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The Aaronic priesthood (also called the priesthood of Aaron or the Levitical priesthood) is the lesser of the two (or sometimes three) orders of priesthood recognized in the Latter Day Saint movement.
An acolyte is an assistant or follower assisting the celebrant in a religious service or procession.
The Ahmadiyya Caliphate is a non-political caliphate established on May 27, 1908 following the death of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, who claimed to be the promised Messiah and Mahdi, the expected redeemer awaited by Muslims.
The Akal Takht (ਅਕਾਲ ਤਖ਼ਤ), meaning throne of the timeless one, is one of five takhts (seats of power) of the Sikhs.
Al-Ghazali (full name Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī أبو حامد محمد بن محمد الغزالي; latinized Algazelus or Algazel, – 19 December 1111) was one of the most prominent and influential philosophers, theologians, jurists, and mysticsLudwig W. Adamec (2009), Historical Dictionary of Islam, p.109.
An altar server is a lay assistant to a member of the clergy during a Christian liturgy.
The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
An apostolic vicariate is a form of territorial jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Church centered in missionary regions and countries where a diocese has not yet been established.
Apotheosis (from Greek ἀποθέωσις from ἀποθεοῦν, apotheoun "to deify"; in Latin deificatio "making divine"; also called divinization and deification) is the glorification of a subject to divine level.
In Christianity, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek αρχιεπίσκοπος, from αρχι-, 'chief', and επίσκοπος, 'bishop') is a bishop of higher rank or office.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in the Syriac Orthodox Church, Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic Church, Anglican Communion, St Thomas Christians, Eastern Orthodox churches and some other Christian denominations, above that of most clergy and below a bishop.
The title archimandrite (ἀρχιμανδρίτης archimandritis), primarily used in the Eastern Orthodox and the Eastern Catholic churches, originally referred to a superior abbot whom a bishop appointed to supervise several 'ordinary' abbots (each styled hegumenos) and monasteries, or to the abbot of some especially great and important monastery.
An archpriest is an ecclesiastical title for certain priests with supervisory duties over a number of parishes.
An area is an administrative unit of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), which typically is composed of multiple stakes and missions.
Autocephaly (from αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the status of a hierarchical Christian Church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop (used especially in Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Independent Catholic churches).
Ayatullah (or; āyatullāh from llāh "Sign of God") is a high-ranking title given to Usuli Twelver Shī‘ah clerics.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Bayʿah (بَيْعَة, Pledge of allegiance"), in Islamic terminology, is an oath of allegiance to a leader.
A beth din (בית דין Bet Din, "house of judgement", Ashkenazic: beis din) is a rabbinical court of Judaism.
A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.
A bhikkhunī (Pali) or bhikṣuṇī (Sanskrit) is a fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
Bishop is the highest priesthood office of the Aaronic priesthood in the Latter Day Saint movement.
In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church.
Bon, also spelled Bön, is a Tibetan religion, which self-identifies as distinct from Tibetan Buddhism, although it shares the same overall teachings and terminology.
The Book of Concord or Concordia (often, Lutheran Confessions is appended to or substituted for the title) (1580) is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten credal documents recognized as authoritative in Lutheranism since the 16th century.
A branch president is a leader of a "branch" congregation of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A canon (from the Latin canonicus, itself derived from the Greek κανονικός, kanonikós, "relating to a rule", "regular") is a member of certain bodies subject to an ecclesiastical rule.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
The canon law of the Catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church.
In Christianity, the cantor, sometimes called the precentor or the protopsaltes (from) is the chief singer, and usually instructor, employed at a church, a cathedral or monastery with responsibilities for the ecclesiastical choir and the preparation of liturgy.
A cardinal (Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae cardinalis, literally Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church) is a senior ecclesiastical leader, considered a Prince of the Church, and usually an ordained bishop of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States and designed to serve the Roman Catholic Church.
A particular church (ecclesia particularis) is a hierarchically ordered ecclesiastical community of faithful headed by a bishop (or equivalent), as defined by Catholic canon law and ecclesiology.
Chan (of), from Sanskrit dhyāna (meaning "meditation" or "meditative state"), is a Chinese school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.
