96 relations: Abstraction (computer science), Abstraction layer, Algorithm, Application layer, Application programming interface, Application server, Application software, ARPANET, Bank, Business logic, Centralized computing, Client (computing), Client–queue–client, Cloud computing, Columbia University, Communication protocol, Computer (magazine), Computer file, Computer network, Computer network programming, Computer program, Computer scientist, Computer terminal, Concern (computer science), Content format, Data (computing), Data storage, Database, Database server, Decentralised system, Denial-of-service attack, Design pattern, Diskless node, Distributed computing, Downtime, Email, Failover, Fat client, File server, Front and back ends, German National Library of Science and Technology, High availability, Host (network), IEEE Computer Society, Information technology management, Input/output, Inter-process communication, Inter-server, Internet, Internet Engineering Task Force, ..., Job (computing), Load (computing), Load balancing (computing), Login, Mainframe computer, Mass storage, Master/slave (technology), Messaging pattern, Microarchitecture, Microcomputer, Microprocessor, Minicomputer, Modular programming, Node (networking), Observer pattern, Online banking, Operating system, OS/360 and successors, PARC (company), Parsing, Peer-to-peer, Penton (company), Personal computer, Print server, Publish–subscribe pattern, Pull technology, Push technology, Redundancy (engineering), Remote job entry, Remote procedure call, Request–response, Scheduling (computing), Separation of concerns, Server (computing), Service-oriented architecture, SQL Server Pro, SRI International, Task (computing), United States Department of Defense, Uptime, Web application, Web browser, Web page, Web server, World Wide Web, X Window System. Expand index (46 more) » « Shrink index
In software engineering and computer science, abstraction is.
In computing, an abstraction layer or abstraction level is a way of hiding the implementation details of a particular set of functionality, allowing the separation of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
An application server is a software framework that provides both facilities to create web applications and a server environment to run them.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
In computer software, business logic or domain logic is the part of the program that encodes the real-world business rules that determine how data can be created, stored, and changed.
Centralized computing is computing done at a central location, using terminals that are attached to a central computer.
A client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server.
A client–queue–client or passive queue system is a client–server computer network in which the server is a data queue for the clients.
Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
Computer is an IEEE Computer Society practitioner-oriented magazine issued to all members of the society.
A computer file is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
Computer network programming involves writing computer programs that enable processes to communicate with each other across a computer network.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application.
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.
In computer science, a concern is a particular set of information that has an effect on the code of a computer program.
A content format is an encoded format for converting a specific type of data to displayable information.
Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.
Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
A database server is a server which houses a database application that provides database services to other computer programs or to computers, as defined by the client–server model.
A decentralised system in systems theory is a system in which lower level components operate on local information to accomplish global goals.
In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.
A design pattern is the re-usable form of a solution to a design problem.
A diskless node (or diskless workstation) is a workstation or personal computer without disk drives, which employs network booting to load its operating system from a server.
Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.
The term downtime is used to refer to periods when a system is unavailable.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
In computing and related technologies such as networking, failover is switching to a redundant or standby computer server, system, hardware component or network upon the failure or abnormal termination of the previously active application, server, system, hardware component, or network.
A fat client (also called heavy, rich or thick client) is a computer (client), in client–server architecture or networks, that typically provides rich functionality independent of the central server.
In computing, a file server (or fileserver) is a computer attached to a network that provides a location for shared disk access, i.e. shared storage of computer files (such as text, image, sound, video) that can be accessed by the workstations that are able to reach the computer that shares the access through a computer network.
In software engineering, the terms front end and back end refer to the separation of concerns between the presentation layer (front end), and the data access layer (back end) of a piece of software, or the physical infrastructure or hardware.
The German National Library of Science and Technology (Technische Informationsbibliothek), abbreviated TIB, is the national library of the Federal Republic of Germany for all fields of engineering, technology, and the natural sciences.
High availability is a characteristic of a system, which aims to ensure an agreed level of operational performance, usually uptime, for a higher than normal period.
A network host is a computer or other device connected to a computer network.
IEEE Computer Society (sometimes abbreviated Computer Society or CS) is a professional society of IEEE.
IT management is the discipline whereby all of the information technology resources of a firm are managed in accordance with its needs and priorities.
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
In computer science, inter-process communication or interprocess communication (IPC) refers specifically to the mechanisms an operating system provides to allow the processes to manage shared data.
In computer network protocol design, inter-server communication is an extension of the client–server model in which data are exchanged directly between servers.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
In computing, a job is a unit of work or unit of execution (that performs said work).
