108 relations: Afrikaans, Afrikaans phonology, Amstetten, Lower Austria, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Australian English, Australian English phonology, Bavarian language, Cantonese, Cantonese phonology, Cardiff English, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Catalan phonology, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Danish language, Danish orthography, Danish phonology, Devanagari, Diphthong, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, Egyptian Arabic, Egyptian Arabic phonology, English language, English orthography, Faroese language, Flemish, French language, French orthography, French phonology, Galician language, Georgian language, German language, German orthography, Gulf Arabic, Gurmukhī alphabet, Hangul, Hindustani language, Hindustani phonology, Icelandic language, Icelandic orthography, Icelandic phonology, Index of phonetics articles, Indian English, International Phonetic Alphabet, ..., Italian language, Italian orthography, Italian phonology, Jilu, Jyutping, Kaingang language, Korean language, Korean phonology, Language, Levantine Arabic, List of Assyrian settlements, Luxembourgish language, Malay alphabet, Malay language, Malay phonology, Mandarin Chinese, Nochiya tribe, North Frisian language, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Norwegian phonology, Pakistani English, Pinyin, Polish language, Polish orthography, Polish phonology, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Punjabi language, Revised Romanization of Korean, Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanian phonology, Russian language, Russian orthography, Russian phonology, Scottish English, Shiwiar language, Singapore English, Standard Chinese phonology, Standard German phonology, Swedish language, Swedish orthography, Swedish phonology, Syriac alphabet, Tilquiapan Zapotec, Ulster English, Urdu alphabet, Urmia, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese phonology, Vowel, West Frisian language, Wu Chinese, Yoruba language, Zapotec languages. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
Afrikaans is one of the official languages of South Africa.
Afrikaans has a similar phonology to other West Germanic languages, especially Dutch.
Amstetten is a town in Lower Austria.
Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
Australian English (AusE, AuE, AusEng, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language and is used throughout Australia.
Australian English (AuE) is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians.
Bavarian (Bairisch; Austro-Bavarian: Boarisch), is a major group of Upper German varieties spoken in the southeast of the German language area, largely covered by Bavaria and Austria.
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.
The standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Guangzhou, also known as Canton, the capital of Guangdong Province.
The Cardiff accent, also known as Cardiff English is the regional accent of English, and a variety of Welsh English, as spoken in and around the city of Cardiff, and is somewhat distinctive in Wales, compared with other Welsh accents.
Catalan (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also or autonym: català or) is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.
Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language.
Danish is a Scandinavian language related closely to Swedish and Norwegian, and more distantly to Icelandic and Faroese as well as to the other Germanic languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी devanāgarī a compound of "deva" and "nāgarī"), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) alphabet of India and Nepal.
A diphthong (Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable.
Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch has a similar phonology or pronunciation to other West Germanic languages.
Egyptian Arabic is the language spoken by most contemporary Egyptians.
This article is about the phonology of Egyptian Arabic, also known as Cairene Arabic or Masri.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the orthography used in writing the English language, including English spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
Faroese (føroyskt) is a North Germanic language spoken as a native language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Flemish or Belgian Dutch (Belgisch-Nederlands, or Vlaams) is the Dutch language as spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, be it standard (as used in schools, government and the media) or informal (as used in daily speech, "")..
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
This article mainly discusses the phonological system of standard French based on the Parisian dialect.
Galician (or; galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Georgian (ქართული ენა tr. kartuli ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language.
Gulf Arabic (خليجي local pronunciation: or اللهجة الخليجية local pronunciation) is a variety of the Arabic language spoken in Eastern Arabia around the coasts of the Persian Gulf in Kuwait, Iraq, Bahrain, eastern Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Iran and northern Oman.
Gurmukhi is an alphabetic abugida developed from the Laṇḍā scripts and was standardised during the 16th century by Guru Angad, the second guru of Sikhism.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul in South Korea and elsewhere and as Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea and China, is the alphabet that has been used to write the Korean language since the 15th century.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ||lit.
Hindustani is the lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan, and through its two standardized registers, Hindi and Urdu, an official language of India and Pakistan.
Icelandic is a North Germanic language, the language of Iceland.
Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelt and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.
Unlike many languages, Icelandic has only very minor dialectal differences in sounds, due to the relatively small number of speakers and the concentration of these speakers in mostly one area.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of the Indian subcontinent.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.
