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Cloud computing

Index Cloud computing

Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet. [1]

179 relations: Abstract Syntax Notation One, Amazon (company), Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, Amazon Web Services, Analytics, Andy Hertzfeld, Apple Inc., Application programming interface, ARPANET, As a service, AT&T, Audit trail, Autonomic computing, Back-end database, Bare-metal server, Barriers to entry, Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing, Big data, Block (data storage), Blockchain, Browser-based computing, Bruce Schneier, Business, Business continuity, Capital expenditure, Carrier cloud, Census, Cgroups, Chief technology officer, Client–server model, Cloud collaboration, Cloud computing comparison, Cloud computing security, Cloud engineering, Cloud management, Cloud research, Cloud storage, CNET, Code on demand, Community cloud, Compaq, Computational resource, Computer bureau, Computer cluster, Computer performance, Computer security, Computing platform, Confidentiality, Core business, CSNET, ..., Data center, Data visualization, Device independence, Digital Equipment Corporation, Disaster recovery, Disk image, Distributed computing, E-Science, Economies of scale, Edge computing, Elasticity (cloud computing), Encryption, Engineering, Enterprise resource planning, Eugene Schultz, Execution (computing), Fog computing, Folding@home, Forensic search, Gartner, General Magic, Google, Google App Engine, Google Compute Engine, Google Now, Green computing, Grid computing, Hardware virtualization, Hyper-V, Hypervisor, IBM, Indirection, InfiniBand, Information engineering, Information sensitivity, Information technology, InfoWorld, Infrastructure as a service, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, International Association of Professional Translators and Interpreters, Internet, IT infrastructure, Kernel (operating system), Kernel-based Virtual Machine, Laptop, Linux kernel, Load balancing (computing), Loose coupling, Mainframe computer, Microservices, Microsoft, Microsoft Azure, Mobile app, Mobile cloud computing, Multitenancy, NASA, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nebula (computing platform), Non-disclosure agreement, Object storage, OpenNebula, OpenStack, Operating expense, Operating-system-level virtualization, Oracle Cloud, Oracle VM Server for x86, PandoDaily, Parallel computing, Peer-to-peer, Performance engineering, Performance metric, Personal cloud, Platform as a service, Pooling (resource management), Product-family engineering, Productivity, Provisioning, Public utility, Push technology, Quality control, Rackspace, Reliability (computer networking), Remote job entry, Research and development, Risk analysis (engineering), Robot as a service, Sandbox (software development), Security engineering, Service (systems architecture), Service bureau, Service-oriented architecture, Siri, Smarter Planet, Social networking service, Software as a service, Software development kit, Software engineering, Software maintenance, Software system, Solution stack, Spatial analysis, Startup company, Supercomputer, Switzerland, System resource, Systems architecture, Systems engineering, TechCrunch, Telescript (programming language), Time-sharing, Transaction processing, Ubiquitous computing, Utility computing, Utilization, Virtual assistant, Virtual LAN, Virtual machine, Virtual private network, VirtualBox, Virtualization, VMware ESXi, Web application, Web engineering, Web service, Wide area network, Wired (magazine), X.400, Xen, Ziff Davis. Expand index (129 more) »

Abstract Syntax Notation One

Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) is an interface description language for defining data structures that can be serialized and deserialized in a standard, cross-platform way.

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Amazon (company)

Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.

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Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) forms a central part of Amazon.com's cloud-computing platform, Amazon Web Services (AWS), by allowing users to rent virtual computers on which to run their own computer applications.

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Amazon Web Services

Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a subsidiary of Amazon.com that provides on-demand cloud computing platforms to individuals, companies and governments, on a paid subscription basis.

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Analytics is the discovery, interpretation, and communication of meaningful patterns in data.

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Andy Hertzfeld

Andy Hertzfeld (born April 6, 1953) is an American computer scientist and inventor who was a member of the original Apple Macintosh development team during the 1980s.

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Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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Application programming interface

In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.

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The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.

