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Clozapine

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Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication. [1]

177 relations: Acetone, Agranulocytosis, Akathisia, Allosteric regulation, Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor, Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor, Amisulpride, Amnesia, Animal locomotion, Antipsychotic, Anxiety, Aripiprazole, Astrocyte, Ataxia, Atypical antipsychotic, Benzodiazepine, Beta-1 adrenergic receptor, Beta-2 adrenergic receptor, Bioavailability, Biological half-life, Blood, Bone marrow suppression, Bowel obstruction, Boxed warning, C-reactive protein, Carbamazepine, Carbohydrate, Cardiovascular disease, Central nervous system depression, Chemical polarity, Chloroform, Cholinergic, Ciprofloxacin, Cochrane (organisation), Confusion, Constipation, CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, Delayed onset muscle soreness, Delirium, Delusion, Dementia, Demethylation, Depression (mood), ..., Developing country, DHA-clozapine, Diabetes mellitus, Diazepine, Dizziness, Dopamine, Dopamine receptor D1, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopamine receptor D3, Dopamine receptor D4, Dopamine receptor D5, Drooling, Drug of last resort, Ejaculation, Enzyme induction and inhibition, Enzyme inhibitor, Epileptic seizure, Extrapyramidal symptoms, Fat, Fatigue, Fecal impaction, First pass effect, Fluvoxamine, GABAB receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene expression, Generic drug, Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Granulocyte, Hallucination, Haloperidol, Headache, Health system, Heart failure, Histamine H1 receptor, Histamine H2 receptor, Histamine H3 receptor, Histamine H4 receptor, Hyperglycemia, Hyperkinesia, Hypokinesia, Hypotension, Ileus, Imipramine, Insomnia, Insulin resistance, Irritability, Ischemia, Isozyme, Kidney, Laxative, Lethargy, Leukopenia, Libido, Liver, Loxapine, McGraw-Hill Education, Metabolic syndrome, Metabolism, Methacrylic acid, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5, Myocarditis, Myoclonus, Necrosis, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neutropenia, Nightmare, NMDA receptor, Novartis, Obesity, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Olanzapine, Orgasm, Orthostatic hypotension, Paranoia, Paresthesia, Parkinson's disease, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacotherapy, Psychomotor agitation, Psychosis, Quetiapine, Radiodensity, Rebound effect, Relaxed pronunciation, Salivary gland, Schizoaffective disorder, Schizophrenia, Sedation, Seizure threshold, Serine, Serotonin, Sigma-1 receptor, Sigma-2 receptor, SLC1A2, Sleep disorder, Somnolence, Spasticity, Status epilepticus, Steady state, Suicide, Syncope (medicine), Tardive dyskinesia, Theophylline, Tremor, Troponin, Typical antipsychotic, Urinary incontinence, Vertigo, Weakness, Weight gain, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT1B receptor, 5-HT1D receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT2B receptor, 5-HT2C receptor, 5-HT3 receptor, 5-HT5A receptor, 5-HT6 receptor, 5-HT7 receptor. Expand index (127 more) »

Acetone

Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Agranulocytosis

Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.

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Akathisia

Akathisia is a movement disorder characterized by a feeling of inner restlessness and inability to stay still.

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Allosteric regulation

In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.

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Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor

The alpha-1A adrenergic receptor (α1A adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1A, formerly known also as the alpha-1C adrenergic receptor, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Alpha-1B adrenergic receptor

The alpha-1B adrenergic receptor (α1B adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRA1B, is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2A adrenergic receptor (α2A adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2A, is an α2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2B adrenergic receptor (α2B adrenoceptor), is a G-protein coupled receptor.

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Alpha-2C adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2C adrenergic receptor (α2C adrenoceptor), also known as ADRA2C, is an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Amisulpride

Amisulpride, sold under the brand name Solian among others, is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia.

