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Clinical psychology

Index Clinical psychology

Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. [1]

180 relations: Acceptance and commitment therapy, Acculturation, Algorithm, American Board of Professional Psychology, American Psychological Association, Animal magnetism, Anti-psychiatry, Anxiety disorder, Applied behavior analysis, Applied psychology, Avicenna, Behavior, Behavioral activation, Behaviorism, Behavioural genetics, Big Five personality traits, Brain, Brief psychotherapy, British Psychological Society, Carl Rogers, Clinic, Clinical Associate (Psychology), Clinical formulation, Clinical neuropsychology, Clinical psychology, Clinical trial, Cognition, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive psychology, Cognitive therapy, Coherence therapy, Contingency management, Counseling psychology, Critical psychology, CT scan, Defence mechanisms, Diagnosis, Dialectical behavior therapy, Doctor of Clinical Psychology, Doctor of Education, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Psychology, Doctorate, DSM-5, Eclecticism, Educational specialist, Ego psychology, Electroencephalography, Evolutionary biology, Existential therapy, ..., Exposure therapy, Eye on Psi Chi, Family therapy, Feminist therapy, Forensic psychology, Franz Mesmer, Free association (psychology), Fritz Perls, Functional analysis (psychology), Functional analytic psychotherapy, G. Stanley Hall, Gestalt psychology, Gestalt therapy, Hans-Werner Gessmann, Health and Care Professions Council, Health psychology, Heuristics in judgment and decision-making, History of psychology, Hospital, Humanistic psychology, Hypothesis, Integrative psychotherapy, Intelligence quotient, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Intersubjectivity, Learning disability, Legal proceeding, Licensed professional counselor, Lightner Witmer, List of clinical psychologists, List of credentials in psychology, List of psychotherapies, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Managed care, Martin Seligman, Master's degree, Medical diagnosis, Medical model, Medical prescription, Medical psychology, Medical school, Mental disorder, Mental health, Mental health professional, Mental status examination, Meta-analysis, Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Narrative therapy, National Health Service, Nature (journal), Neurocognitive, Neurology, Neuropsychological test, Neuroscience, Nosology, Object relations theory, Objective test, Occupational therapy, Outline of psychology, Padmasambhava, Patanjali, Patient, Paul E. Meehl, Person-centered therapy, Personality test, Phenomenology (psychology), Phineas Quimby, Phrenology, Physiognomy, Positive psychology, Positron emission tomography, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Practitioner–scholar model, Prediction, Prescriptive authority for psychologists movement, Prognosis, Projective test, Psychiatric and mental health nursing, Psychiatric hospital, Psychiatric survivors movement, Psychiatrist, Psychiatry, Psychoactive drug, Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamic psychotherapy, Psychological evaluation, Psychological testing, Psychologist, Psychoneuroimmunology, Psychopharmacology, Psychotherapy, Rational emotive behavior therapy, Reliability (statistics), Research, Rollo May, Rorschach test, Rumi, Rutgers University, School psychology, Scientist–practitioner model, Self psychology, Sigmund Freud, Social work, Socratic questioning, Solution-focused brief therapy, Spiritualism, Spirituality, Symptom, Systematic desensitization, Therapeutic effect, Thomas G. Plante, Transcendence (religion), Transference, Transpersonal psychology, United Kingdom, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, University of Pennsylvania, Validity (statistics), Vienna, Viktor Frankl, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wilhelm Wundt, World War I, World War II, X-ray. Expand index (130 more) »

Acceptance and commitment therapy

Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT, typically pronounced as the word "act") is a form of counseling and a branch of clinical behavior analysis.

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Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures.

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In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.

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American Board of Professional Psychology

The American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) is the primary organization for specialty board certification in psychology.

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American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association (APA) is the largest scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States, with around 117,500 members including scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants, and students.

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Animal magnetism

Animal magnetism, also known as mesmerism, was the name given by the German doctor Franz Mesmer in the 18th century to what he believed to be an invisible natural force (lebensmagnetismus) possessed by all living/animate beings (humans, animals, vegetables, etc.). He believed that the force could have physical effects, including healing.

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Anti-psychiatry is a movement based on the view that psychiatric treatment is often more damaging than helpful to patients.

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Anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.

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Applied behavior analysis

Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is a scientific discipline concerned with applying techniques based upon the principles of learning to change behavior of social significance.

