141 relations: Acute kidney injury, Acute tubular necrosis, Acute uric acid nephropathy, Addison's disease, Albuminuria, Alkaptonuria, Bacteriuria, Benedict's reagent, Bilirubin, Bilirubinuria, Bleeding, Blood, Blood lead level, Blood test, Calcium oxalate, Capillary, Carbohydrate, Catecholamine, Cell (biology), Cellular respiration, Cholesterol embolism, Chronic kidney disease, Cirrhosis, Clinistrip, Colony-forming unit, Cortisol, Creatinine, Crystalluria, Cushing's syndrome, Dehydration, Diabetes insipidus, Diabetes mellitus, Diuretic, Dopamine, Drinking, Dysmorphic feature, Eosinophiluria, Ethylene glycol, Fractional excretion of sodium, Glomerulonephritis, Glomerulus, Glucose, Glycerol, Glycosuria, Helen Murray Free, Hematuria, Hemoglobin, Hemoglobinuria, Hemolysis, Hepatitis, ..., High-power field, Hour, Human chorionic gonadotropin, Hydrolysis, Hypercalciuria, Hyperparathyroidism, Hypertension, Hypertensive emergency, Hyperthyroidism, Hypocalciuria, Infection, Insulin, Interstitial nephritis, Jaundice, Ketoacidosis, Ketone, Ketone bodies, Ketonuria, Kidney, Kidney stone disease, Leukocyturia, Litre, LOINC, Lysol, Medical diagnosis, Medical technologist, Melanoma, Metabolism, Mickey Mouse, Microalbuminuria, Microbiological culture, Microgram, Microscopy, Molality, Mole (unit), Myoglobinuria, Neoplasm, Nephritis, Nitrite, Nitrite test, Ochronosis, Oliguria, Osmotic concentration, P-Phenylenediamine, PH, Phenazopyridine, Phenolphthalein, Phenols, Phenylalanine, Phosphate, Plasma osmolality, Porphyria, Portmanteau, Potassium, Pregnancy, Pregnancy test, Propofol, Protein, Proteinuria, Purple urine bag syndrome, Pyelonephritis, Pyuria, Reagent, Recreational drug use, Red blood cell, Rhabdomyolysis, Riboflavin, Sclera, Sodium, Specific gravity, Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, Triglyceride, Urea, Uric acid, Urinary calcium, Urinary cast, Urinary catheterization, Urinary tract infection, Urination, Urine, Urine collection device, Urine osmolality, Urine specific gravity, Urine test strip, Urinometer, Urobilinogen, Uroscopy, Vascular permeability, Vasculitis, White blood cell, Woman. Expand index (91 more) » « Shrink index
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days.
Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is a medical condition involving the death of tubular epithelial cells that form the renal tubules of the kidneys.
Acute uric acid nephropathy (AUAN, also acute urate nephropathy) is a rapidly worsening (decreasing) kidney function (renal insufficiency) that is caused by high levels of uric acid in the urine (hyperuricosuria).
Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.
Albuminuria is a pathological condition wherein the protein albumin is abnormally present in the urine.
Alkaptonuria is a rare inherited genetic disorder in which the body cannot process the amino acids phenylalanine and tyrosine, which occur in protein.
Bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in urine.
Benedict's reagent (often called Benedict's qualitative solution or Benedict's solution) is a chemical reagent named after American chemist Stanley Rossiter Benedict.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
In medicine, bilirubinuria is an abnormality in which conjugated bilirubin is detected in the urine.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood lead level (BLL), is a measure of the amount of lead in the blood.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
Calcium oxalate (in archaic terminology, oxalate of lime) is a calcium salt of oxalate with the chemical formula CaC2O4(H2O)x, where x can vary.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
A catecholamine (CA) is a monoamine, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups at carbons 1 and 2) and a side-chain amine.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cholesterol embolism (often cholesterol crystal embolism or atheroembolism, sometimes blue toe or purple toe syndrome or trash foot or warfarin blue toe syndrome) occurs when cholesterol is released, usually from an atherosclerotic plaque, and travels as an embolus in the bloodstream to lodge (as an embolism) causing an obstruction in blood vessels further away.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.
Clinistrip, also known as CLINISTIX or the brand name Diastix, are specific clinical sticks for the detection of glucose only and no other sugar as they consist of a section that contains glucose oxidase that has been dried onto the paper pad.
In microbiology, a colony-forming unit (CFU, cfu, Cfu) is a unit used to estimate the number of viable bacteria or fungal cells in a sample.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
Crystalluria refers to cloudy urine when the cause of cloudiness is due to crystals found in the urine when performing a urine test.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, the increased production of urine.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Drinking is the act of ingesting water or other liquids into the body through the mouth.
A dysmorphic feature is a difference of body structure.
Eosinophiluria is the abnormal presence of eosinophils in the urine.
Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2OH)2.
The fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) is the percentage of the sodium filtered by the kidney which is excreted in the urine.
Glomerulonephritis (GN), also known as glomerular nephritis, is a term used to refer to several kidney diseases (usually affecting both kidneys).
Glomerulus is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, fibers, or neurons.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycosuria or glucosuria is the excretion of glucose into the urine.
