics or beauty, distinguishing it from applied art, which also has to serve some practical function, such as pottery or most metalwork.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The First Triumvirate is a term historians use for an informal political alliance of three prominent men between 59 and 53 BC, during the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), and Marcus Licinius Crassus.
A flagship is a vessel used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships, characteristically a flag officer entitled by custom to fly a distinguishing flag.
The flooding of the Nile has been an important natural cycle in Egypt since ancient times.
Food distribution is a process in which a general population is supplied with food.
Forgery is the process of making, adapting, or imitating objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive for the sake of altering the public perception, or to earn profit by selling the forged item.
The Forum of Caesar (Foro di Cesare), also known as Forum Iulium or Forum Julium, Forum Caesaris,Hornblower, Simon and Antony Spawforth.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
Fulvia (c. 83 BC – 40 BC) was an aristocratic Roman woman who lived during the Late Roman Republic.
The Gabiniani (in English Gabinians) were 2000 legionaries and 500 cavalry auxilia left in the Ptolemaic Kingdom by the general Aulus Gabinius after his military restoration of Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes on the Egyptian throne in 55 BCE.
Gaius Calvisius Sabinus was a consul of the Roman Republic in 39 BC under the Second Triumvirate.
Gaius Cassius Longinus (October 3, before 85 BC – October 3, 42 BC) was a Roman senator, a leading instigator of the plot to kill Julius Caesar, and the brother in-law of Marcus Junius Brutus.
Gaius Rabirius Postumus, defended by Cicero (54 BC) in the extant speech Pro Rabirio Postumo, when charged with extortion in Egypt and complicity with Aulus Gabinius.
Gaius Sosius was a Roman general and politician.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.
Georg Moritz Ebers (Berlin, March 1, 1837 – Tutzing, Bavaria, August 7, 1898), German Egyptologist and novelist, discovered the Egyptian medical papyrus, of ca. 1550 BCE, named for him (see Ebers Papyrus) at Luxor (Thebes) in the winter of 1873–74.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (born italic; 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos.
Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, known as Georges Méliès (8 December 1861 – 21 January 1938), was a French illusionist and film director who led many technical and narrative developments in the earliest days of cinema.
The contact between Germanic tribes and Romans can be divided into four aspects as defined by archaeologist Are Kolberg: the military aspect, the trade aspect, the gift aspect and the plunder aspect.
Gilding is any decorative technique for applying fine gold leaf or powder to solid surfaces such as wood, stone, or metal to give a thin coating of gold.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
Giulio Cesare in Egitto (Italian for "Julius Caesar in Egypt", HWV 17), commonly known as Giulio Cesare, is a dramma per musica (opera seria) in three acts composed for the Royal Academy of Music by George Frideric Handel in 1724.
Glamour photography is a genre of photography in which the subjects are portrayed in erotic poses ranging from fully clothed to nude.
The vocabulary of ancient Roman religion was highly specialized.
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (died 31 BC) was a general and politician of ancient Rome in the 1st century BC.
Gnaeus Pompeius (ca. 75 BC – 12 April 45 BC), also known as Pompey the Younger (sometimes spelled Cneius, Gneius), was a Roman politician and general from the late Republic (1st century BC).
A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
In the earliest times the Greeks wore their hair kome (long), and thus Homer constantly calls them karekomoontes.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when it was dominated by the Roman republic, the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire (collectively, the Roman era).
Drachma (δραχμή,; pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The Gulf of Aqaba (خليج العقبة, Khalij al-Aqabah) or Gulf of Eilat (מפרץ אילת, Mifrats Eilat) is a large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian mainland.
The gymnasium (Greek: gymnasion) in Ancient Greece functioned as a training facility for competitors in public games.
Sir Henry Rider Haggard, (22 June 1856 – 14 May 1925), known as H. Rider Haggard, was an English writer of adventure novels set in exotic locations, predominantly Africa, and a pioneer of the Lost World literary genre.
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
Hadrian's Villa (Villa Adriana in Italian) is a large Roman archaeological complex at Tivoli, Italy.
Hair coloring, or hair dyeing, is the practice of changing the hair color.
Hair diseases are disorders primarily associated with the follicles of the hair.
A hair pin or hairpin is a long device used to hold a person's hair in place.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
Hathor (or; Egyptian:; in Ἅθωρ, meaning "mansion of Horus")Hathor and Thoth: two key figures of the ancient Egyptian religion, Claas Jouco Bleeker, pp.
Hatshepsut (also Hatchepsut; Egyptian: ḥꜣt-šps.wt "Foremost of Noble Ladies"; 1507–1458 BCE) was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt.
In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, or simply Helen, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world, who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, but was kidnapped by Prince Paris of Troy, resulting in the Trojan War when the Achaeans set out to reclaim her and bring her back to Sparta.
Hellenistic art is the art of the period in classical antiquity generally taken to begin with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and end with the conquest of the Greek world by the Romans, a process well underway by 146 BCE, when the Greek mainland was taken, and essentially ending in 31 BCE with the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt following the Battle of Actium.
In the context of ancient Greek art, architecture, and culture, Hellenistic Greece corresponds to the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek heartlands by the Roman Republic.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hera (Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.
Heracleopolis Magna (Μεγάλη Ἡρακλέους πόλις, Megálē Herakléous pólis) or Heracleopolis (Ἡρακλεόπολις, Herakleópolis) is the Roman name of the capital of the 20th nome of ancient Upper Egypt.
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.
The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
The Herodian kingdom of Judea was a client state of the Roman Republic from 37 BCE, when Herod the Great was appointed "King of the Jews" by the Roman Senate.
The term "high priest" or "high priestess" usually refers either to an individual who holds the office of ruler-priest, or to one who is the head of a religious caste.
The High Priest of Ptah was sometimes referred to as the Greatest of the Masters of the Craftsmen (wer kherp hmww).