Charles Wesley Leffingwell (December 5, 1840 – 1928) was an author, educator, and Episcopal priest born in Ellington, Connecticut.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
In Christianity, the laying on of hands (Greek: cheirotonia – χειροτονία, literally, "laying-on of hands") is both a symbolic and formal method of invoking the Holy Spirit primarily during baptisms and confirmations, healing services, blessings, and ordination of priests, ministers, elders, deacons, and other church officers, along with a variety of other church sacraments and holy ceremonies.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
Clerical celibacy is the requirement in certain religions that some or all members of the clergy be unmarried.
Clerical marriage is the practice of allowing clergy (those who have already been ordained) to marry.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
The Congregation for the Clergy (formerly the Sacred Congregation for the Clergy and Sacred Congregation of the Council) is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for overseeing matters regarding priests and deacons not belonging to religious orders.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious.
Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
The Council of Trent (Concilium Tridentinum), held between 1545 and 1563 in Trent (or Trento, in northern Italy), was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
A deacon is a member of the diaconate, an office in Christian churches that is generally associated with service of some kind, but which varies among theological and denominational traditions.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
A dervish or darvesh (from درویش, Darvīsh) is someone guiding a Sufi Muslim ascetic down a path or "tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity.
In Islamic law (or zabiha, ذَبِيْحَة, 'slaughter'(noun)) is the prescribed method of ritual slaughter of all lawful halal animals.
A dicastery (from Greek δικαστήριον, law-court, from ''δικαστής'', judge/juror) is a department of the Roman Curia, the administration of the Holy See through which the pope directs the Roman Catholic Church.
A diocesan bishop, within various religious denominations, is a bishop (or archbishop) in pastoral charge of a(n arch)diocese (his (arch)bishopric), as opposed to a titular bishop or archbishop, whose see is only nominal, not pastoral.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The Diocese of Rome (Dioecesis Urbis seu Romana, Diocesi di Roma) is a diocese of the Catholic Church in Rome.
Divine Liturgy (Theia Leitourgia; Bozhestvena liturgiya; saghmrto lit'urgia; Sfânta Liturghie; 'Bozhestvennaya liturgiya; Sveta Liturgija; Surb Patarag;, and Boska Liturgia Świętego, Božská liturgie) is the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine Rite which is the Rite of The Great Church of Christ and was developed from the Antiochene Rite of Christian liturgy.
The Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts is a Byzantine Rite liturgical service which is performed on the weekdays of Great Lent wherein communion is received from Gifts (the Body and Blood of Christ) that are sanctified (consecrated) in advance, hence its name; this Divine Liturgy has no anaphora (eucharistic prayer).
Doctrine (from doctrina, meaning "teaching", "instruction" or "doctrine") is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or in a belief system.
The early Buddhist schools are those schools into which the Buddhist monastic saṅgha initially split, due originally to differences in vinaya and later also due to doctrinal differences and geographical separation of groups of monks.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Ecclesiastical Latin, also called Liturgical Latin or Church Latin, is the form of Latin that is used in the Roman and the other Latin rites of the Catholic Church, as well as in the Anglican Churches, Lutheran Churches, Methodist Churches, and the Western Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church, for liturgical purposes.
Ecclesiastical polity is the operational and governance structure of a church or of a Christian denomination.
The Ecumenical Patriarch (Η Αυτού Θειοτάτη Παναγιότης, ο Αρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Νέας Ρώμης και Οικουμενικός Πατριάρχης, "His Most Divine All-Holiness the Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome, and Ecumenical Patriarch") is the Archbishop of Constantinople–New Rome and ranks as primus inter pares (first among equals) among the heads of the several autocephalous churches that make up the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Elder is a priesthood office in the Melchizedek priesthood of denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
Emperor Wuzong of Tang (July 2, 814 – April 22, 846), né Li Chan, later changed to Li Yan just before his death, was an emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, reigning from 840 to 846.
The Encyclopedia of Mormonism is a semiofficial encyclopedia for topics relevant to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church, see also "Mormon").
In Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic churches, an entrance is a procession during which the clergy enter into the sanctuary through the Holy Doors.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
In religious studies, an ethnic religion (or indigenous religion) is a religion associated with a particular ethnic group.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
A Faqīh (plural Fuqahā') (فقيه, pl.) is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
The First Presidency, also called the Quorum of the Presidency of the ChurchDoctrine and Covenants.
Forms of address used in the United Kingdom are given below.
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), a general authority is a member of the highest levels of leadership in the church who has administrative and ecclesiastical authority over the church.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hafiz (ḥāfiẓ, حُفَّاظ, pl. ḥuffāẓ, حافظة f. ḥāfiẓa), literally meaning "guardian" or "memorizer", depending on the context, is a term used by Muslims for someone who has completely memorized the Qur'an.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
A hazzan or chazzan (חַזָּן, plural; Yiddish khazn; Ladino hassan) is a Jewish musician or precentor trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the congregation in songful prayer.
Hegumen, hegumenos, or igumen (ἡγούμενος, trans.) is the title for the head of a monastery in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, similar to the title of abbot.
A Hierodeacon (Greek: Ἱεροδιάκονος, Ierodiákonos; Slavonic: Ierodiakón), sometimes translated "deacon-monk", in Eastern Orthodox Christianity is a monk who has been ordained a deacon (or deacon who has been tonsured monk).
A hieromonk (Greek: Ἱερομόναχος, Ieromonachos; Slavonic: Ieromonakh, Ieromonah), also called a priestmonk, is a monk who is also a priest in the Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholicism.
In Mormonism, a high council is one of several different governing bodies that have existed in the church hierarchy on many Latter Day Saint movement denominations.
The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.
In most denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement, a high priest is an office of the priesthood within the Melchizedek priesthood.
In the Christian churches, Holy Orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest or deacon.
The Sacrament of Holy Orders in the Catholic Church includes three orders: bishop, priest, and deacon.
The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.
Ife (Ifè, also Ilé-Ifẹ̀) is an ancient Yoruba city in south-western Nigeria.
Ignatius of Antioch (Greek: Ἰγνάτιος Ἀντιοχείας, Ignátios Antiokheías; c. 35 – c. 107), also known as Ignatius Theophorus (Ιγνάτιος ὁ Θεοφόρος, Ignátios ho Theophóros, lit. "the God-bearing") or Ignatius Nurono (lit. "The fire-bearer"), was an early Christian writer and bishop of Antioch.
Ijtihad (اجتهاد, lit. effort, physical or mental, expended in a particular activity) is an Islamic legal term referring to independent reasoning or the thorough exertion of a jurist's mental faculty in finding a solution to a legal question.
Imam (إمام; plural: أئمة) is an Islamic leadership position.
In Sunni Islam, an imam khatib (or just imam إمام plural أئمة A'immah, امام) is a leader, often the leader of prayers in the masjid, and the Muslim community.
In the Roman Catholic Church, incardination refers to the situation of a member of the clergy being placed under the jurisdiction of a particular bishop or other ecclesiastical superior.
Institutes of consecrated life are canonically erected institutes in the Catholic Church whose members profess the evangelical counsels of chastity, poverty, and obedience by vows or other sacred bonds.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.
Jathedar (ਜਥੇਦਾਰ.), refers to a leader of a Jatha (a group, a community or a nation).
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Kashrut (also kashruth or kashrus) is a set of Jewish religious dietary laws.
Kohen or cohen (or kohein; כֹּהֵן kohén, "priest", pl. kohaním, "priests") is the Hebrew word for "priest" used colloquially in reference to the Aaronic priesthood.
In Judaism, the korban (קָרְבָּן qārbān), also spelled qorban or corban, is any of a variety of sacrificial offerings described and commanded in the Torah.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
The Latin Church, sometimes called the Western Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris in full communion with the Pope and the rest of the Catholic Church, tracing its history to the earliest days of Christianity.
Latin liturgical rites are Christian liturgical rites of Latin tradition, used mainly by the Catholic Church as liturgical rites within the Latin Church, that originated in the area where the Latin language once dominated.
The laying on of hands is a religious ritual.
A Levite or Levi is a Jewish male whose descent is traced by tradition to Levi.