In UNIX computing, the system load is a measure of the amount of computational work that a computer system performs.
In computing, load balancing improves the distribution of workloads across multiple computing resources, such as computers, a computer cluster, network links, central processing units, or disk drives.
In computer security, logging in (or logging on or signing in or signing on) is the process by which an individual gains access to a computer system by identifying and authenticating themselves.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
In computing, mass storage refers to the storage of large amounts of data in a persisting and machine-readable fashion.
Master/slave or primary/replica is a model of communication where one device or process has unidirectional control over one or more other devices.
In software architecture, a messaging pattern is a network-oriented architectural pattern which describes how two different parts of a message passing system connect and communicate with each other.
In computer engineering, microarchitecture, also called computer organization and sometimes abbreviated as µarch or uarch, is the way a given instruction set architecture (ISA), is implemented in a particular processor.
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.
A minicomputer, or colloquially mini, is a class of smaller computers that was developed in the mid-1960s and sold for much less than mainframe and mid-size computers from IBM and its direct competitors.
Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a programme into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.
In telecommunications networks, a node (Latin nodus, ‘knot’) is either a redistribution point or a communication endpoint.
The observer pattern is a software design pattern in which an object, called the subject, maintains a list of its dependents, called observers, and notifies them automatically of any state changes, usually by calling one of their methods.
Online banking, also known as internet banking, it is an electronic payment system that enables customers of a bank or other financial institution to conduct a range of financial transactions through the financial institution's website.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
OS/360, officially known as IBM System/360 Operating System, is a discontinued batch processing operating system developed by IBM for their then-new System/360 mainframe computer, announced in 1964; it was heavily influenced by the earlier IBSYS/IBJOB and Input/Output Control System (IOCS) packages.
PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.
Parsing, syntax analysis or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language, computer languages or data structures, conforming to the rules of a formal grammar.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
Penton is an information services and marketing company.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
A print server, or printer server, is a device that connects printers to client computers over a network.
In software architecture, publish–subscribe is a messaging pattern where senders of messages, called publishers, do not program the messages to be sent directly to specific receivers, called subscribers, but instead categorize published messages into classes without knowledge of which subscribers, if any, there may be.
Pull coding or client pull is a style of network communication where the initial request for data originates from the client, and then is responded to by the server.
Push technology, or server push, is a style of Internet-based communication where the request for a given transaction is initiated by the publisher or central server.
In engineering, redundancy is the duplication of critical components or functions of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the form of a backup or fail-safe, or to improve actual system performance, such as in the case of GNSS receivers, or multi-threaded computer processing.
Remote job entry is the procedure for sending requests for data processing tasks or 'jobs' to mainframe computers from remote workstations, and by extension the process of receiving the output from such tasks at a remote workstation.
In distributed computing, a remote procedure call (RPC) is when a computer program causes a procedure (subroutine) to execute in a different address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network), which is coded as if it were a normal (local) procedure call, without the programmer explicitly coding the details for the remote interaction.
Request–response, or request–reply, is one of the basic methods computers use to communicate with each other, in which the first computer sends a request for some data and the second computer responds to the request.
In computing, scheduling is the method by which work specified by some means is assigned to resources that complete the work.
In computer science, separation of concerns (SoC) is a design principle for separating a computer program into distinct sections, such that each section addresses a separate concern.
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
A service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a style of software design where services are provided to the other components by application components, through a communication protocol over a network.
SQL Server Pro is a trade digital publication and website owned by Penton serving the information needs of IT Professionals in various fields including data processing, database administration, database development, computer-related consulting, and many other areas.
SRI International (SRI) is an American nonprofit research institute headquartered in Menlo Park, California.
In computing, a task is a unit of execution or a unit of work.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
Uptime is a measure of the time a machine, typically a computer, has been working and available.
In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
A web page (also written as webpage) is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers.
Web server refers to server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can serve contents to the World Wide Web.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.
2-tier, 2-tier architecture, Benefits of client server computing, Client server, Client server architecture, Client server communication, Client-Server, Client-Server Architecture, Client-Server Model, Client-Side, Client-server, Client-server architecture, Client-server computing, Client-server model, Client-server programming, Client-server protocol, Client-server system, Client/Server Architecture, Client/server, Client/server architecture, Client/server computing, Client/server environment, Client/server network, Client/server principle, Client/server protocol, Client–server, Client–server architecture, Client–server computing, Server-client architecture, Server-client model, Server–client architecture.