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Applied psychology

Applied psychology is the use of psychological methods and findings of scientific psychology to solve practical problems of human and animal behavior and experience.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.

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Behavioral activation

Behavioral activation (BA) is a third generation behavior therapy for treating depression.

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Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.

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Behavioural genetics

Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.

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Big Five personality traits

The Big Five personality traits, also known as the five factor model (FFM), is a taxonomy for personality traits.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brief psychotherapy

Brief psychotherapy (also brief therapy, planned short-term therapy) is an umbrella term for a variety of approaches to short-term, solution-oriented psychotherapy.

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British Psychological Society

The British Psychological Society (BPS) is a representative body for psychologists and psychology in the United Kingdom.

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Carl Rogers

Carl Ransom Rogers (January 8, 1902 – February 4, 1987) was an American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach (or client-centered approach) to psychology.

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A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.

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Clinical Associate (Psychology)

In Scotland, a Clinical Associate is a shortened designation for a Clinical Associate in Applied Psychology (CAAP).

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Clinical formulation

A clinical formulation, also known as case formulation and problem formulation, is a theoretically-based explanation or conceptualisation of the information obtained from a clinical assessment.

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Clinical neuropsychology

Clinical neuropsychology is a sub-field of psychology concerned with the applied science of brain-behaviour relationships.

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Clinical psychology

Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.

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Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive behavioral therapy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.

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Cognitive psychology

Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".

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Cognitive therapy

Cognitive therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapy developed by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck.

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Coherence therapy

Coherence therapy is a system of psychotherapy based in the theory that symptoms of mood, thought and behavior are produced coherently according to the person's current mental models of reality, most of which are implicit and unconscious.

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Contingency management

Contingency management (CM) is most-widely used in the field of substance abuse, often implemented as part of clinical behavior analysis.

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Counseling psychology

Counseling psychology is a psychological specialty that encompasses research and applied work in several broad domains: counseling process and outcome; supervision and training; career development and counseling; and prevention and health.

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Critical psychology

Critical psychology is a perspective on psychology that draws extensively on critical theory.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Defence mechanisms

A defence mechanism is an unconscious psychological mechanism that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful stimuli.

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Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.

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Dialectical behavior therapy

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy designed to help people suffering from borderline personality disorder.

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Doctor of Clinical Psychology

The degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsy/DClinPsych/ClinPsyD) is a professional doctorate in clinical psychology, awarded mainly in the United Kingdom.

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Doctor of Education

The Doctor of Education (EdD or DEd; Latin Educationis Doctor or Doctor Educationis) is a doctoral degree that has a research focus in the field of education.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Doctor of Psychology

The Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D) is a professional doctoral degree intended to prepare graduates for practice in psychotherapy.

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A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.

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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

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Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.

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Educational specialist

The Education Specialist, also referred to as Educational Specialist or Specialist in Education (Ed.S. or S.Ed.), is a terminal professional degree in the U.S. that is designed to provide knowledge and theory beyond the master's degree level.

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Ego psychology

Ego psychology is a school of psychoanalysis rooted in Sigmund Freud's structural id-ego-superego model of the mind.

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Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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Evolutionary biology

Evolutionary biology is the subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on Earth, starting from a single common ancestor.

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Existential therapy

Existential psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy that, like the existential philosophy which underlies it, is founded upon the belief that human existence is best understood through an in-depth examination of our own experiences.

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Exposure therapy

Exposure therapy is a technique in behavior therapy thought to help treat anxiety disorders.

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Eye on Psi Chi

Eye on Psi Chi is the official magazine of Psi Chi, the International Honor Society in Psychology.

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Family therapy

Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy, marriage and family therapy, family systems therapy, and family counseling, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development.

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Feminist therapy

Feminist therapy is a set of related therapies arising from what proponents see as a disparity between the origin of most psychological theories and the majority of people seeking counseling being female.

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Forensic psychology

Forensic psychology is the intersection between psychology and the justice system.

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Franz Mesmer

Franz Friedrich Anton Mesmer (May 23, 1734 – March 5, 1815) was a German physician with an interest in astronomy who theorised that there was a natural energetic transference that occurred between all animated and inanimate objects that he called animal magnetism, sometimes later referred to as mesmerism.