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Amnesia

Amnesia is a deficit in memory caused by brain damage, disease, or psychological trauma.

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Animal locomotion

Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.

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Antipsychotic

Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Anxiety

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Aripiprazole

Aripiprazole, sold under the brand name Abilify among others, is an atypical antipsychotic. It is recommended and primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Other uses include as an add-on treatment in major depressive disorder, tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism. According to a Cochrane review, evidence for the oral form in schizophrenia is not sufficient to determine effects on general functioning. Additionally, because many people dropped out of the medication trials before they were completed, the overall strength of the conclusions is low. Side effects include neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a movement disorder known as tardive dyskinesia, and high blood sugar in those with diabetes. In the elderly there is an increased risk of death. It is thus not recommended for use in those with psychosis due to dementia. It is pregnancy category C in the United States and category C in Australia, meaning there is possible evidence of harm to the fetus. It is not recommended for women who are breastfeeding. It is unclear whether it is safe or effective in people less than 18 years old. It is a partial dopamine agonist. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan. In the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb. From April 2013 to March 2014, sales of Abilify amounted to almost $6.9 billion.

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Astrocyte

Astrocytes (Astro from Greek astron.

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Ataxia

Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.

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Atypical antipsychotic

The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.

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Benzodiazepine

Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Beta-1 adrenergic receptor

The beta-1 adrenergic receptor (β1 adrenoceptor), also known as ADRB1, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, and also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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Beta-2 adrenergic receptor

The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation.

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Bioavailability

In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

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Biological half-life

The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.

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Blood

Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Bone marrow suppression

Bone marrow suppression also known as myelotoxicity or myelosuppression, is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes).

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Bowel obstruction

Bowel obstruction, also known as intestinal obstruction, is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines which prevents the normal movement of the products of digestion.

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Boxed warning

In the United States, a boxed warning (sometimes "black box warning", colloquially) is a type of warning that appears on the package insert for certain prescription drugs, so called because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration specifies that it is formatted with a 'box' or border around the text.

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C-reactive protein

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.

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Carbamazepine

Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Central nervous system depression

Central nervous system depression or CNS depression refers to physiological depression of the central nervous system that can result in decreased rate of breathing, decreased heart rate, and loss of consciousness possibly leading to coma or death.

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Chemical polarity

In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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Chloroform

Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.

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Cholinergic

In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the ''N'',''N'',''N''-trimethylethanolammonium cation.

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Ciprofloxacin

Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.

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Cochrane (organisation)

Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.

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Confusion

Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.

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Constipation

Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.

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CYP1A2

Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.

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CYP2D6

Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.

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CYP2E1

Cytochrome P450 2E1 (abbreviated CYP2E1) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.

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CYP3A4

Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.

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Cytochrome P450

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.

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Delayed onset muscle soreness

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is the pain and stiffness felt in muscles several hours to days after unaccustomed or strenuous exercise.

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Delirium

Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.

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Delusion

A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.

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Dementia

Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Demethylation

Demethylation is the chemical process resulting in the removal of a methyl group (CH3) from a molecule.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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DHA-clozapine

DHA-clozapine (tentative trade name Clozaprexin) is an atypical antipsychotic drug candidate that was created and originally tested by chemists at Protarga, a small pharmaceutical in Pennsylvania, and scientists at Harvard University.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diazepine

Diazepine is a seven-membered heterocyclic compound with two nitrogen atoms (e.g., in ring positions 1 and 2).

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Dizziness

Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.

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Dopamine

Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.

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Dopamine receptor D1

Dopamine receptor D1, also known as DRD1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD1 gene.

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Dopamine receptor D2

Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.

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Dopamine receptor D3

Dopamine receptor D3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD3 gene.

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Dopamine receptor D4

The dopamine receptor D4 is a dopamine D2-like G protein-coupled receptor encoded by the gene on chromosome 11 at 11p15.5.

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Dopamine receptor D5

Dopamine receptor D5, also known as D1BR, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DRD5 gene.