Linji Yixuan (臨済義玄 Rinzai Gigen; died 866 CE) was the founder of the Linji school of Chán Buddhism during Tang Dynasty China.
The Ooni of Ile-Ife (Ọọ̀ni of Ilè-Ifẹ̀) is the traditional ruler of Ile-Ife.
The Little Hours or minor hours are the canonical hours other than the three major hours.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Madhyamaka (Madhyamaka,; also known as Śūnyavāda) refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhist philosophy founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE).
Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion), and whether a school, college, or university.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Hannah Rachel Verbermacher (חנה רחל ווערבערמאכער, 1805–1888),The Library of Congress authority file gives her dates as 1815–1892 also known as the Maiden of Ludomir, the Maiden of Ludmir, the Ludmirer Moyd (in Yiddish), or HaBetula miLudmir (הבתולה מלודמיר in Hebrew), was the only independent female Rebbe in the history of the Hasidic movement.
The term major orders or greater orders was for some centuries applied in the Roman Catholic Church to distinguish what the Council of Trent also called holy orders from what at that time were termed "minor orders" or "lesser orders".
A marabout (lit) is a Muslim religious leader and teacher in West Africa, and (historically) in the Maghreb.
A mashgiach (משגיח, "supervisor";, mashgichim) is a Jew who supervises the kashrut status of a kosher establishment.
Until the discovery that Maya stelae depicted kings instead of high priests, the Maya priesthood and their preoccupations had been a main scholarly concern.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
The, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.
The Melchizedek priesthood is the greater of the two orders of priesthood recognized in Mormonism.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
In Christian churches with episcopal polity, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop of a metropolis (then more precisely called metropolitan archbishop); that is, the chief city of a historical Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital.
In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).
In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings, baptisms or funerals; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community.
Minor orders are ranks of church ministry lower than major orders.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
A mohel (מוֹהֵל, Ashkenazi pronunciation, plural: mohalim, מוֹהֲלָא mohala, "circumciser") is a Jew trained in the practice of brit milah, the "covenant of circumcision.".
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).
MuhammadFull name: Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāšim (ابو القاسم محمد ابن عبد الله ابن عبد المطلب ابن هاشم, lit: Father of Qasim Muhammad son of Abd Allah son of Abdul-Muttalib son of Hashim) (مُحمّد;;Classical Arabic pronunciation Latinized as Mahometus c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE)Elizabeth Goldman (1995), p. 63, gives 8 June 632 CE, the dominant Islamic tradition.
Mullah (ملا, Molla, ملا / Mollâ, Molla, মোল্লা) is derived from the Arabic word مَوْلَى mawlā, meaning "vicar", "master" and "guardian".
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nancy Marguerite Farriss is an American historian.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
In Tibetan Buddhism and Bon, a Ngagpa (Sanskrit mantrī) is a non-monastic practitioner of Dzogchen who has received a skra dbang, a hair empowerment, for example in the Dudjom Tersar lineage.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Numinous is an English adjective, derived from the Latin numen, meaning "arousing spiritual or religious emotion; mysterious or awe-inspiring".
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Oneworld Publications is a British independent publishing firm founded in 1986 by Novin Doostdar and Juliet Mabey originally to publish accessible non-fiction by experts and academics for the general market.
In classical antiquity, an oracle was a person or agency considered to provide wise and insightful counsel or prophetic predictions or precognition of the future, inspired by the god.
Order of precedence is a sequential hierarchy of nominal importance of persons.
In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term ordinance is used to refer to sacred rites and ceremonies that have spiritual and symbolic meanings and act as a means of conveying divine grace.
Ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is, set apart as clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Takht or Taḵẖata (Punjabi: ਤਖ਼ਤ), which literally means a throne or seat of authority, is a result of the historical growth of the religion of Sikhism.
A parish is a church territorial entity constituting a division within a diocese.
A pastor is an ordained leader of a Christian congregation.
The highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above major archbishop and primate), and the Church of the East are termed patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes).
In the Latter Day Saint movement, patriarch (also called evangelist) is an office of the priesthood.