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Free association (psychology)

Free association is a technique used in psychoanalysis (and also in psychodynamic theory) which was originally devised by Sigmund Freud out of the hypnotic method of his mentor and colleague, Josef Breuer.

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Fritz Perls

Friedrich (Frederick) Salomon Perls (July 8, 1893 – March 14, 1970), better known as Fritz Perls, was a noted German-born psychiatrist and psychotherapist.

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Functional analysis (psychology)

Functional analysis in behavioral psychology is the application of the laws of operant and respondent conditioning to establish the relationships between stimuli and responses.

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Functional analytic psychotherapy

Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP) is a psychotherapeutic approach based on clinical behavior analysis (CBA) that focuses on the therapeutic relationship as a means to maximize client change.

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G. Stanley Hall

Granville Stanley Hall (February 1, 1846 – April 24, 1924) was a pioneering American psychologist and educator.

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Gestalt psychology

Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (from Gestalt "shape, form") is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology.

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Gestalt therapy

Gestalt therapy is an existential/experiential form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility, and that focuses upon the individual's experience in the present moment, the therapist–client relationship, the environmental and social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people make as a result of their overall situation.

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Hans-Werner Gessmann

Hans-Werner Gessmann (born 24 March 1950 in Duisburg) is a German psychologist, founder of humanistic psychodrama and university teacher in Russia.

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Health and Care Professions Council

The Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC, formerly the Health Professions Council, HPC) is a statutory regulator of over 344,000 professionals from 16 health and care professions in the United Kingdom.

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Health psychology

Health psychology is the study of psychological and behavioral processes in health, illness, and healthcare.

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Heuristics in judgment and decision-making

In psychology, heuristics are simple, efficient rules which people often use to form judgments and make decisions.

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History of psychology

Today, psychology is defined as "the scientific study of behavior and mental processes." Philosophical interest in the mind and behavior dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Persia, Greece, China, and India.

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A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.

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Humanistic psychology

Humanistic psychology is a psychological perspective that rose to prominence in the mid-20th century in answer to the limitations of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism.

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A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.

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Integrative psychotherapy

Integrative psychotherapy is the integration of elements from different schools of psychotherapy in the treatment of a client.

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Intelligence quotient

An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.

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International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.

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Intersubjectivity, in philosophy, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, is the psychological relation between people.

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Learning disability

Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.

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Legal proceeding

A legal proceeding is an activity that seeks to invoke the power of a tribunal in order to enforce a law.

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Licensed professional counselor

Licensed professional counselor (LPC) is a licensure for mental health professionals in some countries.

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Lightner Witmer

Lightner Witmer (June 28, 1867 – July 19, 1956) was an American psychologist.

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List of clinical psychologists

This list includes notable clinical psychologists and contributors to clinical psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as clinical psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline.

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List of credentials in psychology

This list is of professional and academic credentials in the field of psychology and allied fields in North America, including psychotherapy, counseling, social work, and family therapy.

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List of psychotherapies

This is an alphabetical list of psychotherapies.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Managed care

The term "managed care" or "managed healthcare" is used in the United States to describe a group of activities ostensibly intended to reduce the cost of providing for profit health care while improving the quality of that care ("managed care techniques").

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Martin Seligman

Martin E. P. "Marty" Seligman (born August 12, 1942) is an American psychologist, educator, and author of self-help books.

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Master's degree

A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical model

Medical model is the term coined by psychiatrist R. D. Laing in his The Politics of the Family and Other Essays (1971), for the "set of procedures in which all doctors are trained".

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Medical prescription

A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.

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Medical psychology

Medical psychology is the application of psychological principles to the practice of medicine, and is clearly comprehensive rather than primarily drug-oriented, for both physical and mental disorders.

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Medical school

A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.

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Mental disorder

A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

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Mental health

Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.

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Mental health professional

A mental health professional is a health care practitioner or community services provider who offers services for the purpose of improving an individual's mental health or to treat mental disorders.

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Mental status examination

The mental status examination or mental state examination (MSE) is an important part of the clinical assessment process in psychiatric practice.

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A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

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Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an approach to psychotherapy that was originally created as a relapse-prevention treatment for depression.

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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is a standardized psychometric test of adult personality and psychopathology.

