165 relations: Adyghe language, Albanian alphabet, Albanian language, Alternation (linguistics), Amstetten, Lower Austria, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Armenian alphabet, Armenian language, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Back vowel, Bavarian language, Bengali alphabet, Bengali language, Bengali phonology, Brazilian Portuguese, Cantonese, Cantonese phonology, Cardinal vowels, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Catalan phonology, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Close central rounded vowel, Close front rounded vowel, Close vowel, Consonant, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech phonology, Danish and Norwegian alphabet, Danish language, Danish phonology, Devanagari, Diphthong, Distinctive feature, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, Eastern Armenian, English language, English orthography, English phonology, European Portuguese, Faroese language, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, ..., Finnish phonology, Flemish, French language, French orthography, French phonology, General American, Geordie, Georgian language, German language, German orthography, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Gurmukhī alphabet, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hindustani language, Hindustani phonology, Hungarian alphabet, Hungarian language, Hungarian phonology, Icelandic language, Icelandic orthography, Icelandic phonology, Index of phonetics articles, International Phonetic Alphabet, Irish language, Irish orthography, Irish phonology, Italian language, Italian orthography, Italian phonology, Japanese language, Japanese phonology, Japanese writing system, Jyutping, Kabardian language, Kaingang language, Labio-velar approximant, Language, Luxembourgish language, Macedonian alphabet, Macedonian language, Macedonian phonology, Malay language, Modern Greek phonology, Modern Hebrew phonology, Modern Standard Arabic, Mongolian language, Niqqud, North Frisian language, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Norwegian phonology, Pakistani English, Phonetic transcription, Pig, Pinyin, Polish language, Polish orthography, Polish phonology, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Punjabi language, Received Pronunciation, Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanian phonology, Romanization of Greek, Romanization of Japanese, Roundedness, Russian language, Russian orthography, Russian phonology, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic orthography, Scottish Gaelic phonology, Serbo-Croatian, Serbo-Croatian phonology, Shiwiar language, Slovak language, Slovak orthography, South African English, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Spanish phonology, Standard Chinese, Standard Chinese phonology, Standard German phonology, Swedish language, Swedish orthography, Syriac alphabet, Thai alphabet, Thai language, Tilquiapan Zapotec, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, Turkish phonology, Udmurt language, Ukrainian alphabet, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian phonology, Uman, Urdu, Urdu alphabet, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese phonology, Vowel, Watch, Welsh English, West Frisian language, X-SAMPA, Yoruba language, Zapotec languages. Expand index (115 more) » « Shrink index
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгaбзэ, adyghabze), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian.
The modern Albanian alphabet is a Latin alphabet, and consists of 36 letters: Note: The vowels are shown in bold.
Albanian (shqip or gjuha shqipe, meaning Albanian language) is an Indo-European language spoken by five million people, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Greece, but also in other areas of Southeastern Europe in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro and the Preševo Valley of Serbia.
In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a phoneme or morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.
Amstetten is a town in Lower Austria.
Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayots grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayots aybuben) is a graphically unique alphabetical writing system that has been used to write the Armenian language.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenians.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Bavarian (Bairisch; Austro-Bavarian: Boarisch), is a major group of Upper German varieties spoken in the southeast of the German language area, largely covered by Bavaria and Austria.
The Bengali alphabet or Bangla alphabet (বাংলা লিপি Bangla lipi) is the writing system for the Bengali language and is the 6th most widely used writing system in the world.
Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা) is the language native to the region of Bengal, which comprises the present-day nation of Bangladesh and of the Indian states West Bengal, Tripura and southern Assam.
The phonology of the Bengali language is, like that of its neighbouring Eastern Indo-Aryan Languages, characterised by a wide variety of diphthongs and inherent back vowel (both and instead of the schwa used by almost all other branches of the Indo-Aryan language family.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or Português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.
The standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Guangzhou, also known as Canton, the capital of Guangdong Province.
Cardinal vowels are a set of reference vowels used by phoneticians in describing the sounds of languages.
Catalan (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also or autonym: català or) is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.
Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The close central rounded vowel, or high central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel, is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
The Cyrillic script is an alphabetic writing system employed across Eastern Europe and north and central Asia.
Czech (čeština), formerly known as Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language spoken by over 10 million people.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
The Danish and Norwegian alphabet is based upon the Latin alphabet and has consisted of the following 29 letters since 1917 (Norwegian) and 1948 (Danish).
Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Danish is a Scandinavian language related closely to Swedish and Norwegian, and more distantly to Icelandic and Faroese as well as to the other Germanic languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी devanāgarī a compound of "deva" and "nāgarī"), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) alphabet of India and Nepal.
A diphthong (Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable.
In linguistics, a distinctive feature is the most basic unit of phonological structure that may be analyzed in phonological theory.
Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch has a similar phonology or pronunciation to other West Germanic languages.
Eastern Armenian (arevelahayeren) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Western Armenian.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the orthography used in writing the English language, including English spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
Like many languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
European Portuguese (Português europeu), also known as Lusitanian Portuguese (Português lusitano) and Portuguese of Portugal (Português de Portugal) in Brazil, refers to the Portuguese language spoken in Portugal.
Faroese (føroyskt) is a North Germanic language spoken as a native language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 28 letters.
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in Häme Province in central south Finland.
Flemish or Belgian Dutch (Belgisch-Nederlands, or Vlaams) is the Dutch language as spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, be it standard (as used in schools, government and the media) or informal (as used in daily speech, "")..