Ahmadiyya, like all religious groups, have been subject to various forms of religious persecution and discrimination since the movement's inception in 1889.
Personal prelature is a canonical structure of the Catholic Church which comprises a prelate, clergy and laity who undertake specific pastoral activities.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The pidyon haben (פדיון הבן) or redemption of the first-born son is a mitzvah in Judaism whereby a Jewish firstborn son is "redeemed" by use of silver coins from his birth-state of sanctity, i.e. from being predestined by his firstborn status to serve as a priest.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Pope Urban II (Urbanus II; – 29 July 1099), born Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was Pope from 12 March 1088 to his death in 1099.
Pre-sectarian Buddhism, also called early Buddhism, the earliest Buddhism, and original Buddhism, is the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being.
A preacher is a person who delivers sermons or homilies on religious topics to an assembly of people.
In the New Testament, a presbyter (Greek πρεσβύτερος: "elder") is a leader of a local Christian congregation.
The Presbyterian Church (USA), or PC (USA), is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the President of the Church is the highest office of the church.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
Priest is a priesthood office in the Aaronic priesthood of denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
In the Latter Day Saint movement, priesthood is the power and authority of God given to man, including the authority to perform ordinances and to act as a leader in the church.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the priesthood is the power and authority to act in the name of God for the salvation of humankind.
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some archbishops in certain Christian churches.
Prophet, seer, and revelator is an ecclesiastical title used in the Latter Day Saint movement.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Protodeacon derives from the Greek proto- meaning 'first' and diakonos, which is a standard ancient Greek word meaning "assistant", "servant", or "waiting-man".
A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state.
A pure land is the celestial realm or pure abode of a buddha or bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism.
A qadi (قاضي; also cadi, kadi or kazi) is the magistrate or judge of the Shariʿa court, who also exercises extrajudicial functions, such as mediation, guardianship over orphans and minors, and supervision and auditing of public works.
The Quinisext Council (often called the Council in Trullo, Trullan Council, or the Penthekte Synod) was a church council held in 692 at Constantinople under Justinian II.
In the Latter Day Saint movement, a quorum is a group of people ordained or endowed with priesthood authority, and organized to act together as a body.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Quorum of the Twelve, the Council of the Twelve Apostles, or simply the Twelve) is one of the governing bodies in the church hierarchy.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Rabbinic Judaism or Rabbinism (יהדות רבנית Yahadut Rabanit) has been the mainstream form of Judaism since the 6th century CE, after the codification of the Babylonian Talmud.
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.
In some Christian churches, the reader is responsible for reading aloud excerpts of the scripture at a liturgy.
Rebbe (רבי: or Oxford Dictionary of English, Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary) is a Yiddish word derived from the Hebrew word rabbi, which means 'master', 'teacher', or 'mentor'.
Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983).
Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.
In the Roman Catholic Church, a religious institute is "a society in which members...pronounce public vows...and lead a life of brothers or sisters in common".
Responsa (Latin: plural of responsum, "answers") comprise a body of written decisions and rulings given by legal scholars in response to questions addressed to them.
Latter Day Saints teach that the Latter Day Saint movement began with a revelation from God.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
Ritual slaughter is the practice of slaughtering livestock for meat in the context of a ritual.
The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central body through which the Roman Pontiff conducts the affairs of the universal Catholic Church.
Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلالالدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلالالدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.
Sacerdotalism is the belief that propitiatory sacrifices for sin require the intervention of a priest.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
There are seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, which according to Catholic theology were instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
In many historical societies, the position of kingship carries a sacral meaning, that is, it is identical with that of a high priest and of judge.
Sacred mysteries are the areas of supernatural phenomena associated with a divinity or a religious ideology.
Sacrilege is the violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object or person.
The Sadducees (Hebrew: Ṣĕḏûqîm) were a sect or group of Jews that was active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.
San Francisco Zen Center (SFZC), is a network of affiliated Sōtō Zen practice and retreat centers in the San Francisco Bay area, comprising City Center or Beginner's Mind Temple, Tassajara Zen Mountain Center, and Green Gulch Farm Zen Center.