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Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi

Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī (Abūbakr Mohammad-e Zakariyyā-ye Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhazes or Rasis) (854–925 CE), was a Persian polymath, physician, alchemist, philosopher, and important figure in the history of medicine.

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Narrative therapy

Narrative therapy is a form of psychotherapy that seeks to help people identify their values and the skills and knowledge they have to live these values, so they can effectively confront whatever problems they face.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Neurocognitive functions are cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological matrix at the cellular molecular level.

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Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neuropsychological test

Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Nosology is a classification scheme used in medicine to classify diseases.

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Object relations theory

Object relations theory in psychoanalytic psychology is the process of developing a psyche in relation to others in the environment during childhood.

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Objective test

Objective tests are measures in which responses maximize objectivity, in the sense that response options are structured such that examinees have only a limited set of options (e.g. Likert scale, true or false).

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Occupational therapy

Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities.

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Outline of psychology

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to psychology: Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.

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Padmasambhava (lit. "Lotus-Born"), also known as Guru Rinpoche, was an 8th-century Indian Buddhist master.

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(पतञ्जलि) is a proper Indian name.

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A patient is any recipient of health care services.

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Paul E. Meehl

Paul Everett Meehl (3 January 1920 – 14 February 2003) was a clinical psychologist and Professor of Psychology at the University of Minnesota.

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Person-centered therapy

Person-centered therapy, also known as person-centered psychotherapy, person-centered counseling, client-centered therapy and Rogerian psychotherapy, is a form of psychotherapy developed by psychologist Carl Rogers beginning in the 1940s and extending into the 1980s.

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Personality test

A personality test is a method of assessing human personality constructs.

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Phenomenology (psychology)

Phenomenology within psychology (phenomenological psychology) is the psychological study of subjective experience.

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Phineas Quimby

Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (February 16, 1802 – January 16, 1866) was an American spiritual teacher, magnetizer, mesmerist, and inventor.

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Phrenology is a pseudomedicine primarily focused on measurements of the human skull, based on the concept that the brain is the organ of the mind, and that certain brain areas have localized, specific functions or modules.

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Physiognomy (from the Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature" and gnomon meaning "judge" or "interpreter") is the assessment of character or personality from a person's outer appearance, especially the face often linked to racial and sexual stereotyping.

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Positive psychology

Positive psychology is "the scientific study of what makes life most worth living",Christopher Peterson (2008), or "the scientific study of positive human functioning and flourishing on multiple levels that include the biological, personal, relational, institutional, cultural, and global dimensions of life".

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Posttraumatic stress disorder

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.

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Practitioner–scholar model

The practitioner–scholar model is an advanced educational and operational model that is focused on practical application of scholarly knowledge.

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A prediction (Latin præ-, "before," and dicere, "to say"), or forecast, is a statement about a future event.

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Prescriptive authority for psychologists movement

The Prescriptive authority for psychologists (RxP) movement is a movement among certain psychologists to give prescriptive authority to psychologists with 2 years of postdoctoral training, or Continuing Education training in clinical psychopharmacology and related sciences, followed by 1 – 2 years of supervised prescribing, or a Certificate from the Department of Defense program, or the Board Certified Diploma from the Prescribing Psychologists Register (FICPP or FICPPM) to enable them, according to state law, to prescribe psychotropic medications to treat mental and emotional disorders.

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Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).

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Projective test

In psychology, a projective test is a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts projected by the person into the test.

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Psychiatric and mental health nursing

Psychiatric nursing or mental health nursing is the appointed position of a nurse that specialises in mental health, and cares for people of all ages experiencing mental illnesses or distress.

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Psychiatric hospital

Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental hospitals, mental health units, mental asylums or simply asylums, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders, such as clinical depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

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Psychiatric survivors movement

The psychiatric survivors movement (more broadly peer/consumer/survivor/ex-patient movement) is a diverse association of individuals who either currently access mental health services (known as consumers or service users), or who are survivors of interventions by psychiatry, or who are ex-patients of mental health services.

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A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry, the branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, study, and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.

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Psychoactive drug

A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.

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Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.

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Psychodynamic psychotherapy

Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a form of depth psychology, the primary focus of which is to reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension.

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Psychological evaluation

Psychological evaluation is defined as a way of assessing an individual's behavior, personality, cognitive abilities, and several other domains.

