260 relations: Abrupt climate change, Albedo, Altimeter, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Geophysical Union, Antarctic ice sheet, Antarctica, Anthropocene, Antiquity (journal), Archaeology, Archean, Arctic, Arctic sea ice decline, Atlantic (period), Atlantic multidecadal oscillation, Atlantic Ocean, Atmosphere of Earth, Autotroph, Axial tilt, Azolla event, Beetle, BioScience, Biosphere, Blue carbon, Bond event, Borehole, Boundary current, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon sink, Carboniferous, Carboniferous rainforest collapse, Cattle, Cement, Center for Media and Democracy, Central tendency, CERN, Chicxulub crater, Chronicle, Climate, Climate change adaptation, Climate change denial, Climate change mitigation, Climate engineering, Climate model, Cloud, CLOUD experiment, Conference of the parties, Continental climate, Continental drift, ..., CORA dataset, Coral reef, Cosmic ray, Cryosphere, Cyclostratigraphy, Dansgaard–Oeschger event, Deforestation, Dendrochronology, Dendroclimatology, Desertification, Detritus, Developing country, Drawing, Ecological threshold, Ecosystem, Effects of global warming, El Niño, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Energy, Environmental policy, Evaporation, Evapotranspiration, Extinction event, Extreme weather, Faint young Sun paradox, Fauna, Fish, Flood basalt, Flora, Forest genetic resources, Forest reproductive material, Fossil fuel, Galactic plane, General circulation model, Geologic record, Geologic time scale, Geothermal gradient, Glacial period, Glacier, Glacier mass balance, Glaciology, Global cooling, Global temperature record, Global terrestrial stilling, Global warming, Global warming controversy, Global warming in popular culture, Great Oxygenation Event, Greenhouse gas, Greenland, Gulf Stream, Hadean, Hardiness zone, Heinrich event, Historical climatology, Historical document, Historical impacts of climate change, History of climate change science, History of Earth, Holocene, Holocene climatic optimum, Homogenization (climate), Human impact on the environment, Hydrosphere, Ice age, Ice core, Ice sheet, Instrumental temperature record, Interglacial, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Interpolation, Interstellar cloud, Ion, IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, IPCC Third Assessment Report, Island, Isthmus of Panama, James Hutton, Journal of Quaternary Science, Kinematics, Kyoto Protocol, Land surface effects on climate, Large igneous province, Last Glacial Maximum, Liberty Fund, Lignin, Limestone, List of periods and events in climate history, Lithosphere, Little Ice Age, Local history, Map, Mass balance, Maunder Minimum, Media coverage of global warming, Medieval Warm Period, Methane, Microclimate, Milankovitch cycles, Modulation, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moraine, Mount Pinatubo, Mount Tambora, NASA, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Nature (journal), Near-Earth supernova, Ooid, OR Books, Oral history, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital forcing, Orogeny, Outline of physical science, Oxygen isotope ratio cycle, Ozone depletion, Pacific decadal oscillation, Pacific Ocean, Painting, Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, Paleoclimatology, Palynology, Pangaea, Particulates, Periglaciation, Permo-Carboniferous, Photosynthesis, Phytoplankton, Plate tectonics, Pliocene, Polar desert, Pollen, Precession, Prediction of volcanic activity, Primary production, Proxy (climate), Public opinion on global warming, Quaternary glaciation, Radiative forcing, Radiocarbon dating, Radiosonde, Raised beach, Red giant, Reto Knutti, Retreat of glaciers since 1850, Rock art, Royal Society, Ruminant, Saga, Sahara, Satellite, Satellite temperature measurements, Science (journal), Scientific consensus, Scientific opinion on climate change, Scientist, Sea level rise, Snowball Earth, Solar cycle, Solar irradiance, Solar System, Southern Ocean, Spörer Minimum, Statistical dispersion, Stratosphere, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Sun, Sunlight, Supercontinent, Supervolcano, Surface exposure dating, Syukuro Manabe, Temperature record of the past 1000 years, Tephra, Tephrochronology, Termite, The New York Times, Thermal expansion, Thermohaline circulation, Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin, Tide gauge, Toba catastrophe theory, Ton, Types of volcanic eruptions, Uniformitarianism, United Nations Climate Change conference, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United States Geological Survey, Uranium–thorium dating, Vegetation, Virgo Cluster, Volcanic ash, Volcano, Volumetric heat capacity, Vostok Station, Water cycle, Weather, Weathering, White dwarf, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, World Meteorological Organization, World Scientists' Warning to Humanity, Year Without a Summer, Younger Dryas. Expand index (210 more) » « Shrink index
An abrupt climate change occurs when the climate system is forced to transition to a new climate state at a rate that is determined by the climate system energy-balance, and which is more rapid than the rate of change of the external forcing.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
An altimeter or an altitude meter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level.