The hippodrome (ἱππόδρομος) was an ancient Grecian stadium for horse racing and chariot racing.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject.
The history of Alexandria dates back to the city's founding, by Alexander the Great, in 331 BC.
Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.
The history of banking began with the first prototype banks were the merchants of the world, who made grain loans to farmers and traders who carried goods between cities.
Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC on the coast of North Africa, in what is now Tunisia.
The history of Egypt has been long and rich, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt's native inhabitants and outside influence.
This article covers the prehistory & history of Ethiopia, from emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle.
The history of geography includes many histories of geography which have differed over time and between different cultural and political groups.
This article is an overview of the history of the Greek language.
The social construction of sexual behavior—its taboos, regulation, and social and political impact—has had a profound effect on the various cultures of the world since prehistoric times.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
The kingdom of Macedonia was an ancient state in what is now the Macedonian region of northern Greece, founded in the mid-7th century BC during the period of Archaic Greece and lasting until the mid-2nd century BC.
The history of medicine shows how societies have changed in their approach to illness and disease from ancient times to the present.
The history of money concerns the development of means of carrying out transactions involving a medium of exchange.
North Africa is a relatively thin strip of land between the Sahara desert and the Mediterranean, stretching from Moroccan Atlantic coast to Egypt.
The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures.
The word perfume is used today to describe scented mixtures and is derived from the Latin word, "per fumus," meaning through smoke.
Propaganda is information that is not impartial and used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively (perhaps lying by omission) to encourage a particular synthesis, or using loaded messages to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information presented.
Egyptian Jews constitute both one of the oldest and youngest Jewish communities in the world.
The history of the Jews in the Roman Empire traces the interaction of Jews and Romans during the period of the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 476).
Home to the Cradle of Civilization, the Middle East (usually interchangeable with the Near East) has seen many of the world's oldest cultures and civilizations.
The history of theatre charts the development of theatre over the past 2,500 years.
History Today is an illustrated history magazine.
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
A horror film is a film that seeks to elicit a physiological reaction, such as an elevated heartbeat, through the use of fear and shocking one’s audiences.
The Horti Caesaris (Gardens of Caesar) was the name of two parks belonging to Julius Caesar in Rome.
The Horus name is the oldest known and used crest of Ancient Egyptian rulers.
John Hyrcanus II (Yohanan Hurqanos), a member of the Hasmonean dynasty, was for a long time the Jewish High Priest in the 1st century BCE.
The Ides of March (Idus Martiae, Late Latin: Idus Martii) is a day on the Roman calendar that corresponds to 15 March.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
An imperial cult is a form of state religion in which an emperor or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title) are worshipped as demigods or deities.
Imperium is a Latin word that, in a broad sense, translates roughly as 'power to command'.
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are closely related genetically.
Incest is sexual activity between family members or close relatives.
Indo-Roman relations began during the reign of Augustus (23 September 63 BCE – 19 August 14 CE), the first emperor of the Roman Empire.
International Gothic is a period of Gothic art which began in Burgundy, France, and northern Italy in the late 14th and early 15th century.
Interpretatio graeca (Latin, "Greek translation" or "interpretation by means of Greek ") is a discourse in which ancient Greek religious concepts and practices, deities, and myths are used to interpret or attempt to understand the mythology and religion of other cultures.
Interracial marriage is a form of marriage outside a specific social group (exogamy) involving spouses who belong to different socially-defined races or racialized ethnicities.
The Ionian Sea (Ιόνιο Πέλαγος,, Mar Ionio,, Deti Jon) is an elongated bay of the Mediterranean Sea, south of the Adriatic Sea.
Isis was a major goddess in ancient Egyptian religion whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world.
The Isthmus of Suez is the 75-mile-wide (125-km) strip of land.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century (Trecento) and lasted until the 17th century (Seicento), marking the transition between Medieval and Modern Europe.
Itanos (Ίτανος) is a former municipality in the Lasithi regional unit, eastern Crete, Greece.
Jacob Abbott (November 14, 1803 – October 31, 1879) was an American writer of children's books.
Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joann Fletcher (born 30 August 1966) is an Egyptologist and an honorary visiting professor in the department of archaeology at the University of York.
John Sartain (October 24, 1808 – October 25, 1897) was an artist who pioneered mezzotint engraving in the United States.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Juba I of Numidia (c. 85–46 BC, reigned 60–46 BC) was a king of Numidia.
Juba II (Berber: Yuba, ⵢⵓⴱⴰ; Latin: IVBA, Juba; Ἰóβας, Ἰóβα or Ἰούβας)Roller, Duane W. (2003) The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene "Routledge (UK)".
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
The genitive phrase King of Kings (Assyrian šar šarrāni, Hebrew מֶלֶךְ מְלָכִים melek mĕlakîm, Persian شاهنشاه) is a superlative expression for "great king" or high king; it is probably originally of Semitic origins (compare the superlatives Lord of Lords, Song of Songs or Holy of Holies), but from there was also adopted in Persian (Shahanshah), Hellenistic and Christian traditions.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
The Kingdom of Kush or Kush was an ancient kingdom in Nubia, located at the confluences of the Blue Nile, White Nile and the Atbarah River in what are now Sudan and South Sudan.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch, bishop or other political leader for service to the monarch or a Christian Church, especially in a military capacity.
Arabic is the official language of Syria and is the most widely spoken language in the country.
Late Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language that was written by the time of the New Kingdom of Egypt around 1350 BC – the Amarna Period.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin literature includes the essays, histories, poems, plays, and other writings written in the Latin language.
The history of Latin poetry can be understood as the adaptation of Greek models.
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, (born Lourens Alma Tadema; 8 January 1836 – 25 June 1912) was a Dutch painter of special British denizenship.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Legitimacy, in traditional Western common law, is the status of a child born to parents who are legally married to each other, and of a child conceived before the parents obtain a legal divorce.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Liberators' civil war was started by the Second Triumvirate to avenge Julius Caesar's murder.