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Psychological testing

Psychological testing is the administration of psychological tests, which are designed to be "an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior".

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A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.

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Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), also referred to as psychoendoneuroimmunology (PENI) or psychoneuroendocrinoimmunology (PNEI), is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body.

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Psychopharmacology (from Greek label; label; and label) is the scientific study of the effects drugs have on mood, sensation, thinking, and behavior.

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Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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Rational emotive behavior therapy

Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), previously called rational therapy and rational emotive therapy, is an active-directive, philosophically and empirically based psychotherapy, the aim of which is to resolve emotional and behavioral problems and disturbances and to help people to lead happier and more fulfilling lives.

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Reliability (statistics)

Reliability in statistics and psychometrics is the overall consistency of a measure.

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Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Rollo May

Rollo Reese May (April 21, 1909 – October 22, 1994) was an American existential psychologist and author of the influential book Love and Will (1969).

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Rorschach test

The Rorschach test is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both.

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Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.

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Rutgers University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.

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School psychology

School psychology is a field that applies principles of educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology, and applied behavior analysis to meet children's and adolescents' behavioral health and learning needs in a collaborative manner with educators and parents.

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Scientist–practitioner model

The scientist–practitioner model, also called the Boulder Model, is a training model for graduate programs that aspires to train applied psychologists with a foundation of research and scientific practice.

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Self psychology

Self psychology, a modern psychoanalytic theory and its clinical applications, was conceived by Heinz Kohut in Chicago in the 1960s, 70s, and 80s, and is still developing as a contemporary form of psychoanalytic treatment.

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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

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Social work

Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.

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Socratic questioning

Socratic questioning (or Socratic maieutics) was named after Socrates, who was a philosopher in c. 470 BCE–c.

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Solution-focused brief therapy

Solution-focused (brief) therapy (SFBT) is a goal-directed collaborative approach to psychotherapeutic change that is conducted through direct observation of clients' responses to a series of precisely constructed questions.

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Spiritualism is a new religious movement based on the belief that the spirits of the dead exist and have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.

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Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.

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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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Systematic desensitization

Systematic desensitization, also known as graduated exposure therapy, is a type of cognitive behavior therapy developed by South African psychiatrist, Joseph Wolpe.

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Therapeutic effect

Therapeutic effect refers to the responses(s) after a treatment of any kind, the results of which are judged to be desirable and beneficial.

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Thomas G. Plante

Thomas G. Plante (born in Rhode Island, United States) is the Augustin Cardinal Bea, S.J. University Professor psychology on the faculty of Santa Clara University and adjunct clinical professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford University School of Medicine.

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Transcendence (religion)

In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.

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Transference (Übertragung) is a theoretical phenomenon characterized by unconscious redirection of the feelings a person has about a second person to feelings the first person has about a third person.

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Transpersonal psychology

Transpersonal psychology is a sub-field or "school" of psychology that integrates the spiritual and transcendent aspects of the human experience with the framework of modern psychology.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Department of Veterans Affairs

The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a federal Cabinet-level agency that provides near-comprehensive healthcare services to eligible military veterans at VA medical centers and outpatient clinics located throughout the country; several non-healthcare benefits including disability compensation, vocational rehabilitation, education assistance, home loans, and life insurance; and provides burial and memorial benefits to eligible veterans and family members at 135 national cemeteries.

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A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.

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University of Pennsylvania

The University of Pennsylvania (commonly known as Penn or UPenn) is a private Ivy League research university located in University City section of West Philadelphia.

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Validity (statistics)

Validity is the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and likely corresponds accurately to the real world based on probability.

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Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Viktor Frankl

Viktor Emil Frankl (26 March 1905 – 2 September 1997) was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist as well as a Holocaust survivor.

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Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), developed by David Wechsler, is an individually administered intelligence test for children between the ages of 6 and 16.

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Wilhelm Wundt

Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physician, physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the founding figures of modern psychology.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Clinical Psychologist, Clinical Psychology, Clinical psychiatry, Clinical psychologist, Clinical psychologists, Criticism of clinical psychology, History of clinical psychology, Psychological medicine, Psychotherapeutic Process, Psychotherapeutic Processes, Psychotherapeutic approach, Psychotherapeutic orientation, Psychotherapeutic process, Psychotherapeutic processes, Psychotherapeutic technique.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_psychology

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