Jīlū was a district located in the Hakkari region of upper Mesopotamia in modern day Turkey.
Jyutping, (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993.
The Kaingang language (also spelled Kaingáng) is an indigenous language spoken in the South of Brazil, belonging to the Gê language family.
Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.
This article is a technical description of the phonetics and phonology of Korean. Korean has many allophones, so it is important here to distinguish morphophonemes (written inside vertical pipes) from corresponding phonemes (written inside slashes) and allophones (written inside brackets).
Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Levantine Arabic (اللهجة الشامية), is a broad dialect of Arabic spoken in the 100 to 200 km-wide Eastern Mediterranean coastal strip.
The following is a list of current Aramean, Assyrian, Chaldean, Syriac and Syrian settlements (see names of Syriac Christians) in the Middle East.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a Moselle Franconian variety of West Central German that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
The modern Malay alphabet (in Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore, Tulisan Rumi, literally "Roman script" or "Roman writing", in Indonesia, "Tulisan Latin") consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet without any diacritics.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu; Jawi script: بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family.
This article explains the phonology of the Malay language based on the pronunciation of Standard Malay, which is the official language in Brunei, Indonesia (as Indonesian), Malaysia (as Malaysian), and Singapore.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
The Nochiya (ܡܠܬ ܕܢܒܼܟ̰ܝܼܐ Millet D'Nochiya) is an Assyrian Christian tribe that was based in and around the district of Şemdinli, in the province of Hakkari, Turkey.
North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 30,000 people in North Frisia.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the sole official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.
Pakistani English or Paklish is the group of English language varieties spoken and written in Pakistan.
Pinyin, or Hanyu Pinyin, is the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet in China, Taiwan, and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese and a pinyin without diacritic markers is often used in foreign publications to spell Chinese names familiar to non-Chinese and may be used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers. The Hanyu Pinyin system was developed in the 1950s based on earlier forms of romanization. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone rather than for educational and computer input purposes. The word Hànyǔ means the spoken language of the Han people and pīnyīn literally means "spelled-out sounds".
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
The Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet, and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla, to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary considerably between dialects, in extreme cases leading to difficulties in intelligibility.
Punjabi (Shahmukhi: پنجابی; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 130 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 9th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The Revised Romanization of Korean (국어의 로마자 표기법; lit. Roman letter notation of national language) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, replacing the older McCune–Reischauer system.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: română, limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants.
Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian orthography (p) is formally considered to encompass spelling (p) and punctuation (p).
This article discusses the phonological system of standard Russian based on the Moscow dialect (unless otherwise noted).
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Shiwiar, also known as Achuar, Jivaro, Maina, is a Jivaroan language spoken along the Pastaza and Bobonaza rivers in Ecuador.
Singapore English refers to varieties of the English language spoken in Singapore, of which there are two main forms – Standard Singapore English (SSE) and Singapore Colloquial English (better known as Singlish).
This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin).
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by about 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish orthography is the system used to write the Swedish language.
Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD.
Tilquiapan Zapotec (Zapoteco de San Miguel Tilquiápam) is an Oto-Manguean language of the Zapotecan branch, spoken in southern Oaxaca, Mexico.
Ulster English (also called Northern Hiberno-English or Northern Irish English) is a major variety of Hiberno-English, spoken in the province of Ulster: Northern Ireland and three counties of the Republic of Ireland.
The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.
UrmiaVariously transliterated as Oroumieh, Oroumiyeh, Orūmīyeh and Urūmiyeh (Urmu, Urmiyə, ارومیه, Ûrmiye, Ուրմիա, ܐܘܪܡܝܐ) is the second largest city in the north-west of Iran, is a city in and the capital of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally national language script) is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of Vietnam and is the national and official language of the country.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as an English "ah!" or "oh!", pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
Wu (Suzhou Wu:, Shanghai Wu) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in Zhejiang province, the municipality of Shanghai, and southern Jiangsu province.
Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa mainly in Nigeria.
The Zapotec languages are a group of closely related indigenous Mesoamerican languages that constitute a main branch of the Oto-Manguean language family and which is spoken by the Zapotec people from the southwestern-central highlands of Mexico.
/e/, Close e, Close-mid unrounded front vowel, Closed e, E (IPA), High mid front unrounded vowel, High-mid front unrounded vowel, IPA e, Mid front, Mid high front unrounded vowel, Mid-high front unrounded vowel.