Sangha (saṅgha; saṃgha; සංඝයා; พระสงฆ์; Tamil: சங்கம்) is a word in Pali and Sanskrit meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community" and most commonly refers in Buddhism to the monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns).
The Second Council of the Lateran is believed to have been the tenth ecumenical council held by the Roman Catholic Church.
The Second Vatican Council, fully the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican and informally known as addressed relations between the Catholic Church and the modern world.
The term secular clergy refers to deacons and priests who are not monastics or members of a religious institute.
In the Roman Catholic Church, a secular institute is an organization of individuals who are consecrated persons (professing the evangelical counsels of chastity, poverty and obedience) and live in the world, unlike members of a religious institute, who live in community.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Smicha or semikhah (סמיכה, "leaning "), also smichut ("ordination"), smicha lerabbanut ("rabbinical ordination"), or smicha lehazzanut ("cantorial ordination"), is derived from a Hebrew word which means to "rely on" or "to be authorized".
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.
Seventy is a priesthood office in the Melchizedek priesthood of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
In Judaism, shechita (anglicized:; שחיטה;; also transliterated shehitah, shechitah, shehita) is slaughtering of certain mammals and birds for food according to kashrut.
Sheikh (pronounced, or; شيخ, mostly pronounced, plural شيوخ)—also transliterated Sheik, Shykh, Shaik, Shayk, Shaykh, Cheikh, Shekh, and Shaikh—is an honorific title in the Arabic language.
The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee (or SGPC) is an organization in India responsible for the management of gurdwaras, Sikh places of worship in three states of Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh.
The Siege of Jerusalem in the year 70 CE was the decisive event of the First Jewish–Roman War.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Sir George Fleming, 2nd Baronet (1667 – 2 July 1747) was a British churchman.
A society of apostolic life is a group of men or women within the Catholic Church who have come together for a specific purpose and live fraternally.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A stake is an administrative unit composed of multiple congregations in certain denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement.
Storkyrkan (The Great Church), officially named Sankt Nikolai kyrka (Church of St. Nicholas) and informally called Stockholms domkyrka (Stockholm Cathedral), is the oldest church in Gamla stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden.
Subdeacon (or sub-deacon) is a title used in various branches of Christianity.
Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
A territorial abbey (or territorial abbacy) is a particular church of the Catholic Church comprising defined territory which is not part of a diocese but surrounds an abbey or monastery whose abbot or superior functions as ordinary for all Catholics and parishes in the territory.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Traditionalist Catholicism is a movement of Catholics in favour of restoring many or all of the customs, traditions, liturgical forms, public and private devotions and presentations of the teaching of the Catholic Church before the Second Vatican Council (1962–65).
A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title.
The Arabic term ulama (علماء., singular عالِم, "scholar", literally "the learned ones", also spelled ulema; feminine: alimah and uluma), according to the Encyclopedia of Islam (2000), in its original meaning "denotes scholars of almost all disciplines".
The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a mainline Protestant denomination and a major part of Methodism.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Priests of the Vedic religion are officiants of the yajna service.
The Vinaya (Pali and Sanskrit, literally meaning "leading out", "education", "discipline") is the regulatory framework for the sangha or monastic community of Buddhism based on the canonical texts called the Vinaya Pitaka.
A waqf (وقف), also known as habous or mortmain property, is an inalienable charitable endowment under Islamic law, which typically involves donating a building, plot of land or other assets for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), a ward is the larger of two types of local congregations, the smaller being a branch.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Workplace wellness is any workplace health promotion activity or organizational policy designed to support healthy behavior in the workplace and to improve health outcomes.
The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.
(Fmr.) Father, Church man, Church men, Churchmen, Clergies, Clergy in the Catholic Church, Clergy man, Clergy men, Clergyman, Clergymen, Clergyperson, Clergywomen, Cleric, Clerics, Eccleasiastic, Ecclesiast, Ecclesiastical Person, Estate of Swedish Clergy, History of the Priesthood, Lead a religious assembly, Person, Ecclesiastical, Preferment (Church), Priest hood, Priest hoods, Priesthoods, Regular Clergy, Religieux, Religious leader, Spiritual Leader, Spiritual leader, The clergy.