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Clinical trial

Index Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research. [1]

178 relations: Abdominal aortic aneurysm, Accelerated approval (FDA), Adaptive clinical trial, Adverse event, Aeroallergen, Alzheimer's disease, American Heart Association, Ancient Iranian medicine, Approved drug, Audit, Austin Bradford Hill, Avicenna, Barley water, Bayesian experimental design, Biopharmaceutical, Biotechnology, Blinded experiment, Blocking (statistics), Book of Daniel, British Doctors Study, British Medical Association, California, Case-control study, Catheter, Chemical substance, Children in clinical research, Chronic condition, Cider, Citrus, Clinical data management system, Clinical research, Clinical study design, Clinical trial management system, Clinical trial portal, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cohort study, Contract research organization, Cutaneous condition, Data analysis, Data monitoring committee, Declaration of Helsinki, Dietary supplement, Drug, East India Company, Edward Jenner, Efficacy, Electronic data capture, Electronic patient-reported outcome, Elisha Perkins, Endovascular aneurysm repair, ..., Epidemiology, Ethics committee (European Union), European Medicines Agency, European Union, Evidence-based practice, Expanded access, Experiment, Factorial experiment, Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Fetus, Food and Drug Administration, Frederick Akbar Mahomed, Free Press (publisher), George Anson's voyage around the world, George Anson, 1st Baron Anson, Guy's Hospital, Health Canada, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Human subject research, Hypertension, Hypothesis, Influenza, Information technology, Informed consent, Inoculation, Institutional review board, Interaction (statistics), Interactive voice response, International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use, Investigator's brochure, James Lind, John Haygarth, John Woodall, Karl Pearson, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Lemon, Liberty Fund, Lipid, List of statistical packages, List of surgical procedures, London, Lung cancer, Measurement uncertainty, Medical device, Medical laboratory, Medical nutrition therapy, Medical procedure, Medical Research Council (United Kingdom), Medication, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Minority group, Monitoring in clinical trials, Multicenter trial, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Nephritis, Nurses' Health Study, Observation, Observational study, Odds algorithm, Open aortic surgery, Orange (fruit), Outsourcing, Parkinson's disease, Patient recruitment, Patient-reported outcome, Pediatrics, Pharmaceutical industry, Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics, Pilot experiment, Placebo, Power (statistics), Pre-clinical development, Pre-existing condition, Preventive healthcare, Primum non nocere, Prospective cohort study, Protocol (science), Psychotherapy, Quality of life (healthcare), Radiation therapy, Randomized controlled trial, Randomized experiment, Rare disease, Regulatory agency, Replication (statistics), Reproducibility, Richard Doll, Risk–benefit ratio, Ronald Fisher, Rothamsted Research, Royal Society, Safety, Scientific control, Scientific method, Scurvy, Seasonal affective disorder, Secondary hypertension, Seeding trial, Site management organization, Smallpox, Smallpox vaccine, Smoking, Squamous cell carcinoma, Statistical hypothesis testing, Statistics, Streptomycin, Sulfuric acid, Tax credit, The Canon of Medicine, The New York Times, Therapy, Translational research, Treatment and control groups, Trials (journal), Tuberculosis, United States Congress, United States National Library of Medicine, Urinary incontinence, Vaccine, Vascular surgery, Vinegar, Vital signs, Vitamin C, Vitriol, William Gull. Expand index (128 more) »

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA or triple A) is a localized enlargement of the abdominal aorta such that the diameter is greater than 3 cm or more than 50% larger than normal diameter.

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Accelerated approval (FDA)

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiated the FDA Accelerated Approval Program in 1992 to allow faster approval of drugs for serious conditions that fill an unmet medical need.

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Adaptive clinical trial

An adaptive clinical trial is a clinical trial that evaluates a medical device or treatment by observing participant outcomes (and possibly other measures, such as side-effects) on a prescribed schedule, and modifying parameters of the trial protocol in accord with those observations.

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Adverse event

An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationship with this treatment.

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An aeroallergen (pronounced aer·o·al·ler·gen) is any airborne substance, such as pollen or spores, which triggers an allergic reaction.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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American Heart Association

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.

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Ancient Iranian medicine

The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history.

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Approved drug

An approved drug is a preparation that has been validated for a therapeutic use by a ruling authority of a government.

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An audit is a systematic and independent examination of books, accounts, statutory records, documents and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements as well as non-financial disclosures present a true and fair view of the concern.

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Austin Bradford Hill

Sir Austin Bradford Hill FRS (8 July 1897 – 18 April 1991), English epidemiologist and statistician, pioneered the randomized clinical trial and, together with Richard Doll, demonstrated the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Barley water

Barley water is a traditional drink consumed in various parts of the world.