The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an American international non-profit organization with the stated goals of promoting cooperation among scientists, defending scientific freedom, encouraging scientific responsibility, and supporting scientific education and science outreach for the betterment of all humanity.
The American Geophysical Union (AGU) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting of over 62,000 members from 144 countries.
The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the two polar ice caps of the Earth.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
The Anthropocene is a proposed epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on the Earth's geology and ecosystems, including, but not limited to, anthropogenic climate change.
Antiquity is an academic journal dedicated to the subject of archaeology.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Arctic sea ice decline is the sea ice loss observed in recent decades in the Arctic Ocean.
The Atlantic in palaeoclimatology was the warmest and moistest Blytt-Sernander period, pollen zone and chronozone of Holocene northern Europe.
The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is a climate cycle that affects the sea surface temperature (SST) of the North Atlantic Ocean based on different modes on multidecadal timescales.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An autotroph ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).
In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.
The Azolla event occurred in the middle Eocene epoch, around, when blooms of the freshwater fern Azolla are thought to have happened in the Arctic Ocean.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
BioScience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
Blue carbon is the carbon captured by the world's oceans and coastal ecosystems.
Bond events are North Atlantic ice rafting events that are tentatively linked to climate fluctuations in the Holocene.
A borehole is a narrow shaft bored in the ground, either vertically or horizontally.
Boundary currents are ocean currents with dynamics determined by the presence of a coastline, and fall into two distinct categories: western boundary currents and eastern boundary currents.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
The Carboniferous rainforest collapse (CRC) was a minor extinction event that occurred around 305 million years ago in the Carboniferous period.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD) is a progressive nonprofit watchdog and advocacy organization based in Madison, Wisconsin.
In statistics, a central tendency (or measure of central tendency) is a central or typical value for a probability distribution.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
The Chicxulub crater is an impact crater buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico.
A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Climate change adaptation is a response to global warming and climate change, that seeks to reduce the vulnerability of social and biological systems to relatively sudden change and thus offset the effects of global warming.
Climate change denial, or global warming denial, is part of the global warming controversy.
Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate change.
Climate engineering or climate intervention, commonly referred to as geoengineering, is the deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climate system, usually with the aim of mitigating the adverse effects of global warming.
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the important drivers of climate, including atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice.
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets or CLOUD is an experiment being run at CERN by a group of researchers led by Jasper Kirkby to investigate the microphysics between galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and aerosols under controlled conditions.
A conference of the parties (COP; Conférence des Parties, CP) is the governing body of an international convention.
Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
CORA (standing for Coriolis Ocean database ReAnalysis) is a global oceanographic temperature and salinity dataset produced and maintained by the French institute IFREMER.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
The cryosphere (from the Greek κρύος kryos, "cold", "frost" or "ice" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "globe, ball") is those portions of Earth's surface where water is in solid form, including sea ice, lake ice, river ice, snow cover, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, and frozen ground (which includes permafrost).
Cyclostratigraphy is the study of astronomically forced climate cycles within sedimentary successions.
Dansgaard–Oeschger events (often abbreviated D–O events) are rapid climate fluctuations that occurred 25 times during the last glacial period.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
Dendroclimatology is the science of determining past climates from trees (primarily properties of the annual tree rings).
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium.
Ecological threshold is the point at which a relatively small change or disturbance in external conditions causes a rapid change in an ecosystem.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Environmental policy is the commitment of an organization to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.
Extreme weather includes unexpected, unusual, unpredictable, severe or unseasonal weather; weather at the extremes of the historical distribution—the range that has been seen in the past.