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As a service

*aaS is an acronym for as a service (e.g., X as a service), and refers to something being made available to a customer as a service.

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AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.

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Audit trail

An audit trail (also called audit log) is a security-relevant chronological record, set of records, and/or destination and source of records that provide documentary evidence of the sequence of activities that have affected at any time a specific operation, procedure, or event.

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Autonomic computing

Autonomic computing (also known as AC) refers to the self-managing characteristics of distributed computing resources, adapting to unpredictable changes while hiding intrinsic complexity to operators and users.

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Back-end database

A Back-End Database is a database that is accessed by users indirectly through an external application rather than by application programming stored within the database itself or by low level manipulation of the data (e.g. through SQL commands).

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Bare-metal server

A 'bare-metal server' is a computer server that is a 'single-tenant physical server'.

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Barriers to entry

In theories of competition in economics, a barrier to entry, or an economic barrier to entry, is a cost that must be incurred by a new entrant into a market that incumbents do not have or have not had to incur.

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Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing

The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC, pronounced – rhymes with "oink"), an open-source middleware system, supports volunteer and grid computing.

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Big data

Big data is data sets that are so big and complex that traditional data-processing application software are inadequate to deal with them.

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Block (data storage)

In computing (specifically data transmission and data storage), a block, sometimes called a physical record, is a sequence of bytes or bits, usually containing some whole number of records, having a maximum length, a block size.

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A blockchain, originally block chain, is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.

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Browser-based computing

Browser-based computing is a term denoting use of the web browsers to perform computing tasks.

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Bruce Schneier

Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963, is an American cryptographer, computer security professional, privacy specialist and writer. He is the author of several books on general security topics, computer security and cryptography. Schneier is a fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, a program fellow at the New America Foundation's Open Technology Institute. He has been working for IBM since they acquired Resilient Systems where Schneier was CTO. He is also a contributing writer for The Guardian news organization.

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Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).

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Business continuity

Business continuity is the planning and preparation of a company to make sure it overcomes serious incidents or disasters and resumes its normal operations within a reasonably short period.

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Capital expenditure

Capital expenditure or capital expense (capex) is the money a company spends to buy, maintain, or improve its fixed assets, such as buildings, vehicles, equipment, or land.

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Carrier cloud

In cloud computing a carrier cloud is a class of cloud that integrates wide area networks (WAN) and other attributes of communications service providers’ carrier grade networks to enable the deployment of highly demanding applications in the cloud.

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A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.

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cgroups (abbreviated from control groups) is a Linux kernel feature that limits, accounts for, and isolates the resource usage (CPU, memory, disk I/O, network, etc.) of a collection of processes.

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Chief technology officer

A Chief Technology Officer (CTO), sometimes known as a Chief Technical Officer, is an executive-level position in a company or other entity whose occupation is focused on scientific and technological issues within an organization.

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Client–server model

The client–server model is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients.

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Cloud collaboration

Cloud collaboration is a way of sharing and co-authoring computer files through the use of cloud computing, whereby documents are uploaded to a central "cloud" for storage, where they can then be accessed by others.

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Cloud computing comparison

The following is a comparison of cloud computing software and providers.

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Cloud computing security

Cloud computing security or, more simply, cloud security refers to a broad set of policies, technologies, and controls deployed to protect data, applications, and the associated infrastructure of cloud computing.

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Cloud engineering

Cloud engineering is the application of engineering disciplines to cloud computing.

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Cloud management

Cloud management is the management of cloud computing products and services.

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Cloud research

Many universities, vendors, institutes and government organizations are investing in research around the topic of cloud computing.

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Cloud storage

Cloud storage is a model of computer data storage in which the digital data is stored in logical pools.

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CNET (stylized as c|net) is an American media website that publishes reviews, news, articles, blogs, podcasts and videos on technology and consumer electronics globally.

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Code on demand

In distributed computing, code on demand is any technology that sends executable software code from a server computer to a client computer upon request from the client's software.