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Bayesian experimental design

Bayesian experimental design provides a general probability-theoretical framework from which other theories on experimental design can be derived.

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A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.

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Biotechnology is the broad area of science involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Blinded experiment

A blind or blinded-experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known.

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Blocking (statistics)

In the statistical theory of the design of experiments, blocking is the arranging of experimental units in groups (blocks) that are similar to one another.

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Book of Daniel

The Book of Daniel is a biblical apocalypse, combining a prophecy of history with an eschatology (the study of last things) which is both cosmic in scope and political in its focus.

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British Doctors Study

The British Doctors' Study was a prospective cohort study which ran from 1951 to 2001, and in 1956 provided convincing statistical proof that tobacco smoking increased the risk of lung cancer.

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British Medical Association

The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Case-control study

A case-control study is a type of observational study in which two existing groups differing in outcome are identified and compared on the basis of some supposed causal attribute.

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In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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Children in clinical research

In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-alike), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patient's condition.

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples.

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Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.

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Clinical data management system

A clinical data management system or CDMS is a tool used in clinical research to manage the data of a clinical trial.

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Clinical research

Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.

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Clinical study design

Clinical study design is the formulation of trials and experiments, as well as observational studies in medical, clinical and other types of research (e.g., epidemiological) involving human beings.

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Clinical trial management system

A Clinical Trial Management System (CTMS) is a software system used by biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries to manage clinical trials in clinical research.

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Clinical trial portal

A clinical trial portal (also known as clinical portal or clinical study portal) is a web portal or enterprise portal that primarily serves sponsors and investigators in a clinical trial.

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ClinicalTrials.gov is a registry of clinical trials.

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Cohort study

A cohort study is a particular form of longitudinal study that sample a cohort (a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically those who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation), performing a cross-section at intervals through time.

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Contract research organization

A contract research organization (CRO) is a company that provides support to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device industries in the form of research services outsourced on a contract basis.

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Cutaneous condition

A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.

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Data analysis

Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions, and supporting decision-making.

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Data monitoring committee

A data monitoring committee (DMC) – sometimes called a data and safety monitoring board (DSMB) – is an independent group of experts who monitor patient safety and treatment efficacy data while a clinical trial is ongoing.

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Declaration of Helsinki

The Declaration of Helsinki (DoH) is a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association (WMA).

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Dietary supplement

A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.

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A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Edward Jenner

Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.

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Efficacy is the ability to get a job done satisfactorily.

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Electronic data capture

An electronic data capture (EDC) system is a computerized system designed for the collection of clinical data in electronic format for use mainly in human clinical trials.

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Electronic patient-reported outcome

An electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) is a patient-reported outcome that is collected by electronic methods.

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Elisha Perkins

Elisha Perkins (January 16, 1741September 6, 1799) was a United States physician who created his own therapy, Perkins Patent Tractors.

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Endovascular aneurysm repair

Endovascular aneurysm repair (or endovascular aortic repair) (EVAR) is a type of endovascular surgery used to treat pathology of the aorta, most commonly an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA).

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Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.

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Ethics committee (European Union)

The ethics committee, according to Directive 2001/20/EC, is an independent body in a member state of the European Union, consisting of healthcare professionals and non-medical members, whose responsibility is to protect the rights, safety and well being of human subjects involved in a clinical trial and to provide public assurance of that protection, by, among other things, expressing an opinion on the clinical trial protocol, the suitability of the investigators involved in the trial and the adequacy of facilities, and on the methods and documents to be used to inform trial subjects and obtain their informed consent.

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European Medicines Agency

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evidence-based practice

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is an interdisciplinary approach to clinical practice that has been gaining ground following its formal introduction in 1992.

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Expanded access

Expanded access is the use of an unapproved drug or medical device under specials forms of investigational new drug applications (IND) or IDE application for devices, outside of a clinical trial, by people with serious or life-threatening conditions who do not meet the enrollment criteria for the clinical trial in progress.

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An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

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Factorial experiment

In statistics, a full factorial experiment is an experiment whose design consists of two or more factors, each with discrete possible values or "levels", and whose experimental units take on all possible combinations of these levels across all such factors.

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Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act

The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Frederick Akbar Mahomed

Frederick Henry Horatio Akbar Mahomed (c. 1849–1884) was an internationally known British physician from Brighton, England in the late 19th century.

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Free Press (publisher)

Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.

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George Anson's voyage around the world

While Great Britain was at war with Spain in 1740, Commodore George Anson led a squadron of eight ships on a mission to disrupt or capture Spain's Pacific possessions.

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George Anson, 1st Baron Anson

Admiral of the Fleet George Anson, 1st Baron Anson, (23 April 1697 – 6 June 1762), was a Royal Navy officer.

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Guy's Hospital

Guy's Hospital is an NHS hospital in the borough of Southwark in central London.