The Royal Library of Alexandria or Ancient Library of Alexandria in Alexandria, Egypt, was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.
The Library of Pergamum in Pergamum, Turkey, was one of the most important libraries in the ancient world.
Light skin is a naturally occurring human skin color, which has little eumelanin pigmentation and which has been adapted to environments of low UV radiation.
The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria (Ancient Greek: ὁ Φάρος τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας, contemporary Koine), was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom, during the reign Ptolemy II Philadelphus (280–247 BC) which has been estimated to be in overall height.
This list of ancient Egyptian papyri includes some of the better known individual papyri written in hieroglyphs, hieratic, demotic or in Greek.
This is a list of the Ancient Macedonians.
Cleopatra has been the subject of literature, films, plays, television programs, and art.
This is a list of female hereditary rulers who ruled or reigned over a political jurisdiction in their own right or by right of inheritance.
During the Classical Roman Empire, the governor of Roman Egypt (praefectus Aegypti) was a prefect who administered the Roman province of Egypt with the delegated authority (imperium) of the emperor.
This page lists rulers of the Hasmonean Kingdom of Judea and its successor states from the Maccabean Rebellion to the final Roman annexations.
The historical period drama is a film genre in which stories are based upon historical events and famous people.
Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom located in the region of North Africa in what is now northern Algeria and parts of Tunisia and Libya.
The following is a list of Muslim historians writing in the Islamic historiographical tradition, which developed from hadith literature in the time of the first caliphs.
The Rulers of Nabataea, reigned over the Nabataean kingdom (also rendered as Nabataea, Nabatea, or Nabathea), inhabited by the Nabateans, located in present-day Jordan.
This is a list of the client kings of Ancient Rome, sectioned by the kingdom, and giving the years the ruler was on the throne.
This is a list of the client queens of ancient Rome, sectioned by the kingdom, and giving the years the queen was on the throne.
This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.
List of rulers of Paphlagonia, an ancient region and Hellenistic kingdom in northwestern Asia Minor.
The Seleucid dynasty or the Seleucidae (from Σελευκίδαι, Seleukídai) was a Greek Macedonian royal family, founded by Seleucus I Nicator ("the Victor"), which ruled the Seleucid Empire centered in the Near East and regions of the Asian part of the earlier Achaemenid Persian Empire during the Hellenistic period.
This is a list of women's magazines from around the world.
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water.
Live Science is a science news website run by Purch, which it purchased from Imaginova in 2009.
Livia Drusilla (Classical Latin: Livia•Drvsilla, Livia•Avgvsta) (30 January 58 BC – 28 September 29 AD), also known as Julia Augusta after her formal adoption into the Julian family in AD 14, was the wife of the Roman emperor Augustus throughout his reign, as well as his adviser.
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 12 or 17) – often rendered as Titus Livy, or simply Livy, in English language sources – was a Roman historian.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
Lower Egypt (مصر السفلى.) is the northernmost region of Egypt: the fertile Nile Delta, between Upper Egypt and the Mediterranean Sea — from El Aiyat, south of modern-day Cairo, and Dahshur.
Lucius Antonius (1st century BC) was the younger brother and supporter of Mark Antony, a Roman politician.
Lucius Decidius Saxa (died 40 BC), sometimes mistaken as Decidus, was a Roman general in the 1st century BC.
Lucius Munatius Plancus (in Tibur – in Gaeta) was a Roman senator, consul in 42 BC, and censor in 22 BC with Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus.
Lucius Pinarius Scarpus (flourished 1st century BC) was a Roman that lived during the late Republic and the early Empire.
Ludwig Curtius (December 13, 1874 – April 10, 1954) was a German archaeologist born in Augsburg.
Lupercalia was a very ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral annual festival, observed in the city of Rome on February 15, to avert evil spirits and purify the city, releasing health and fertility.
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The study of magic in the Greco-Roman world is a branch of the disciplines of classics, ancient history and religious studies.
Malichus I or Malchos I (Arabic: مالك, Malik) was a king of Nabataea who reigned from 59 to 30 BC.
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 89 or 88 BC – late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman patrician who was a part of the Second Triumvirate alongside Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (the future Augustus) and Marcus Antonius, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic.
Marcus Antonius Antyllus (47 BC – August 23, 30 BC) was known as Marcus Antonius Minor to distinguish him from his famous father, the Roman Triumvir Marc Antony (Marcus Antonius Major).
Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus (c. 102 BC – 48 BC) was a politician of the late Roman Republic.
Marcus Junius Brutus (the Younger) (85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic.
Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115 – 6 May 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. 19 BC – c. AD 31), also known as Velleius was a Roman historian.
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (64/62 BC – 12 BC) was a Roman consul, statesman, general and architect.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Marriage in ancient Rome was a strictly monogamous institution: a Roman citizen by law could have only one spouse at a time.
A marriage of state is a diplomatic marriage or union between two members of different nation-states or internally, between two power blocs, usually in authoritarian societies and is a practice which dates back into pre-history, as far back as early Grecian cultures in western society, and of similar antiquity in other civilizations.
Masinissa, or Masensen, (Berber: Masensen, ⵎⵙⵏⵙⵏ; c.238 BC – 148 BC)—also spelled Massinissa and Massena—was the first King of Numidia.
Mauretania (also spelled Mauritania; both pronounced) is the Latin name for an area in the ancient Maghreb.
The Mausoleum of Augustus (Mausoleo di Augusto) is a large tomb built by the Roman Emperor Augustus in 28 BC on the Campus Martius in Rome, Italy.
Media (Old Persian: Māda, Middle Persian: Mād) is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes.
The Median language (also Medean or Medic) was the language of the Medes.
Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages (that is, the one thousand years from the fall of the Western Roman Empire ca. AD 500 to the beginning of the Florentine Renaissance in the late 15th century).
In Greek mythology, Meleager (Meléagros) was a hero venerated in his temenos at Calydon in Aetolia.