The faint young Sun paradox or faint young Sun problem describes the apparent contradiction between observations of liquid water early in Earth's history and the astrophysical expectation that the Sun's output would be only 70 percent as intense during that epoch as it is during the modern epoch.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
A flood basalt is the result of a giant volcanic eruption or series of eruptions that covers large stretches of land or the ocean floor with basalt lava.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Forest genetic resources or tree genetic resources are genetic material of shrub and tree species of actual or future value.
Forest reproductive material is a part of a tree that can be used for reproduction such as seed, cutting or seedling.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
The galactic plane is the plane on which the majority of a disk-shaped galaxy's mass lies.
A general circulation model (GCM) is a type of climate model.
The geologic record in stratigraphy, paleontology and other natural sciences refers to the entirety of the layers of rock strata — deposits laid down by volcanism or by deposition of sediment derived from weathering detritus (clays, sands etc.) including all its fossil content and the information it yields about the history of the Earth: its past climate, geography, geology and the evolution of life on its surface.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Crucial to the survival of a glacier is its mass balance or surface mass balance (SMB), the difference between accumulation and ablation (sublimation and melting).
Glaciology (from Latin: glacies, "frost, ice", and Ancient Greek: λόγος, logos, "subject matter"; literally "study of ice") is the scientific study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice.
Global cooling was a conjecture during the 1970s of imminent cooling of the Earth's surface and atmosphere culminating in a period of extensive glaciation.
The global temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans through various spans of time.
Global terrestrial stilling is the decrease of wind speed observed near the Earth's surface (~10-meter height) over the last three decades (mainly since the 1980s), originally termed "stilling".
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
The global warming controversy concerns the public debate over whether global warming is occurring, how much has occurred in modern times, what has caused it, what its effects will be, whether any action should be taken to curb it, and if so what that action should be.
The issue of global warming, its possible effects, and related human-environment interaction have entered popular culture since the late 20th century.
The Great Oxygenation Event, the beginning of which is commonly known in scientific media as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation) was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
The Hadean is a geologic eon of the Earth predating the Archean.
A hardiness zone is a geographic area defined to encompass a certain range of climatic conditions relevant to plant growth and survival.
A Heinrich event is a natural phenomenon in which large armadas of icebergs break off from glaciers and traverse the North Atlantic.
Historical climatology is the study of historical changes in climate and their effect on human history and development.
Historical documents are original documents that contain important historical information about a person, place, or event and can thus serve as primary sources as important ingredients of the historical methodology.
Climate has affected human life and civilization from the emergence of hominins to the present day.
The history of the scientific discovery of climate change began in the early 19th century when ice ages and other natural changes in paleoclimate were first suspected and the natural greenhouse effect first identified.
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
The Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO) was a warm period during roughly the interval 9,000 to 5,000 years BP.
Homogenization in climate research means the removal of non-climatic changes.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet or a high mountain glacier.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
The instrumental temperature record provides the temperature of Earth's climate system from the historical network of in situ measurements of surface air temperatures and ocean surface temperatures.
An interglacial period (or alternatively interglacial, interglaciation) is a geological interval of warmer global average temperature lasting thousands of years that separates consecutive glacial periods within an ice age.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.
An interstellar cloud is generally an accumulation of gas, plasma, and dust in our and other galaxies.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the fifth in a series of such reports.
Climate Change 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of reports intended to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information concerning climate change, its potential effects, and options for adaptation and mitigation.
The IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR), Climate Change 2001, is an assessment of available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change by the IPCC.
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.
The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.
James Hutton (3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist.
The Journal of Quaternary Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal published on behalf of the Quaternary Research Association.
Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.
The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.
Land surface effects on climate are wide-ranging and vary by region.
In geology, a large igneous province (LIP) is an extremely large accumulation of igneous rocks, including plutonic rocks (intrusive) or volcanic rock formations (extrusive), arising when hot magma extrudes from inside the Earth and flows out.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
The list of periods and events in climate history includes some notable climate events known to paleoclimatology.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.
Local history is the study of history in a geographically local context and it often concentrates on the local community.
A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.
A mass balance, also called a material balance, is an application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems.
The Maunder Minimum, also known as the "prolonged sunspot minimum", is the name used for the period around 1645 to 1715 during which sunspots became exceedingly rare, as was then noted by solar observers.