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Health Canada

Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.

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Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) was enacted by the United States Congress and signed by President Bill Clinton in 1996.

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Human subject research

Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.

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Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

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Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

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Informed consent

Informed consent is a process for getting permission before conducting a healthcare intervention on a person, or for disclosing personal information.

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The terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.

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Institutional review board

An institutional review board (IRB), also known as an independent ethics committee (IEC), ethical review board (ERB), or research ethics board (REB), is a type of committee that applies research ethics by reviewing the methods proposed for research to ensure that they are ethical.

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Interaction (statistics)

In statistics, an interaction may arise when considering the relationship among three or more variables, and describes a situation in which the simultaneous influence of two variables on a third is not additive.

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Interactive voice response

Interactive voice response (IVR) is a technology that allows a computer to interact with humans through the use of voice and DTMF tones input via a keypad.

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International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use

The International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) is a project that brings together the regulatory authorities of Europe, Japan and the United States and experts from the pharmaceutical industry in the three regions to discuss scientific and technical aspects of pharmaceutical product registration.

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Investigator's brochure

In drug development, the Investigator's Brochure (IB) is a comprehensive document summarizing the body of information about an investigational product ("IP" or "study drug") obtained during a drug trial.

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James Lind

James Lind (4 October 1716 – 13 July 1794) was a Scottish physician.

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John Haygarth

John Haygarth FRS FRSE (1740 – 10 June 1827) was an important 18th-century British physician who discovered new ways to prevent the spread of fever among patients and reduce the mortality rate of smallpox.

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John Woodall

John Woodall (1570–1643) was an English military surgeon, Paracelsian chemist, businessman, linguist and diplomat.

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Karl Pearson

Karl Pearson HFRSE LLD (originally named Carl; 27 March 1857 – 27 April 1936) was an English mathematician and biostatistician. He has been credited with establishing the discipline of mathematical statistics. He founded the world's first university statistics department at University College London in 1911, and contributed significantly to the field of biometrics, meteorology, theories of social Darwinism and eugenics. Pearson was also a protégé and biographer of Sir Francis Galton.

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Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (baptised 26 May 1689 – 21 August 1762) (née Pierrepont) was an English aristocrat, letter writer and poet.

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The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.

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Liberty Fund

Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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List of statistical packages

Statistical software are specialized computer programs for analysis in statistics and econometrics.

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List of surgical procedures

The names of many surgical procedure names can be broken into parts to indicate the meaning.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Measurement uncertainty

In metrology, measurement uncertainty is a non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity.

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Medical device

A medical device is any apparatus, appliance, software, material, or other article—whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application—intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of.

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Medical laboratory

A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are carried out on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient in order to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Medical nutrition therapy

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a therapeutic approach to treating medical conditions and their associated symptoms via the use of a specifically tailored diet devised and monitored by a medical doctor physician or registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN).

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Medical procedure

A medical procedure is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the delivery of healthcare.

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Medical Research Council (United Kingdom)

The Medical Research Council (MRC) is responsible for co-coordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom.

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare

The is a cabinet level ministry of the Japanese government.

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Minority group

A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.

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Monitoring in clinical trials

Clinical monitoring is the oversight and administrative efforts that monitor a participant's health and efficacy of the treatment during a clinical trial.

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Multicenter trial

A multicenter research trial is a clinical trial conducted at more than one medical center or clinic.

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National Cancer Institute

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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Nephritis is inflammation of the kidneys and may involve the glomeruli, tubules, or interstitial tissue surrounding the glomeruli and tubules.

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Nurses' Health Study

The Nurses Health Study (NHS), is a series of prospective studies that examine epidemiology and the long-term effects of nutrition, hormones, environment, and nurses' work-life on health and disease development.

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Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

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Observational study

In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent variable is not under the control of the researcher because of ethical concerns or logistical constraints.

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Odds algorithm

The odds-algorithm is a mathematical method for computing optimal strategies for a class of problems that belong to the domain of optimal stopping problems.

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Open aortic surgery

Open aortic surgery ("OAS", also known as Open aortic repair, "OAR") describes a technique whereby an abdominal or retroperitoneal surgical incision is used to visualize and control the aorta for purposes of treatment.

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Orange (fruit)

The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.

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In business, outsourcing is an agreement in which one company contracts its own internal activity to a different company.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Patient recruitment

Patient recruitment includes a variety of services—typically performed by a Patient Recruitment Service Provider—to increase enrollment into clinical trials.

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Patient-reported outcome

A patient-reported outcome (PRO) is a health outcome directly reported by the patient who experienced it.

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Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.

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Pharmaceutical industry

The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.

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Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America

Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA, pronounced), formerly known as the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, is a trade group representing companies in the pharmaceutical industry in the United States founded in 1958.

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Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).

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Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.