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Drooling

Drooling, or slobbering, is the flow of saliva outside the mouth.

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Drug of last resort

A drug of last resort (DoLR) is a pharmaceutical drug that is tried after all other drug options have failed to produce an adequate response in the patient.

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Ejaculation

Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.

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Enzyme induction and inhibition

Enzyme induction is a process in which a molecule (e.g. a drug) induces (i.e. initiates or enhances) the expression of an enzyme.

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Enzyme inhibitor

4QI9) An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Extrapyramidal symptoms

Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), also known as extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE), are drug-induced movement disorders that include acute and tardive symptoms.

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Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fatigue

Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Fecal impaction

A fecal impaction is a solid, immobile bulk of feces that can develop in the rectum as a result of chronic constipation.

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First pass effect

The first pass effect (also known as first-pass metabolism or presystemic metabolism) is a phenomenon of drug metabolism whereby the concentration of a drug is greatly reduced before it reaches the systemic circulation.

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Fluvoxamine

Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.

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GABAB receptor

GABAB receptors (GABABR) are metabotropic transmembrane receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that are linked via G-proteins to potassium channels.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.

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Generic drug

A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.

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Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics

Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, commonly referred to as the Blue Bible or Goodman & Gilman, is a textbook of pharmacology originally authored by Louis S. Goodman and Alfred Gilman.

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Granulocyte

Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.

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Hallucination

A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.

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Haloperidol

Haloperidol, marketed under the trade name Haldol among others, is a typical antipsychotic medication.

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Headache

Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Histamine H1 receptor

The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors.

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Histamine H2 receptor

H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs.

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Histamine H3 receptor

Histamine H3 receptors are expressed in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent the peripheral nervous system, where they act as autoreceptors in presynaptic histaminergic neurons, and also control histamine turnover by feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release.

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Histamine H4 receptor

The histamine H4 receptor is, like the other three histamine receptors, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily.

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Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.

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Hyperkinesia

Hyperkinesia, also known as hyperkinesis, refers to an increase in muscular activity that can result in excessive abnormal movements, excessive normal movements, or a combination of both.

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Hypokinesia

Hypokinesia refers to decreased bodily movement.

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Hypotension

Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.

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Ileus

Ileus is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.

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Imipramine

Imipramine, sold under the brand name Tofranil among others, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) which is used mainly in the treatment of depression.

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Insomnia

Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.

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Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.

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Irritability

Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.

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Ischemia

Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

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Isozyme

Isozymes (also known as isoenzymes or more generally as multiple forms of enzymes) are enzymes that differ in amino acid sequence but catalyze the same chemical reaction.

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Kidney

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Laxative

Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.

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Lethargy

Lethargy is a state of tiredness, weariness, fatigue, or lack of energy.

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Leukopenia

Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.

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Libido

Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.

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Liver

The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Loxapine

Loxapine (several trade names worldwide) is a typical antipsychotic medication, used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Methacrylic acid

Methacrylic acid, abbreviated MAA, is an organic compound.

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1

The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1, is a muscarinic receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM1 gene.

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2

The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2, is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor that in humans is encoded by the CHRM2 gene.

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3

The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, also known as cholinergic/acetylcholine receptor M3, or the muscarinic 3, is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor encoded by the human gene CHRM3.

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4

The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4, also known as the cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4 (CHRM4), is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the CHRM4 gene.

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Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5

The human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5, encoded by the gene, is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily of integral membrane proteins.

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Myocarditis

Myocarditis, also known as inflammatory cardiomyopathy, is inflammation of the heart muscle.

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Myoclonus

Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.

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Necrosis

Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.

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Neutropenia

Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.

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Nightmare

A nightmare, also called a bad dream, Retrieved July 11, 2016.

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NMDA receptor

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.

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Novartis

Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.

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Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").