Media coverage of global warming has had effects on public opinion on climate change, as it mediates the scientific opinion on climate change that the global instrumental temperature record shows increase in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases.
The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) also known as the Medieval Climate Optimum, or Medieval Climatic Anomaly was a time of warm climate in the North Atlantic region that may have been related to other warming events in other regions during that time, including China and other areas, lasting from to.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.
Milankovitch cycles describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.
Mount Pinatubo (Bakil nin Pinatobo; Bunduk/Bulkan ning Pinatubu, Bunduk ning Apu Malyari; Palandey/Bulkan na Pinatubu; Bantay Pinatubo; Bundok/Bulkang Pinatubo) is an active stratovolcano in the Zambales Mountains, located on the tripoint boundary of the Philippine provinces of Zambales, Tarlac and Pampanga, all in Central Luzon on the northern island of Luzon.
Mount Tambora (or Tomboro) is an active stratovolcano on Sumbawa, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A near-Earth supernova is an explosion resulting from the death of a star that occurs close enough to the Earth (roughly less than 10 to 300 parsecs (30 to 1000 light-years) away) to have noticeable effects on Earth's biosphere.
Ooids are small (commonly ≤2 mm in diameter), spheroidal, "coated" (layered) sedimentary grains, usually composed of calcium carbonate, but sometimes made up of iron- or phosphate-based minerals.
OR Books is a New York-based independent publishing house founded by two veterans of the publishing industry, John Oakes and Colin Robinson, in 2009.
Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital forcing is the effect on climate of slow changes in the tilt of the Earth's axis and shape of the orbit (see Milankovitch cycles).
An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.
Physical science is a branch of natural science that studies non-living systems, in contrast to life science.
Oxygen isotope ratio cycles are cyclical variations in the ratio of the abundance of oxygen with an atomic mass of 18 to the abundance of oxygen with an atomic mass of 16 present in some substances, such as polar ice or calcite in ocean core samples, measured with the isotope fractionation.
Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a robust, recurring pattern of ocean-atmosphere climate variability centered over the mid-latitude Pacific basin.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface (support base).
The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), alternatively (ETM1), and formerly known as the "Initial Eocene" or "" was a time period with more than 8 °C warmer global average temperature than today.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Palynology is the "study of dust" (from palunō, "strew, sprinkle" and -logy) or "particles that are strewn".
Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Periglaciation (adjective: "periglacial," also referring to places at the edges of glacial areas) describes geomorphic processes that result from seasonal thawing of snow in areas of permafrost, the runoff from which refreezes in ice wedges and other structures.
The Permo-Carboniferous refers to the time period including the latter parts of the Carboniferous and early part of the Permian period.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Polar deserts are the regions of the Earth that fall under an Ice cap climate (EF under the Köppen classification).
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
Prediction of volcanic eruption (also: volcanic eruption forecasting) is an interdisciplinary monitoring and research effort to predict the time and severity of a volcano's eruption.
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
In the study of past climates ("paleoclimatology"), climate proxies are preserved physical characteristics of the past that stand in for direct meteorological measurements and enable scientists to reconstruct the climatic conditions over a longer fraction of the Earth's history.
Public opinion on global warming is the aggregate of attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population concerning the science, economics, and politics of global warming.
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
Radiative forcing or climate forcing is the difference between insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
A radiosonde is a battery-powered telemetry instrument package carried into the atmosphere usually by a weather balloon that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them by radio to a ground receiver.
A raised beach, coastal terrace,Pinter, N (2010): 'Coastal Terraces, Sealevel, and Active Tectonics' (educational exercise), from or perched coastline is a relatively flat, horizontal or gently inclined surface of marine origin,Pirazzoli, PA (2005a): 'Marine Terraces', in Schwartz, ML (ed) Encyclopedia of Coastal Science. Springer, Dordrecht, pp.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Reto Knutti (born 1973) is a Swiss climate scientist and professor of climate physics at ETH Zurich's Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science.
The retreat of glaciers since 1850 affects the availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use, mountain recreation, animals and plants that depend on glacier-melt, and, in the longer term, the level of the oceans.
In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.
Sagas are stories mostly about ancient Nordic and Germanic history, early Viking voyages, the battles that took place during the voyages, and migration to Iceland and of feuds between Icelandic families.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
Satellite temperature measurements are inferences of the temperature of the atmosphere at various altitudes as well as sea and land surface temperatures obtained from radiometric measurements by satellites.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Scientific consensus is the collective judgment, position, and opinion of the community of scientists in a particular field of study.