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Pilot experiment

A pilot study, pilot project, or pilot experiment is a small scale preliminary study conducted in order to evaluate feasibility, time, cost, adverse events, and improve upon the study design prior to performance of a full-scale research project.

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A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.

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Power (statistics)

The power of a binary hypothesis test is the probability that the test correctly rejects the null hypothesis (H0) when a specific alternative hypothesis (H1) is true.

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Pre-clinical development

In drug development, preclinical development, also named preclinical studies and nonclinical studies, is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials (testing in humans) can begin, and during which important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data are collected.

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Pre-existing condition

In the context of healthcare in the United States, a pre-existing condition is a medical condition that started before a person's health benefits went into effect.

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Preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

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Primum non nocere

Primum non nocere is a Latin phrase that means "first, to do no harm." The phrase is sometimes recorded as primum nil nocere.

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Prospective cohort study

A prospective cohort study is a longitudinal cohort study that follows over time a group of similar individuals (cohorts) who differ with respect to certain factors under study, to determine how these factors affect rates of a certain outcome.

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Protocol (science)

In the natural sciences a protocol is a predefined written procedural method in the design and implementation of experiments.

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Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.

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Quality of life (healthcare)

In general, quality of life (QoL or QOL) is the perceived quality of an individual's daily life, that is, an assessment of their well-being or lack thereof.

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Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

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Randomized controlled trial

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.

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Randomized experiment

In science, randomized experiments are the experiments that allow the greatest reliability and validity of statistical estimates of treatment effects.

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Rare disease

A rare disease is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population.

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Regulatory agency

A regulatory agency (also regulatory authority, regulatory body or regulator) is a public authority or government agency responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.

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Replication (statistics)

In engineering, science, and statistics, replication is the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated.

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Reproducibility is the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand carried out under changed conditions of measurement.

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Richard Doll

Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll (28 October 1912 – 24 July 2005) was a British physiologist who became an epidemiologist in the 20th century, turning the subject into a rigorous science.

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Risk–benefit ratio

A risk–benefit ratio is the ratio of the risk of an action to its potential benefits.

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Ronald Fisher

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (17 February 1890 – 29 July 1962), who published as R. A. Fisher, was a British statistician and geneticist.

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Rothamsted Research

Rothamsted Research, previously known as the Rothamsted Experimental Station and then the Institute of Arable Crops Research, is one of the oldest agricultural research institutions in the world, having been founded in 1843.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Safety is the state of being "safe" (from French sauf), the condition of being protected from harm or other non-desirable outcomes.

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Scientific control

A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.

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Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

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Scurvy is a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).

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Seasonal affective disorder

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a mood disorder subset in which people who have normal mental health throughout most of the year exhibit depressive symptoms at the same time each year, most commonly in the winter.

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Secondary hypertension

Secondary hypertension (or, less commonly, inessential hypertension) is a type of hypertension which by definition is caused by an identifiable underlying primary cause.

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Seeding trial

A seeding trial or marketing trial is a form of marketing, conducted in the name of research, designed to target product sampling towards selected consumers.

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Site management organization

A Site Management Organization (SMO) is an organization that provides clinical trial related services to a contract research organization (CRO), a pharmaceutical company, a biotechnology company, a medical device company or a clinical site.

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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Smallpox vaccine

Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.

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Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.

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Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas, also known as epidermoid carcinoma are a number of different types of cancer that result from squamous cells.

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Statistical hypothesis testing

A statistical hypothesis, sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables.

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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Streptomycin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Tax credit

A tax credit is a tax incentive which allows certain taxpayers to subtract the amount of the credit they have accrued from the total they owe the state.

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The Canon of Medicine

The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.

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Translational research

Translational research – often used interchangeably with translational medicine or translational science or bench to bedside – is an effort to build on basic scientific research to create new therapies, medical procedures, or diagnostics.

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Treatment and control groups

In the design of experiments, treatments are applied to experimental units in the treatment group(s).

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Trials (journal)

Trials is an open access peer-reviewed medical journal covering performance and outcomes of randomized controlled trials.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States National Library of Medicine

The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.

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Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.

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A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.

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Vascular surgery

Vascular surgery is a surgical subspecialty in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries, veins and lymphatic circulation, are managed by medical therapy, minimally-invasive catheter procedures, and surgical reconstruction.

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Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.

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Vital signs

Vital signs (often shortened to just vitals) are a group of the 4 to 6 most important signs that indicate the status of the body’s vital (life-sustaining) functions.

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Vitamin C

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.

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In chemistry, vitriol is an archaic name for a sulfate, and vitriol names have the obvious meaning: for example, vitriol of lead is lead sulfate, and so on.

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William Gull

Sir William Withey Gull, 1st Baronet (31 December 1816 – 29 January 1890), was a 19th-century English physician.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_trial

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