A melodrama is a dramatic work in which the plot, which is typically sensational and designed to appeal strongly to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization.
Memphis (مَنْف; ⲙⲉⲙϥⲓ; Μέμφις) was the ancient capital of Aneb-Hetch, the first nome of Lower Egypt.
Mersa Matruh (مرسى مطروح) is a seaport in Egypt, the capital of the Matrouh Governorate.
Metrodora (c. 200-400 CE) was a Greek physician and author of the oldest medical text known to have been written by a woman, On the Diseases and Cures of Women (Περὶ τῶν Γυναικείων παθῶν τῆς μἠτρας).
Michael Grant CBE (21 November 1914 – 4 October 2004) was an English classicist, numismatist, and author of numerous popular books on ancient history.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni or more commonly known by his first name Michelangelo (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect and poet of the High Renaissance born in the Republic of Florence, who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The militarys campaigns of Julius Caesar constituted both the Gallic War (58 BC-51 BC) and Caesar's civil war (50 BC-45 B magistracy) in 59 BC, which had been highly controversial.
The word miniature, derived from the Latin minium, red lead, is a small illustration used to decorate an ancient or medieval illuminated manuscript; the simple illustrations of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that pigment.
Misanthropy is the general hatred, dislike, distrust or contempt of the human species or human nature.
Misogyny is the hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women or girls.
Mithridates I of the Bosporus sometimes known as Mithridates II of the Bosporus and Mithridates of Pergamon (flourished 1st century BC), was a nobleman from Anatolia.
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.
Montu was a falcon-god of war in ancient Egyptian religion, an embodiment of the conquering vitality of the Pharaoh.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
The Musaeum or Mouseion at Alexandria (Μουσεῖον τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας), which included the famous Library of Alexandria, was an institution founded by Ptolemy I Soter or, perhaps more likely, by his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus.
The Nabataean Kingdom (المملكة النبطية), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity.
The National Archaeological Museum of Naples (italic, sometimes abbreviated to MANN) is an important Italian archaeological museum, particularly for ancient Roman remains.
Naucratis or Naukratis (Ναύκρατις, "Naval Victory"; Egyptian:Piemro) was a city of Ancient Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile river, and 45 mi (72 km) southeast of the open sea and Alexandria.
Neferneferuaten Nefertiti (c. 1370 – c. 1330 BC) was an Egyptian queen and the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh.
The Nefertiti Bust is a painted stucco-coated limestone bust of Nefertiti, the Great Royal Wife of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten.
Nicolaus of Damascus (Greek: Νικόλαος Δαμασκηνός, Nikolāos Damaskēnos; Latin: Nicolaus Damascenus) was a Greek historian and philosopher who lived during the Augustan age of the Roman Empire.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
The Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) is an African crocodile, the largest freshwater predator in Africa, and may be considered the second-largest extant reptile and crocodilian in the world, after the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).
The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Northern Greece (Βόρεια Ελλάδα, Voreia Ellada) is used to refer to the northern parts of Greece, and can have various definitions.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.
Nubians are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to present-day Sudan and southern Egypt who originate from the early inhabitants of the central Nile valley, believed to be one of the earliest cradles of civilization.
Numidia (202 BC – 40 BC, Berber: Inumiden) was an ancient Berber kingdom of the Numidians, located in what is now Algeria and a smaller part of Tunisia and Libya in the Berber world, in North Africa.
The Numidians were the Berber population of Numidia (present day Algeria) and in a smaller part of Tunisia.
Octavia the Younger (69 BC – 11 BC), also known as Octavia Minor or simply Octavia, was the elder sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus (known also as Octavian), the half-sister of Octavia the Elder, and the fourth wife of Mark Antony.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition.
Olous or Olus (Ancient Greek: Ὄλους, or Ὄλουλις) is an ancient, sunken city situated at the present day town of Elounda, Crete, Greece.
One of Cleopatra's Nights and Other Fantastic Romances is a collection of fantasy short stories by Théophile Gautier, selected from his Nouvelles and Romans et Contes and translated from the French by Lafcadio Hearn.
Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.
Orientalism is a term used by art historians and literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world).
The Orontes (Ὀρόντης) or Asi (العاصي, ‘Āṣī; Asi) is a northward-flowing river which begins in Lebanon and flows through Syria and Turkey before entering the Mediterranean Sea.
Osiris (from Egyptian wsjr, Coptic) is an Egyptian god, identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and rebirth.
The Osiris myth is the most elaborate and influential story in ancient Egyptian mythology.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Palestrina (ancient Praeneste; Πραίνεστος, Prainestos) is an ancient city and comune (municipality) with a population of about 21,000, in Lazio, about east of Rome.
The Palmyrene Empire was a splinter state centered at Palmyra which broke away from the Roman Empire during the Crisis of the Third Century.
A panel painting is a painting made on a flat panel made of wood, either a single piece, or a number of pieces joined together.
Paphos (Πάφος; Baf) is a coastal city in the southwest of Cyprus and the capital of Paphos District.
Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.
Plutarch's Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, commonly called Parallel Lives or Plutarch's Lives, is a series of biographies of famous men, arranged in tandem to illuminate their common moral virtues or failings, probably written at the beginning of the second century AD.
Parian marble is a fine-grained semi translucent pure-white and entirely flawless marble quarried during the classical era on the Greek island of Paros in the Aegean Sea.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran.
Pasherienptah (III) (p3-šrỉ-n-ptḥ, 'Son of Ptah'; November 4, 90 BCE – July 13 or 14, 41 BCE) was an ancient Egyptian high Priest of Ptah in Memphis from 76 BCE until his death.
Pasiteles (Πασιτέλης; sometimes called Pasiteles the Younger) was a Neo-Attic school sculptor from Ancient Rome at the time of Julius Caesar.