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
This article mainly discusses the phonological system of standard French based on the Parisian dialect.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is an umbrella variety of American English—a continuum of accents—commonly attributed to a majority of Americans and perceived as lacking any notably regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
Geordie is both a regional nickname for a person from the larger Tyneside region of North East England and the name of the Northern English dialect spoken by its inhabitants.
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Georgian (ქართული ენა tr. kartuli ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC.
Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
Gurmukhi is an alphabetic abugida developed from the Laṇḍā scripts and was standardised during the 16th century by Guru Angad, the second guru of Sikhism.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script, block script, is used in the writing of the Hebrew language, as well as of other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic.
Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ||lit.
Hindustani is the lingua franca of northern India and Pakistan, and through its two standardized registers, Hindi and Urdu, an official language of India and Pakistan.
The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Hungarian language.
Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent use of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.
Icelandic is a North Germanic language, the language of Iceland.
Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelt and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.
Unlike many languages, Icelandic has only very minor dialectal differences in sounds, due to the relatively small number of speakers and the concentration of these speakers in mostly one area.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.
Irish (Gaeilge), sometimes referred to as Gaelic or Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.
The phonology of the Irish language varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of Irish.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
This article deals with the phonology (i.e. the sound system) of Standard Japanese.
The modern Japanese writing system is a combination of two character types: logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic kana.
Jyutping, (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993.
Kabardian (Kabardian: адыгэбзэ or къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ or къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ or къэбэртай адыгабзэ or къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language, closely related to the Adyghe language.
The Kaingang language (also spelled Kaingáng) is an indigenous language spoken in the South of Brazil, belonging to the Gê language family.
The voiced labio-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English.
Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a Moselle Franconian variety of West Central German that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.
Macedonian (македонски јазик, makedonski jazik) is a South Slavic language, spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
This article discusses the phonological system of Standard Macedonian (unless otherwise noted) based on the Prilep-Bitola dialect.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu; Jawi script: بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family.
This article deals with the phonology and phonetics of Standard Modern Greek.
Modern Israeli Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script:, Mongɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол хэл, Mongol khel) is the official language of Mongolia and largest-known member of the Mongolic language family.
In Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikkud is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
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North Frisian is a minority language of Germany, spoken by about 30,000 people in North Frisia.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the sole official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.
Pakistani English or Paklish is the group of English language varieties spoken and written in Pakistan.
Phonetic transcription (aka phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates.
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Pinyin, or Hanyu Pinyin, is the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet in China, Taiwan, and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese and a pinyin without diacritic markers is often used in foreign publications to spell Chinese names familiar to non-Chinese and may be used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers. The Hanyu Pinyin system was developed in the 1950s based on earlier forms of romanization. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone rather than for educational and computer input purposes. The word Hànyǔ means the spoken language of the Han people and pīnyīn literally means "spelled-out sounds".
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Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
The Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet, and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla, to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary considerably between dialects, in extreme cases leading to difficulties in intelligibility.
Punjabi (Shahmukhi: پنجابی; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 130 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 9th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is regarded as the standard accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom, with a relationship to regional accents similar to the relationship in other European languages between their standard varieties and their regional forms.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: română, limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants.
Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
The romanization of Japanese is the application of the Latin script to write the Japanese language.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian orthography (p) is formally considered to encompass spelling (p) and punctuation (p).
This article discusses the phonological system of standard Russian based on the Moscow dialect (unless otherwise noted).
Scottish Gaelic, sometimes also referred to as Gaelic (Gàidhlig), is a Celtic language native to Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic orthography has evolved over many centuries.
This article is about the phonology of the Scottish Gaelic language.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Serbo-Croatian is a South Slavic language with four national standards.
Shiwiar, also known as Achuar, Jivaro, Maina, is a Jivaroan language spoken along the Pastaza and Bobonaza rivers in Ecuador.
Slovak (slovenský jazyk,; slovenčina; not to be confused with slovenski jezik or slovenščina, the native names of the Slovene language) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, Silesian, Kashubian, and Sorbian).
Slovak orthography uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (ˇ, ´, ¨, ˆ) placed above certain letters.
South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects spoken by South Africans.
Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin and Putonghua, sometimes simply referred to as "Mandarin", is a standard language that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin).
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by about 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish orthography is the system used to write the Swedish language.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD.
Thai script (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai language and other languages in Thailand.
Thai, also known precisely as Siamese or Central Thai, is the national and official language of Thailand and the native language of the Thai people and the vast majority of Thai Chinese.
Tilquiapan Zapotec (Zapoteco de San Miguel Tilquiápam) is an Oto-Manguean language of the Zapotecan branch, spoken in southern Oaxaca, Mexico.
The Turkish alphabet is an alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia.
A notable feature of Turkish phonology is a system of vowel harmony that causes vowels in most words to be either front or back and either rounded or unrounded.
Udmurt (удмурт кыл, udmurt kyl) is a Uralic language, part of the Permic subgroup, spoken by the Udmurt natives of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with Russian.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
This article deals with the phonology of the standard Ukrainian language.
Uman (Умань, Humań) is a city located in the Cherkasy Oblast (province) in central Ukraine, to the east of Vinnytsia.
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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:;, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a standardised register of the Hindustani language.
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The Urdu alphabet is the right-to-left alphabet used for the Urdu language.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally national language script) is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of Vietnam and is the national and official language of the country.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as an English "ah!" or "oh!", pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis.
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A watch is a small timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person.
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Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London.
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Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa mainly in Nigeria.
The Zapotec languages are a group of closely related indigenous Mesoamerican languages that constitute a main branch of the Oto-Manguean language family and which is spoken by the Zapotec people from the southwestern-central highlands of Mexico.