The scientific opinion on climate change is the overall judgment among scientists regarding the extent to which global warming is occurring, its likely causes, and its probable consequences.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.
The Snowball Earth hypothesis proposes that Earth surface's became entirely or nearly entirely frozen at least once, sometime earlier than 650 Mya (million years ago).
The solar cycle or solar magnetic activity cycle is the nearly periodic 11-year change in the Sun's activity (including changes in the levels of solar radiation and ejection of solar material) and appearance (changes in the number and size of sunspots, flares, and other manifestations).
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
The Spörer Minimum is a hypothesized 90-year span of low solar activity, from about 1460 until 1550, which was identified and named by John A. Eddy in a landmark 1976 paper published in Science titled "The Maunder Minimum".
In statistics, dispersion (also called variability, scatter, or spread) is the extent to which a distribution is stretched or squeezed.
The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.
A supervolcano is a large volcano that has had an eruption of magnitude 8, which is the largest value on the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI).
Surface exposure dating is a collection of geochronological techniques for estimating the length of time that a rock has been exposed at or near Earth's surface.
is a meteorologist and climatologist who pioneered the use of computers to simulate global climate change and natural climate variations.
The temperature record of the past 1,000 years is reconstructed using data from climate proxy records in conjunction with the modern instrumental temperature record which only covers the last 150 years at a global scale.
Tephra is fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption regardless of composition, fragment size, or emplacement mechanism.
Tephra horizons in south-central Iceland. The thick and light coloured layer at the height of the volcanologist's hands is rhyolitic tephra from Hekla. Tephrochronology is a geochronological technique that uses discrete layers of tephra—volcanic ash from a single eruption—to create a chronological framework in which paleoenvironmental or archaeological records can be placed.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thermohaline circulation (THC) is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.
Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin (September 25, 1843 – November 15, 1928) was an American geologist and educator.
A tide gauge (also known as mareograph or marigraph, as well as sea-level recorder) is a device for measuring the change in sea level relative to a vertical datum.
The Toba supereruption was a supervolcanic eruption that occurred about 75,000 years ago at the site of present-day Lake Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia.
The ton is a unit of measure.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Uniformitarianism, also known as the Doctrine of Uniformity,, "The assumption of spatial and temporal invariance of natural laws is by no means unique to geology since it amounts to a warrant for inductive inference which, as Bacon showed nearly four hundred years ago, is the basic mode of reasoning in empirical science.
The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are yearly conferences held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted on 9 May 1992 and opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Uranium–thorium dating, also called thorium-230 dating, uranium-series disequilibrium dating or uranium-series dating, is a radiometric dating technique established in the 1960s which has been used since the 1970s to determine the age of calcium carbonate materials such as speleothem or coral.
Vegetation is an assemblage of plant species and the ground cover they provide.
The Virgo Cluster is a cluster of galaxies whose center is 53.8 ± 0.3 Mly (16.5 ± 0.1 Mpc) away in the constellation Virgo.
Volcanic ash consists of fragments of pulverized rock, minerals and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0.079 inches) in diameter.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Volumetric heat capacity (VHC), also termed volume-specific heat capacity, describes the ability of a given volume of a substance to store internal energy while undergoing a given temperature change, but without undergoing a phase transition.
Vostok Station (translit,, literally "Station East") is a Russian research station in inland Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI, acronym pronounced) is a private, nonprofit research and higher education facility dedicated to the study of all aspects of marine science and engineering and to the education of marine researchers.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.
In late 1992, the late Henry W. Kendall, a former chair of the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) board of directors, wrote "World Scientists' Warning to Humanity", which begins: "Human beings and the natural world are on a collision course." A majority of the Nobel Prize laureates in the sciences signed the document; about 1,700 of the world's leading scientists appended their signature.
The year 1816 is known as the Year Without a Summer (also the Poverty Year and Eighteen Hundred and Froze To Death) because of severe climate abnormalities that caused average global temperatures to decrease by 0.4–0.7 °C (0.7–1.3 °F).
The Younger Dryas (c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum started receding around 20,000 BP.
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