Patras (Πάτρα, Classical Greek and Katharevousa: Πάτραι (pl.),, Patrae (pl.)) is Greece's third-largest city and the regional capital of Western Greece, in the northern Peloponnese, west of Athens.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
Patronage (clientela) was the distinctive relationship in ancient Roman society between the patronus (plural patroni, "patron") and their cliens (plural clientes, "client").
Paul of Aegina or Paulus Aegineta (Παῦλος Αἰγινήτης; Aegina) was a 7th-century Byzantine Greek physician best known for writing the medical encyclopedia Medical Compendium in Seven Books.
A pearl is a hard glistening object produced within the soft tissue (specifically the mantle) of a living shelled mollusk or another animal, such as a conulariid.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
Pelusium (الفرما; Ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲛ or Ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲏ), was an important city in the eastern extremes of Egypt's Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of the modern Port Said, becoming a Roman provincial capital and Metropolitan archbishopric, remaining a multiple Catholic titular see.
Performing arts are a form of art in which artists use their voices or bodies, often in relation to other objects, to convey artistic expression.
The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
The personal life of Marcus Tullius Cicero provided the underpinnings of one of the most significant politicians of the Roman Republic.
Perugia (Perusia) is the capital city of both the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber, and of the province of Perugia.
The ancient Perusia, now Perugia, first appears in history as one of the 12 confederate cities of Etruria.
The Perusine War (also Perusian or Perusinian War, or the War of Perusia) was a civil war of the Roman Republic, which lasted from 41 to 40 BC.
The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology in London is part of University College London Museums and Collections.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Pharnaces II of Pontus, also known as Pharnaces II (Φαρνάκης; about 97–47 BC) was the king of the Bosporan Kingdom until his death.
Phasael (died 40 BC;, Fatza'el; Latin: Phasaelus; from Φασάηλος, Phasaelos), was a prince from the Herodian Dynasty of Judea.
Philotas of Amphissa was a physician of the 1st century BC.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
A playwright or dramatist (rarely dramaturge) is a person who writes plays.
A pleasure barge is a flat-bottomed, slow-moving boat used for leisure.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Polemon Pythodoros, also known as Polemon I or Polemon I of Pontus (Πολέμων Πυθόδωρος; fl. 1st century BC – died 8 BC) was the Roman Client King of Cilicia, Pontus, Colchis and the Bosporan Kingdom.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
The Pompeian Styles are four periods which are distinguished in ancient Roman mural painting.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
A pop icon is a celebrity, character, or object whose exposure in popular culture is widely regarded as constituting a defining characteristic of a given society or era.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
The Portland Vase is a Roman cameo glass vase, which is dated to between AD 1 and AD 25, though low BC dates have some scholarly support.
Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict a human subject.
Pothinus or Potheinos (early 1st century BC to 48 or 47 BC), a eunuch, was regent for Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called original source or evidence) is an artifact, document, diary, manuscript, autobiography, recording, or any other source of information that was created at the time under study.
The Principate is the name sometimes given to the first period of the Roman Empire from the beginning of the reign of Augustus in 27 BC to the end of the Crisis of the Third Century in 284 AD, after which it evolved into the so-called Dominate.
A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.
Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".
Sextus Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet of the Augustan age.
In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (ptḥ, probably vocalized as Pitaḥ in ancient Egyptian) is the demiurge of Memphis, god of craftsmen and architects.
The Ptolemaic army was the army of the Ptolemaic Macedonian kings that ruled Egypt from 305 to 30 BC.
Coinage of the Ptolemaic Kingdom was in use during the last dynasty of Egypt and, briefly, during Roman rule of Egypt.
The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ptolemais Hermiou or Ptolemais in the Thebaid was a city and Metropolitan Archbishopric in Greco-Roman Egypt and remains a Catholic titular see.
Ptolemais was an ancient port city on the Phoenician coast.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
Ptolemy IV Philopator (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr "Ptolemy Beloved of his Father"; 245/4–204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II, was the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 221 to 204 BC.
Ptolemy IX Soter IIAll male Ptolemaic rulers were titled Ptolemy in honor of their great Macedonian ancestor, Ptolemy I Soter, with Ptolemy IX also taking the same title Soter as the original Ptolemy.
Ptolemy Keraunos (Πτολεμαῖος Κεραυνός, after 321 BC – 279 BC) was the King of Macedon from 281 BC to 279 BC.
Ptolemy of Cyprus was the king of Cyprus c. 80-58 BC.
Ptolemy of Mauretania (Πτολεμαῖος, whence Ptolemaeus; 13 BC/9 BC-40) was the last Roman client king and ruler of Mauretania for Rome.
Ptolemy Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Φιλάδελφος, "Ptolemy the brother-loving", August/September 36 BC – 29 BC) was a Ptolemaic prince and was the youngest and fourth child of Greek Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, and her third with Roman Triumvir Mark Antony.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes (Πτολεμαῖος Ἐπιφανής, Ptolemaĩos Epiphanḗs "Ptolemy the Illustrious"); 210–181 BC), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III of Egypt, was the fifth ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty from 204 to 181 BC. He inherited the throne at the age of five, and under a series of regents, the kingdom was paralyzed. The Rosetta Stone was produced during his reign as an adult.
Ptolemy VI Philometor (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλομήτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philomḗtōr "Ptolemy Beloved of his Mother"); c. 186–145 BC) was a king of Egypt from the Ptolemaic period. He reigned from 180 to 164 BC and from 163 to 145 BC.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs "Ptolemy the Benefactor"; c. 182 BC – June 26, 116 BC), nicknamed Physcon (Φύσκων "the Fat"), was a king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
Ptolemy X Alexander I (Πτολεμαῖος Ἀλέξανδρος, Ptolemaĩos Aléxandros) was King of Egypt from 110 BC to 109 BC and 107 BC till his death in 88 BC, in co-regency with his mother Cleopatra III until 101 BC, and then possibly with his niece-wife Berenice III.