Helen Murray Free (born February 20, 1923, Pittsburgh, PA) is a retired American chemist and educator.
Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
In medicine, hemoglobinuria or haemoglobinuria is a condition in which the oxygen transport protein hemoglobin is found in abnormally high concentrations in the urine.
Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
A high-power field (HPF), when used in relation to microscopy, references the area visible under the maximum magnification power of the objective being used.
An hour (symbol: h; also abbreviated hr.) is a unit of time conventionally reckoned as of a day and scientifically reckoned as 3,599–3,601 seconds, depending on conditions.
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a hormone produced by the placenta after implantation.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Hypercalciuria or hypercalcinuria is the condition of elevated calcium in the urine.
Hyperparathyroidism is an increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
A hypertensive emergency, also known as malignant hypertension, is high blood pressure with potentially life-threatening symptoms and signs indicative of acute impairment of one or more organ systems (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system or the kidneys).
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypocalciuria is a low level of calcium in the urine.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Interstitial nephritis (or tubulo-interstitial nephritis) is a form of nephritis affecting the interstitium of the kidneys surrounding the tubules, i.e., is inflammation of the spaces between renal tubules.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids.
In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.
Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone) containing the ketone group that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, alcoholism or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Ketonuria is a medical condition in which ketone bodies are present in the urine.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kidney stone disease, also known as urolithiasis, is when a solid piece of material (kidney stone) occurs in the urinary tract.
Leukocyturia describes the presence of leucocytes in the urine.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) is a database and universal standard for identifying medical laboratory observations.
Lysol is a brand name of cleaning and disinfecting products distributed by the Reckitt Benckiser company.
Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.
A Medical Technologist (also known as Medical laboratory scientist, Clinical Laboratory Scientist, Medical Laboratory Technologist) is an allied health professional that analyzes and tests body fluids and tissues.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Mickey Mouse is a funny animal cartoon character and the mascot of The Walt Disney Company.
Microalbuminuria is a term to describe a moderate increase in the level of urine albumin.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).
Molality, also called molal concentration, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution in terms of amount of substance in a specified amount of mass of the solvent.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Myoglobinuria is the presence of myoglobin in the urine, usually associated with rhabdomyolysis or muscle destruction.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Nephritis is inflammation of the kidneys and may involve the glomeruli, tubules, or interstitial tissue surrounding the glomeruli and tubules.
The nitrite ion, which has the chemical formula, is a symmetric anion with equal N–O bond lengths.
A nitrite test is a chemical test used to determine the presence of nitrite ion in solution.
Ochronosis is a syndrome caused by the accumulation of homogentisic acid in connective tissues.
Oliguria or hypouresis (both names from roots meaning "not enough urine") is the low output of urine.
Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).
p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is an organic compound with the formula C6H4(NH2)2.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phenazopyridine is a chemical which, when excreted into the urine, has a local analgesic effect.
Phenolphthalein is a chemical compound with the formula C20H14O4 and is often written as "HIn" or "phph" in shorthand notation.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Phenylalanine (symbol Phe or F) is an α-amino acid with the formula.
A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.
Plasma osmolality measures the body's electrolyte-water balance.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A pregnancy test attempts to determine whether or not a woman is pregnant.
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteinuria is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.
For other uses see PUBS (disambiguation page) Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a medical syndrome where purple discoloration of urine occurs in people with urinary catheters and co-existent urinary tract infection.
Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the kidney, typically due to a bacterial infection.
Pyuria is the condition of urine containing white blood cells or pus.
A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle breaks down rapidly.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
The sclera, also known as the white of the eye, is the opaque, fibrous, protective, outer layer of the human eye containing mainly collagen and some elastic fiber.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is characterized by excessive unsuppressible release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) either from the posterior pituitary gland, or an abnormal non-pituitary source.
A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Urinary calcium is calcium in the urine.
Urinary casts are microscopic cylindrical structures produced by the kidney and present in the urine in certain disease states.
In urinary catheterization a latex, polyurethane, or silicone tube known as a urinary catheter is inserted into a patient's bladder via the urethra.
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
A urine collection device or UCD is a device that allows the collection of urine for analysis (as in medical or forensic urinalysis) or for purposes of simple elimination (as in vehicles engaged in long voyages and not equipped with toilets, particularly aircraft and spacecraft).
Urine osmolality is a measure of urine concentration, in which large values indicate concentrated urine and small values indicate diluted urine.
Specific gravity, in the context of clinical pathology, is a urinalysis parameter commonly used in the evaluation of kidney function and can aid in the diagnosis of various renal diseases.
A urine test strip or dipstick test is a basic diagnostic tool used to determine pathological changes in a patient’s urine in standard urinalysis.
A Urinometer is a simple piece of equipment for determining urine specific gravity.
Urobilinogen is a colorless by-product of bilirubin reduction.
Uroscopy is the historic medical practice of visually examining a patient's urine for pus, blood, or other symptoms of disease.
Vascular permeability, often in the form of capillary permeability or microvascular permeability, characterizes the capacity of a blood vessel wall to allow for the flow of small molecules (drugs, nutrients, water, ions) or even whole cells (lymphocytes on their way to the site of inflammation) in and out of the vessel.
Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
A woman is an adult female human being.
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