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Community cloud

A community cloud in computing is a collaborative effort in which infrastructure is shared between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.This is controlled and used by a group of organizations that have shared interest.

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Compaq (a portmanteau of Compatibility And Quality; occasionally referred to as CQ prior to its final logo) was a company founded in 1982 that developed, sold, and supported computers and related products and services.

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Computational resource

In computational complexity theory, a computational resource is a resource used by some computational models in the solution of computational problems.

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Computer bureau

A computer bureau is a service bureau providing computer services.

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Computer cluster

A computer cluster is a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system.

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Computer performance

Computer performance is the amount of work accomplished by a computer system.

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Computer security

Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

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Computing platform

A computing platform or digital platform is the environment in which a piece of software is executed.

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Confidentiality involves a set of rules or a promise usually executed through confidentiality agreements that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.

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Core business

The core business of an organization is an idealized construct intended to express that organization's "main" or "essential" activity.

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The Computer Science Network (CSNET) was a computer network that began operation in 1981 in the United States.

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Data center

A data center (American English) or data centre (Commonwealth English) is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems.

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Data visualization

Data visualiation or data visualiation is viewed by many disciplines as a modern equivalent of visual communication.

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Device independence

Device independence is the process of making a software application able to function on a wide variety of devices regardless of the local hardware on which the software is used.

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Digital Equipment Corporation

Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.

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Disaster recovery

Disaster recovery (DR) involves a set of policies, tools and procedures to enable the recovery or continuation of vital technology infrastructure and systems following a natural or human-induced disaster.

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Disk image

A disk image, in computing, is a computer file containing the contents and structure of a disk volume or of an entire data storage device, such as a hard disk drive, tape drive, floppy disk, optical disc or USB flash drive.

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Distributed computing

Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.

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E-Science or eScience is computationally intensive science that is carried out in highly distributed network environments, or science that uses immense data sets that require grid computing; the term sometimes includes technologies that enable distributed collaboration, such as the Access Grid.

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Economies of scale

In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.

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Edge computing

Edge computing is a method of optimizing cloud computing systems "by taking the control of computing applications, data, and services away from some central nodes (the "core") to the other logical extreme (the "edge") of the Internet" which makes contact with the physical world.

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Elasticity (cloud computing)

In cloud computing, elasticity is defined as "the degree to which a system is able to adapt to workload changes by provisioning and de-provisioning resources in an autonomic manner, such that at each point in time the available resources match the current demand as closely as possible".

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In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.

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Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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Enterprise resource planning

Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is the integrated management of core business processes, often in real-time and mediated by software and technology.

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Eugene Schultz

Eugene Schultz (1946 - 2011) was an American computer security researcher and expert on cybersecurity.

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Execution (computing)

Execution in computer and software engineering is the process by which a computer or a virtual machine performs the instructions of a computer program.

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Fog computing

Fog computing or fog networking, also known as fogging, is an architecture that uses edge devices to carry out a substantial amount of computation, storage, communication locally and routed over the internet backbone, and most definitively has input and output from the physical world known as transduction.

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Folding@home (FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing project for disease research that simulates protein folding, computational drug design, and other types of molecular dynamics.

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Forensic search

Forensic Search is an emerging field of computer forensics.

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Gartner, Inc. is a global research and advisory firm providing insights, advice, and tools for leaders in IT, Finance, HR, Customer Service and Support, Legal and Compliance, Marketing, Sales, and Supply Chain functions across the world.

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General Magic

General Magic was a company cofounded by Bill Atkinson, Andy Hertzfeld and Marc Porat that developed a new kind of handheld communications device they called a "personal intelligent communicator", which was a PDA precursor that stressed communications.

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Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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Google App Engine

Google App Engine (often referred to as GAE or simply App Engine) is a web framework and cloud computing platform for developing and hosting web applications in Google-managed data centers.

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Google Compute Engine

Google Compute Engine (GCE) is the Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) component of Google Cloud Platform which is built on the global infrastructure that runs Google’s search engine, Gmail, YouTube and other services.

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Google Now

Google Now was a feature of Google Search offering predictive cards with information and daily updates in the Google app for Android and iOS.

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Green computing

Green computing, green ICT as per International Federation of Global & Green ICT "IFGICT", green IT, or ICT sustainability, is the study and practice of environmentally sustainable computing or IT.

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Grid computing

Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.

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Hardware virtualization

Hardware virtualization is the virtualization of computers as complete hardware platforms, certain logical abstractions of their componentry, or only the functionality required to run various operating systems.

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Microsoft Hyper-V, codenamed Viridian and formerly known as Windows Server Virtualization, is a native hypervisor; it can create virtual machines on x86-64 systems running Windows.

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A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines.

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The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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In computer programming, indirection (also called "dereferencing") is the ability to reference something using a name, reference, or container instead of the value itself.

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InfiniBand (abbreviated IB) is a computer-networking communications standard used in high-performance computing that features very high throughput and very low latency.

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Information engineering

Information engineering (IE) or information engineering methodology (IEM) is a software engineering approach to designing and developing information systems.

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Information sensitivity

Information sensitivity is the control of access to information or knowledge that might result in loss of an advantage or level of security if disclosed to others.

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Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

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InfoWorld (formerly The Intelligent Machines Journal) is an information technology media business.

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Infrastructure as a service

Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) refers to online services that provide high-level APIs used to dereference various low-level details of underlying network infrastructure like physical computing resources, location, data partitioning, scaling, security, backup etc.

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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

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International Association of Professional Translators and Interpreters

The International Association of Professional Translators and Interpreters (IAPTI) is an international professional association of translators and interpreters based in Argentina.

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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IT infrastructure

Information technology infrastructure is defined broadly as a set of information technology (IT) components that are the foundation of an IT service; typically physical components (computer and networking hardware and facilities), but also various software and network components.

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Kernel (operating system)

The kernel is a computer program that is the core of a computer's operating system, with complete control over everything in the system.

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Kernel-based Virtual Machine

Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) is a virtualization infrastructure for the Linux kernel that turns it into a hypervisor.

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A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.

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Linux kernel

The Linux kernel is an open-source monolithic Unix-like computer operating system kernel.

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Load balancing (computing)

In computing, load balancing improves the distribution of workloads across multiple computing resources, such as computers, a computer cluster, network links, central processing units, or disk drives.

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Loose coupling

In computing and systems design a loosely coupled system is one in which each of its components has, or makes use of, little or no knowledge of the definitions of other separate components.

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Mainframe computer

Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.

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Microservices is a software development technique—a variant of the service-oriented architecture (SOA) architectural style that structures an application as a collection of loosely coupled services.

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Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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Microsoft Azure

Microsoft Azure (formerly Windows Azure) is a cloud computing service created by Microsoft for building, testing, deploying, and managing applications and services through a global network of Microsoft-managed data centers.

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Mobile app

A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch.

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Mobile cloud computing

Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) is the combination of cloud computing, mobile computing and wireless networks to bring rich computational resources to mobile users, network operators, as well as cloud computing providers.

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The term "software multitenancy" refers to a software architecture in which a single instance of software runs on a server and serves multiple tenants.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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Nebula (computing platform)

Nebula is a Federal cloud computing platform that originated at NASA Ames Research Center at Moffett Field, California.

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Non-disclosure agreement

A non-disclosure agreement (NDA), also known as a confidentiality agreement (CA), confidential disclosure agreement (CDA), proprietary information agreement (PIA) or secrecy agreement (SA), is a legal contract between at least two parties that outlines confidential material, knowledge, or information that the parties wish to share with one another for certain purposes, but wish to restrict access to or by third parties.

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Object storage

Object storage (also known as object-based storage) is a computer data storage architecture that manages data as objects, as opposed to other storage architectures like file systems which manage data as a file hierarchy, and block storage which manages data as blocks within sectors and tracks.

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OpenNebula is a cloud computing platform for managing heterogeneous distributed data center infrastructures.

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OpenStack (O~S) is a free and open-source software platform for cloud computing, mostly deployed as infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS), whereby virtual servers and other resources are made available to customers.

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Operating expense

An operating expense, operating expenditure, operational expense, operational expenditure or opex is an ongoing cost for running a product, business, or system.

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Operating-system-level virtualization

Operating-system-level virtualization, also known as containerization, refers to an operating system feature in which the kernel allows the existence of multiple isolated user-space instances.

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Oracle Cloud

Oracle Cloud is a cloud computing service offered by Oracle Corporation providing servers, storage, network, applications and services through a global network of Oracle Corporation managed data centers.

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Oracle VM Server for x86

Oracle VM Server for x86 is the server virtualization offering from Oracle Corporation.

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PandoDaily is a web publication that offers technology news, analysis, and commentary, with a focus on Silicon Valley and startup companies.

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Parallel computing

Parallel computing is a type of computation in which many calculations or the execution of processes are carried out concurrently.

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Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.

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Performance engineering

Performance engineering encompasses the techniques applied during a systems development life cycle to ensure the non-functional requirements for performance (such as throughput, latency, or memory usage) will be met.

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Performance metric

A performance metric measures an organization's behavior, activities, and performance.

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Personal cloud

A personal cloud is a collection of digital content and services which are accessible from any device.

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Platform as a service

Platform as a Service (PaaS) or application platform as a Service (aPaaS) or platform base service is a category of cloud computing services that provides a platform allowing customers to develop, run, and manage applications without the complexity of building and maintaining the infrastructure typically associated with developing and launching an app.

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Pooling (resource management)

In resource management, pooling is the grouping together of resources (assets, equipment, personnel, effort, etc.) for the purposes of maximizing advantage or minimizing risk to the users.

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Product-family engineering

Product-family engineering (PFE), also known as product-line engineering, is a synonym for "domain engineering" created by the Software Engineering Institute, a term coined by James Neighbors in his 1980 dissertation at University of California, Irvine.

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Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.

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In telecommunication, provisioning involves the process of preparing and equipping a network to allow it to provide new services to its users.

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Public utility

A public utility (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure).

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Push technology

Push technology, or server push, is a style of Internet-based communication where the request for a given transaction is initiated by the publisher or central server.

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Quality control

Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production.

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Rackspace Inc. is a managed cloud computing company based in Windcrest, Texas, USA, a suburb of San Antonio, Texas.

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Reliability (computer networking)

In computer networking, a reliable protocol provides notifications to the sender as to the delivery of transmitted data, as opposed to an unreliable protocol, which does not provide assurance of the delivery of data to the intended recipient(s).

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Remote job entry

Remote job entry is the procedure for sending requests for data processing tasks or 'jobs' to mainframe computers from remote workstations, and by extension the process of receiving the output from such tasks at a remote workstation.

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Research and development

Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.

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Risk analysis (engineering)

Risk analysis is the science of risks and their probability and evaluation.

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Robot as a service

Robot as a service (or Robotics as a service, RaaS) is a cloud computing unit that facilitates the seamless integration of robot and embedded devices into Web and cloud computing environment.

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Sandbox (software development)

A sandbox is a testing environment that isolates untested code changes and outright experimentation from the production environment or repository, in the context of software development including Web development and revision control.

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Security engineering

Security engineering is a specialized field of engineering that focuses on the security aspects in the design of systems that need to be able to deal robustly with possible sources of disruption, ranging from natural disasters to malicious acts.

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Service (systems architecture)

In the contexts of software architecture, service-orientation and service-oriented architecture, the term service refers to a software functionality or a set of software functionalities (such as the retrieval of specified information or the execution of a set of operations) with a purpose that different clients can reuse for different purposes, together with the policies that should control its usage (based on the identity of the client requesting the service, for example).

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Service bureau

A service bureau is a company that provides business services for a fee.

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Service-oriented architecture

A service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a style of software design where services are provided to the other components by application components, through a communication protocol over a network.

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Siri (pronounced) is a virtual assistant part of Apple Inc.'s iOS, watchOS, macOS, and tvOS operating systems.

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Smarter Planet

Smarter Planet is a corporate initiative of the information technology company IBM.

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Social networking service

A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is a web application that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.

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Software as a service

Software as a service (SaaS) is a software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted.

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Software development kit

A software development kit (SDK or devkit) is typically a set of software development tools that allows the creation of applications for a certain software package, software framework, hardware platform, computer system, video game console, operating system, or similar development platform.

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Software engineering

Software engineering is the application of engineering to the development of software in a systematic method.

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Software maintenance

Software maintenance in software engineering is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes.

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Software system

A software system is a system on intercommunicating components based on software forming part of a computer system (a combination of hardware and software).

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Solution stack

In computing, a solution stack or software stack is a set of software subsystems or components needed to create a complete platform such that no additional software is needed to support applications.

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Spatial analysis

Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.

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Startup company

A startup company (startup or start-up) is an entrepreneurial venture which is typically a newly emerged business that aims to meet a marketplace need by developing a viable business model around a product, service, process or a platform.

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A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer.

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Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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System resource

In computing, a system resource, or simply resource, is any physical or virtual component of limited availability within a computer system.

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Systems architecture

A system architecture or systems architecture is the conceptual model that defines the structure, behavior, and more views of a system.

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Systems engineering

Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles.

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TechCrunch is an American online publisher of technology industry news founded in 2005 by Archimedes Ventures whose partners were Michael Arrington and Keith Teare.

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Telescript (programming language)

Telescript is an object-oriented programming language written by General Magic as part of the overall Magic Cap system.

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In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.

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Transaction processing

Transaction processing is information processing in computer science that is divided into individual, indivisible operations called transactions.

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Ubiquitous computing

Ubiquitous computing (or "ubicomp") is a concept in software engineering and computer science where computing is made to appear anytime and everywhere.

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Utility computing

Utility computing, or The Computer Utility, is a service provisioning model in which a service provider makes computing resources and infrastructure management available to the customer as needed, and charges them for specific usage rather than a flat rate.

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In engineering utilization or operational stage of a system or equipment life-cycle is a period of time when their quality is realized in practical use to achieve intended objectives and supported by accomplishment of storage, maintenance, repair, etc.

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Virtual assistant

A virtual assistant is a software agent that can perform tasks or services for an individual.

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Virtual LAN

A virtual LAN (VLAN) is any broadcast domain that is partitioned and isolated in a computer network at the data link layer (OSI layer 2).

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Virtual machine

In computing, a virtual machine (VM) is an emulation of a computer system.

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Virtual private network

A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.

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Oracle VM VirtualBox (formerly Sun VirtualBox, Sun xVM VirtualBox and Innotek VirtualBox) is a free and open-source hypervisor for x86 computers currently being developed by Oracle Corporation.

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In computing, virtualization refers to the act of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including virtual computer hardware platforms, storage devices, and computer network resources.

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VMware ESXi

VMware ESXi (formerly ESX) is an enterprise-class, type-1 hypervisor developed by VMware for deploying and serving virtual computers.

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Web application

In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser.

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Web engineering

The World Wide Web has become a major delivery platform for a variety of complex and sophisticated enterprise applications in several domains.

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Web service

The term web service is either.

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Wide area network

A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunications network or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance/place.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.

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X.400 is a suite of ITU-T Recommendations that define standards for Data Communication Networks for Message Handling Systems (MHS) — more commonly known as email.

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Xen Project (pronounced) is a hypervisor using a microkernel design, providing services that allow multiple computer operating systems to execute on the same computer hardware concurrently.

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Ziff Davis

Ziff Davis, LLC is an American publisher and Internet company.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cloud_computing

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