Ptolemy XI Alexander II (Πτολεμαῖος Ἀλέξανδρος, Ptolemaĩos Aléxandros) was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty who ruled Egypt for a few days in 80 BC.
Ptolemy Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (Πτολεμαῖος Νέος Διόνυσος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ Θεός Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaios Néos Diónysos Theós Philopátōr Theós Philádelphos "Ptolemy New Dionysus, God Beloved of his Father, God Beloved of his Brother"; 117–51 BC) was a pharaoh of the ethnically Macedonian Greek Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt.
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (Πτολεμαῖος Θεός Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Theós Philopátōr "Ptolemy, God Beloved of his Father"; 62 BC/61 BC – prob. January 13, 47 BC, reigned from 51 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty (305–30 BC) of Egypt.
Ptolemy XIV (Πτολεμαῖος, Ptolemaĩos, who lived 60 BC/59 BC–44 BC and reigned 47 BC–44 BC), was a son of Ptolemy XII of Egypt and one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt.
Publius Canidius Crassus (died 30 BC) was a Roman general and Mark Antony's lieutenant.
Publius Clodius Pulcher (c. December 93 BC – 52 BC, on January 18 of the pre-Julian calendar) was a Roman politician.
Publius Cornelius Dolabella (c. 85–80 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman general, by far the most important of the Dolabellae.
Publius Ventidius Bassus, or in full, Publius Ventidius Publii filius Bassus, "Publius Ventidius, Publius's son, Bassus" (P·VENTIDIVS·P·F·BASSVS) was a Roman general and one of Julius Caesar's protégés.
Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
Qift (قفط; Ⲕⲉϥⲧ Keft or Kebto; Egyptian Gebtu; Κόπτος Coptos or Koptos; Roman Justinianopolis) is a small town in the Qena Governorate of Egypt about 43 km north of Luxor, on the east bank of the Nile.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Quintus Dellius was a Roman commander and politician in the second half of the 1st century BC.
Quintus Didius was a Roman governor of the province Syria (31 BC to 29 BC).
Quintus Labienus Parthicus (died 39 BC) was the son of Titus Labienus.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
A radiant or radiate crown, also known as a solar crown, sun crown, or tyrant's crown, is a crown, wreath, diadem, or other headgear symbolizing the sun or more generally powers associated with the sun.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (March 28 or April 6, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in 1–2% of the human population.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Regalia is Latin plurale tantum for the privileges and the insignia characteristic of a sovereign.
A regnal year is a year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule.
The reign of Cleopatra VII of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt began with the death of her father, the ruling pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes, by March 51 BC.
Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
Remuneration is considered the pay or other compensation provided in exchange for the services performed; not to be confused with giving (away), or donating, or the act of providing to.
Contributions to painting and architecture have been especially rich.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
Renaissance literature refers to European literature which was influenced by the intellectual and cultural tendencies associated with the Renaissance.
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the principal city and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes in the Dodecanese, Greece.
Robbing Cleopatra's Tomb (Cléopâtre, literally Cleopatra) was an 1899 short silent film directed by Georges Méliès.
The Roman army of the late Republic refers to the armed forces deployed by the late Roman Republic, from the beginning of the first century B.C. until the establishment of the Imperial Roman army by Augustus in 30 B.C. Shaped by major social, political, and economic change, the late Republic saw the transition from the Roman army of the mid-Republic, which was a temporary levy based solely on the conscription of Roman citizens, to the Imperial Roman army of the Principate, which was a standing, professional army based on the recruitment of volunteers.
Roman art refers to the visual arts made in Ancient Rome and in the territories of the Roman Empire.
The Roman calendar was the calendar used by the Roman kingdom and republic.
The censor was a magistrate in ancient Rome who was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.
Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.→.
The Roman Constitution was an uncodified set of guidelines and principles passed down mainly through precedent.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.
Roman Cyprus was a minor senatorial province within the Roman Empire.
A dictator was a magistrate of the Roman Republic, entrusted with the full authority of the state to deal with a military emergency or to undertake a specific duty.
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman funerary practices include the Ancient Romans' religious rituals concerning funerals, cremations, and burials.
Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD.
Roman glass objects have been recovered across the Roman Empire in domestic, industrial and funerary contexts.
Hairstyle fashion in Rome was ever changing, and particularly in the Roman Imperial Period there were a number of different ways to style hair.
Roman historiography is indebted to the Greeks, who invented the form.
"Italia" was the name of the Italian Peninsula during the Roman era.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
Roman portraiture was one of the most significant periods in the development of portrait art.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Roman Republican portraiture was practiced during the period of the Roman Republic (500–27 BC).
The study of Roman sculpture is complicated by its relation to Greek sculpture.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
Ancient Roman temples were among the most important buildings in Roman culture, and some of the richest buildings in Roman architecture, though only a few survive in any sort of complete state.
The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state or, originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.
A Roman villa was a country house built for the upper class in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, similar in form to the hacienda estates in the colonies of the Spanish Empire.
The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
Sir Ronald Syme, (11 March 1903 – 4 September 1989) was a New Zealand-born historian and classicist.
The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V.
The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, Musée royal de l'Ontario) is a museum of art, world culture and natural history in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Rufio was an officer of the Roman general and statesman Julius Caesar.
Sacrosanctity was the declaration of physical inviolability of a temple, a sacred object or a person through the lex sacrata (sacred law), which had religious connotations.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Samuel Daniel (1562 – 14 October 1619) was an English poet and historian.
San José State University (commonly referred to as San Jose State or SJSU) is a public comprehensive university located in San Jose, California, in Silicon Valley.
A sanctuary, in its original meaning, is a sacred place, such as a shrine.
Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.
The Satires (Satirae or Sermones) is a collection of satirical poems written by the Roman poet, Horace.
Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (236–183 BC), also known as Scipio the African, Scipio Africanus-Major, Scipio Africanus the Elder and Scipio the Great, was a Roman general and later consul who is often regarded as one of the greatest generals and military strategists of all time.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.