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Olanzapine

Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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Orgasm

Orgasm (from Greek ὀργασμός orgasmos "excitement, swelling"; also sexual climax) is the sudden discharge of accumulated sexual excitement during the sexual response cycle, resulting in rhythmic muscular contractions in the pelvic region characterized by sexual pleasure.

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Orthostatic hypotension

Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.

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Paranoia

Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.

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Paresthesia

Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.

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Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

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Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).

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Pharmacotherapy

Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.

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Psychomotor agitation

Psychomotor agitation is a set of signs and symptoms that stem from mental tension and anxiety.

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Psychosis

Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.

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Quetiapine

Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.

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Radiodensity

Radiodensity (or radiopacity) is opacity to the radio wave and X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum: that is, the relative inability of those kinds of electromagnetic radiation to pass through a particular material.

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Rebound effect

The rebound effect, or rebound phenomenon, is the emergence or re-emergence of symptoms that were either absent or controlled while taking a medication, but appear when that same medication is discontinued, or reduced in dosage.

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Relaxed pronunciation

Relaxed pronunciation (also called condensed pronunciation or word slurs) is a phenomenon that happens when the syllables of common words are slurred together.

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Salivary gland

The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.

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Schizoaffective disorder

Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions.

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Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.

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Sedation

Sedation is the reduction of irritability or agitation by administration of sedative drugs, generally to facilitate a medical procedure or diagnostic procedure.

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Seizure threshold

The term seizure threshold is used to describe the balance between excitatory and inhibitory forces in the brain which affect how susceptible a person is to seizures.

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Serine

Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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Serotonin

Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.

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Sigma-1 receptor

The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), one of two sigma receptor subtypes, is a chaperone protein at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor.

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Sigma-2 receptor

The sigma-2 receptor (σ2R) is a sigma receptor subtype that has been found highly expressed in malignant cancer cells, and is currently under investigation for its potential diagnostic and therapeutic uses.

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SLC1A2

Excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) also known as solute carrier family 1 member 2 (SLC1A2) and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC1A2 gene.

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Sleep disorder

A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.

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Somnolence

Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).

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Spasticity

Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity, and hypertonia.

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Status epilepticus

Status epilepticus (SE) is a single epileptic seizure lasting more than five minutes or two or more seizures within a five-minute period without the person returning to normal between them.

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Steady state

In systems theory, a system or a process is in a steady state if the variables (called state variables) which define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time.

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Suicide

Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.

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Syncope (medicine)

Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.

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Tardive dyskinesia

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.

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Theophylline

Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.

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Tremor

A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.

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Troponin

bibcode.

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Typical antipsychotic

Typical antipsychotics are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia).

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Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any uncontrolled leakage of urine.

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Vertigo

Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.

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Weakness

Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions.

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Weight gain

Weight gain is an increase in body weight.

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.

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5-HT1A receptor

The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).

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5-HT1B receptor

5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B also known as the 5-HT1B receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR1B gene.

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5-HT1D receptor

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1D, also known as HTR1D, is a 5-HT receptor, but also denotes the human gene encoding it.

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5-HT2A receptor

The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).

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5-HT2B receptor

5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor 2B (5-HT2B) also known as serotonin receptor 2B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR2B gene.

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5-HT2C receptor

The 5-HT2C receptor is a subtype of 5-HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).

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5-HT3 receptor

The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.

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5-HT5A receptor

5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 5A, also known as HTR5A, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HTR5A gene.

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5-HT6 receptor

The 5HT6 receptor is a subtype of 5HT receptor that binds the endogenous neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT).

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5-HT7 receptor

The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.

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Redirects here:

ATC code N05AH02, ATCvet code QN05AH02, Asaleptin, Clozari, Clozaril, Clozepine, Clozopine, FazaClo, Fazaclo, Fazaclo ODT, Fazaclo odt, Gen-Clozapine, Iprox, Klozapin, Leponex, Lepotex, Lepronex, Sizopin, Versacloz.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clozapine

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