The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which some view as marking the end of the Roman Republic, whilst others argue the Battle of Actium or Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus in 27 BC.
Seleucia in Pieria (Greek Σελεύκεια ἐν Πιερίᾳ), also known in English as Seleucia by the Sea, and later named Suedia, was a Hellenistic town, the seaport of Antioch ad Orontes (Syria Prima), the Seleucid capital, modern Antakya (Turkey).
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
The Senate of the Roman Republic was a political institution in the ancient Roman Republic.
A serapeum is a temple or other religious institution dedicated to the syncretic Greco-Egyptian deity Serapis, who combined aspects of Osiris and Apis in a humanized form that was accepted by the Ptolemaic Greeks of Alexandria.
Serapion ("presumed" died 41 BC) was strategos of Cyprus during the reign of Cleopatra VII in 43 BC.
Serapis (Σέραπις, later form) or Sarapis (Σάραπις, earlier form, from Userhapi "Osiris-Apis") is a Graeco-Egyptian deity.
Publius Servilius Rullus was plebeian tribune of the Roman Republic in 63 BC.
Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey (67 BC – 35 BC), was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC).
Siblings play a unique role in one another’s lives that simulates the companionship of parents as well as the influence and assistance of friends.
The Sicilian revolt was a revolt against the Second Triumvirate of the Roman Republic which occurred between 44 BC and 36 BC.
Sicyon (Σικυών; gen.: Σικυῶνος) was an ancient Greek city state situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea on the territory of the present-day regional unit of Corinthia.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
The Siege of Alexandria was a series of skirmishes and battles occurring between the forces of Julius Caesar, Cleopatra VII, Arsinoe IV, and Ptolemy XIII, between 48 and 47 BC.
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound (and in particular, no spoken dialogue).
The silver standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of silver.
A snakebite is an injury caused by the bite of a snake, especially a venomous snake.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.
Somatophylakes (Σωματοφύλακες; singular: somatophylax, σωματοφύλαξ), in its literal English translation from Greek, means "bodyguards".
Sophonisba (also Sophonisbe, Sophoniba; in Punic, 𐤑𐤐𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 Ṣap̄anbaʿal) (fl. 203 BC) was a Carthaginian noblewoman who lived during the Second Punic War, and the daughter of Hasdrubal Gisco Gisgonis (son of Gisco).
Sosigenes of Alexandria (Σωσιγένης ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς) was a Greek astronomer from Ptolemaic Egypt who, according to Roman historian Pliny the Elder, was consulted by Julius Caesar for the design of the Julian calendar.
A sphinx (Σφίγξ, Boeotian: Φίξ, plural sphinxes or sphinges) is a mythical creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion.
Stacy Madeleine Schiff (born October 26, 1961) is an American nonfiction author.
Stanley Mayer Burstein is a historian whose writings primarily concern the Hellenistic period.
In economics, a government monopoly (or public monopoly) is a form of coercive monopoly in which a government agency or government corporation is the sole provider of a particular good or service and competition is prohibited by law.
Steel engraving is a technique for printing illustrations based on steel instead of copper.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Stromata (Στρώματα) or Stromateis (Στρωματεῖς, "Patchwork"), also called Miscellanies, is the third in Clement of Alexandria's (c. 150 – c. 215) trilogy of works on the Christian life.
Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
A synagogue, also spelled synagog (pronounced; from Greek συναγωγή,, 'assembly', בית כנסת, 'house of assembly' or, "house of prayer", Yiddish: שול shul, Ladino: אסנוגה or קהל), is a Jewish house of prayer.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Syrian Wars were a series of six wars between the Seleucid Empire and the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, successor states to Alexander the Great's empire, during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC over the region then called Coele-Syria, one of the few avenues into Egypt.
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
The talent (talentum, from Ancient Greek: τάλαντον, talanton 'scale, balance, sum') was one of several ancient units of mass, a commercial weight, as well as corresponding units of value equivalent to these masses of a precious metal.
Taranto (early Tarento from Tarentum; Tarantino: Tarde; translit; label) is a coastal city in Apulia, Southern Italy.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
Tarsus (Hittite: Tarsa; Greek: Ταρσός Tarsós; Armenian: Տարսոն Tarson; תרשיש Ṭarśīś; طَرَسُوس Ṭarsūs) is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean.
Tax exemption is a monetary exemption which reduces taxable income.
Tax revenue is the income that is gained by governments through taxation.
The Temple of Artemis or Artemision (Ἀρτεμίσιον; Artemis Tapınağı), also known less precisely as the Temple of Diana, was a Greek temple dedicated to an ancient, local form of the goddess Artemis.
The Temple of Edfu is an ancient Egyptian temple, located on the west bank of the Nile in Edfu, Upper Egypt.
The Temple of Venus Genetrix (Latin: Templum Veneris Genetricis) is a ruined temple in the Forum of Caesar, Rome, dedicated to the Roman goddess Venus Genetrix, the goddess of motherhood and domesticity.
The Temple of Vesta (Latin Aedes Vestae; Tempio di Vesta) is an ancient edifice in Rome, Italy, located in the Roman Forum near the Regia and the House of the Vestal Virgins.
The tetradrachm (τετράδραχμον, tetrádrakhmon) was an Ancient Greek silver coin equivalent to four drachmae.
The term "tetrarchy" (from the τετραρχία, tetrarchia, "leadership of four ") describes any form of government where power is divided among four individuals, but in modern usage usually refers to the system instituted by Roman Emperor Diocletian in 293, marking the end of the Crisis of the Third Century and the recovery of the Roman Empire.
Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (30 August 1811 – 23 October 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and art and literary critic.
The Legend of Good Women is a poem in the form of a dream vision by Geoffrey Chaucer.
Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems (in Arabic مروج الذهب ومعادن الجوهر transliteration: Muruj adh-dhahab wa ma'adin al-jawahir) is an historical account in Arabic of the beginning of the world starting with Adam and Eve up to and through the late Abbasid Caliphate by medieval Baghdadi historian Masudi (in Arabic المسعودي).
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai), known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about south of the Mediterranean.
Theda Bara (born Theodosia Burr Goodman, July 29, 1885 – April 7, 1955) was an American silent film and stage actress.
Theodore Cressy Skeat (15 February 1907 — 25 June 2003) was a librarian at the British Museum, where he worked as Assistant Keeper (from 1931), Deputy Keeper (from 1948), and Keeper of Manuscripts and Egerton Librarian (from 1961 to 1972) after studies in Cambridge and a spell at the British School of Archaeology in Athens.
Theodotus of Chios (died in 43 BC or 42 BC) was the rhetoric tutor of the young Egyptian king Ptolemy XIII.
The Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC) was the last and longest of three Mithridatic Wars and was fought between Mithridates VI of Pontus, who was joined by his allies, and the Roman Republic.
The Tiber (Latin Tiberis, Italian Tevere) is the third-longest river in Italy, rising in the Apennine Mountains in Emilia-Romagna and flowing through Tuscany, Umbria and Lazio, where it is joined by the river Aniene, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Ostia and Fiumicino.
Timon of Athens (Τίμων ὁ Ἀθηναῖος, gen.: Τίμωνος) was a citizen of Athens whose reputation for misanthropy grew to legendary status.
Tivoli (Tibur) is a town and comune in Lazio, central Italy, about east-north-east of Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river where it issues from the Sabine hills.
The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a roughly semicircular cloth, between in length, draped over the shoulders and around the body.
The long-lost Tomb of Antony and Cleopatra, the burial crypt of Mark Antony and Cleopatra (VII), from 30 BC, remains unknown somewhere near Alexandria, Egypt.
Tribune was the title of various elected officials in ancient Rome.
A triumvirate (triumvirātus) is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs (triumviri).
The Troglodytae (Τρωγλοδύται), or Troglodyti (literally "cave goers"), were a people mentioned in various locations by many ancient Greek and Roman geographers and historians, including Herodotus (5th century BCE), Agatharchides (2nd century BCE), Diodorus Siculus (1st century BCE), Strabo (64/63 BCE – c. 24 CE), Pliny (1st century CE), Josephus (37 – c. 100 CE), Tacitus (c. 56 – after 117 CE), etc.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Tyrian purple (Greek, πορφύρα, porphyra, purpura), also known as Tyrian red, Phoenician purple, royal purple, imperial purple or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple natural dye.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد) is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.
The Uraeus (plural Uraei or Uraeuses; from the Greek οὐραῖος, ouraîos, "on its tail"; from Egyptian jʿr.t (iaret), "rearing cobra") is the stylized, upright form of an Egyptian cobra (asp, serpent, or snake), used as a symbol of sovereignty, royalty, deity and divine authority in ancient Egypt.
Valerius Maximus was a Latin writer and author of a collection of historical anecdotes: Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX ("nine books of memorable deeds and sayings", also known as De factis dictisque memorabilibus or Facta et dicta memorabilia) Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX.
A vampire is a being from folklore that subsists by feeding on the vital force (generally in the form of blood) of the living.
The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani; Musea Vaticana) are Christian and art museums located within the city boundaries of the Vatican City.
Venomous snakes are species of the suborder Serpentes that are capable of producing venom, which is used primarily for immobilizing prey and defense mostly via mechanical injection by fangs.
Venus (Classical Latin) is the Roman goddess whose functions encompassed love, beauty, desire, sex, fertility, prosperity and victory.
The sculptural type of Venus Genetrix shows the Roman goddess Venus in her aspect of ''Genetrix'' (mother), as she was honoured by the Julio-Claudian dynasty of Rome, who followed the precedent of Julius Caesar in claiming her as their ancestor.
In ancient Rome, the Vestals or Vestal Virgins (Latin: Vestālēs, singular Vestālis) were priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth.
The Via Cassia was an important Roman road striking out of the Via Flaminia near the Milvian Bridge in the immediate vicinity of Rome and passing not far from Veii traversed Etruria.
Victorian burlesque, sometimes known as travesty or extravaganza, is a genre of theatrical entertainment that was popular in Victorian England and in the New York theatre of the mid 19th century.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Victorian literature is literature, mainly written in English, during the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901) (the Victorian era).
Victorien Sardou (5 September 1831 – 8 November 1908) was a French dramatist.
The Villa of the Papyri (Villa dei Papiri, also known as Villa dei Pisoni) is named after its unique library of papyri (or scrolls), but is also one of the most luxurious houses in all of Herculaneum and in the Roman world.
The Villa of the Quintilii (Italian: Villa dei Quintili) is an ancient Roman villa beyond the fifth milestone along the Via Appia Antica just outside the traditional boundaries of Rome, Italy.
Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
The visual arts are art forms such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking, and architecture.
The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King Alexander III of Macedon ("The Great"), first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India.
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Freeborn women in ancient Rome were citizens (cives), but could not vote or hold political office.
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking.
The writings of Marcus Tullius Cicero constitute one of the most famous bodies of historical and philosophical work in all of classical antiquity.
Yan Fu (IPA:; courtesy name: Ji Dao, 幾道; 8 January 1854 — 27 October 1921) was a Chinese scholar and translator, most famous for introducing western ideas, including Darwin's "natural selection", to China in the late 19th century.
Septimia Zenobia (Palmyrene: (Btzby), pronounced Bat-Zabbai; 240 – c. 274 AD) was a third-century queen of the Syria-based Palmyrene Empire.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Cleopatra VII, Cleopatra VII Of Egypt, Cleopatra VII Philopator, Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator, Cleopatra VII of Egypt, Keeuopatrai, Kiuopatrai, Kleopatra VII, Legacy of Cleopatra, Queen Cleopatra, Queen Cleopatra VII, Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt.