Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!


Index Cnidaria

Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species. [1]

232 relations: Adhesive, Algae, Alternation of generations, Ammonia, Amoeba (genus), Amphiprioninae, Andrew Dalby, Animal, Anthozoa, Antioxidant, Aquarium, Arctic, Asexual reproduction, Atmosphere (unit), Bacteria, Bark (botany), Basement membrane, Berthold Hatschek, Bilateria, Biochemistry, Biomineralization, Blastula, Body orifice, Box jellyfish, Brine shrimp, Butterflyfish, Calcareous sponge, Calcium carbonate, Cambrian, Carbon dioxide, Cartwheel (gymnastics), Cell (biology), Charnia, Chironex, Chironex fleckeri, Chitin, Cholesterol, Chondrophore, Chordate, Chrysaora fuscescens, Cilium, Circulatory system, Class (biology), Cnidaria, Cnidocyte, Coelenterata, Colloblast, Colony (biology), Concentration, Conulariida, ..., Coral, Coral reef, Cornea, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crown group, Crown-of-thorns starfish, Ctenophora, Delicacy, Demosponge, Diffusion, Digestion, Dinoflagellate, Diploblasty, DNA, Doushantuo Formation, Dynamite, East Asia, Ectoderm, Ediacaran, Egg cell, Endosymbiont, Enzyme, Epithelium, Erosion, Eumetazoa, Evolution, Exodermis, Exoskeleton, Filter feeder, Fish, Food chain, Fringing reef, Fungus, Gastrodermis, Gastrulation, Geometer moth, Gland, Gonad, Gorgonia, Great Barrier Reef, Haaretz, Haootia, Harpoon, Heavy metals, Hexactinellid, Homoscleromorpha, Human digestive system, Hybrid (biology), Hydra (genus), Hydroid (zoology), Hydrostatic skeleton, Hydrothermal vent, Hydrozoa, Inorganic compound, Invertebrate, Irukandji syndrome, Japan, Jellyfish, Jet propulsion, Jewellery, Korea, Lagerstätte, Larva, Lens (anatomy), Leptogorgia, Lion's mane jellyfish, Lunar phase, Mangrove, Medusa, Medusozoa, Mesoderm, Mesoglea, Mesozoic, Metamorphosis, Mitochondrion, Molecular clock, Molecular phylogenetics, Monophyly, Morphology (biology), Motility, Motor nerve, Mucus, Muscle, Myocyte, Myxozoa, Nerve, Nervous system, Nudibranch, Nutrient, Obelia, Ocean, Operculum (animal), Order (biology), Ordovician, Organ (anatomy), Organic compound, Organic matter, Organism, Osmotic pressure, Oxygen toxicity, Pacific Ocean, Parasitism, Parrotfish, PDF, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Placozoa, Plankton, Plant, Planula, Planulozoa, Polar regions of Earth, Polarity in embryogenesis, Pollution, Polymerization, Polymorphism (biology), Polyp, Polypodium (animal), Portuguese man o' war, Predation, Primary production, Protein, Protist, Protozoa, Reef, Regeneration (biology), Respiration (physiology), Retina, Rhizostomae, RNA, Rotational symmetry, Rudists, Salinity, Salmonidae, Science (journal), Scleractinia, Scuba set, Scyphozoa, Sea anemone, Sea pen, Seagrass, Secretion, Sediment, Sensory neuron, Sessility (motility), Sexual reproduction, Silt, Simple eye in invertebrates, Siphonophorae, Sister group, Skeleton, Southeast Asia, Species, Sperm, Sponge, Sponge spicule, Starfish, Statocyst, Stauromedusae, Staurozoa, Storm drain, Striated muscle tissue, Strobilation, Sturgeon, Sugar, Symbiosis, Synapse, Tentacle, Tide, Total organic carbon, Trade secret, Trimorphism, Triploblasty, Tube-dwelling anemone, Tubularia, Turtle, Venom, Yolk, Zooid, Zooxanthellae. Expand index (182 more) »


An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.

New!!: Cnidaria and Adhesive · See more »


Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

New!!: Cnidaria and Algae · See more »

Alternation of generations

Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.

New!!: Cnidaria and Alternation of generations · See more »


Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

New!!: Cnidaria and Ammonia · See more »

Amoeba (genus)

Amoeba is a genus of single-celled amoeboids in the family Amoebidae.

New!!: Cnidaria and Amoeba (genus) · See more »


Clownfish or anemonefish are fishes from the subfamily Amphiprioninae in the family Pomacentridae.

New!!: Cnidaria and Amphiprioninae · See more »

Andrew Dalby

Andrew Dalby, (born 1947 in Liverpool) is an English linguist, translator and historian who has written articles and several books on a wide range of topics including food history, language, and Classical texts.

New!!: Cnidaria and Andrew Dalby · See more »


Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

New!!: Cnidaria and Animal · See more »


Anthozoa is a class of marine invertebrates which includes the sea anemones, stony corals, soft corals and gorgonians.

New!!: Cnidaria and Anthozoa · See more »


Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

New!!: Cnidaria and Antioxidant · See more »


An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.

New!!: Cnidaria and Aquarium · See more »


The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

New!!: Cnidaria and Arctic · See more »

Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

New!!: Cnidaria and Asexual reproduction · See more »

Atmosphere (unit)

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.

New!!: Cnidaria and Atmosphere (unit) · See more »


Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

New!!: Cnidaria and Bacteria · See more »

Bark (botany)

Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.

New!!: Cnidaria and Bark (botany) · See more »

Basement membrane

The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.

New!!: Cnidaria and Basement membrane · See more »

Berthold Hatschek

Berthold Hatschek (3 April 1854 – 18 January 1941) was an Austrian zoologist remembered for embryological and morphological studies of invertebrates.

New!!: Cnidaria and Berthold Hatschek · See more »


The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.

New!!: Cnidaria and Bilateria · See more »


Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

New!!: Cnidaria and Biochemistry · See more »


Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.

New!!: Cnidaria and Biomineralization · See more »


The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals.

New!!: Cnidaria and Blastula · See more »

Body orifice

A body orifice is any opening in the body of an animal.

New!!: Cnidaria and Body orifice · See more »

Box jellyfish

Box jellyfish (class Cubozoa) are cnidarian invertebrates distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae.

New!!: Cnidaria and Box jellyfish · See more »

Brine shrimp

Artemia is a genus of aquatic crustaceans also known as brine shrimp.

New!!: Cnidaria and Brine shrimp · See more »


The butterflyfish are a group of conspicuous tropical marine fish of the family Chaetodontidae; the bannerfish and coralfish are also included in this group.

New!!: Cnidaria and Butterflyfish · See more »

Calcareous sponge

The calcareous sponges of class Calcarea are members of the animal phylum Porifera, the cellular sponges.

New!!: Cnidaria and Calcareous sponge · See more »

Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

New!!: Cnidaria and Calcium carbonate · See more »


The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

New!!: Cnidaria and Cambrian · See more »

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

New!!: Cnidaria and Carbon dioxide · See more »

Cartwheel (gymnastics)

A cartwheel is a sideways rotary movement of the body.

New!!: Cnidaria and Cartwheel (gymnastics) · See more »

Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

New!!: Cnidaria and Cell (biology) · See more »


Charnia is a genus of frond-like Ediacaran lifeforms with segmented, leaf-like ridges branching alternately to the right and left from a zig-zag medial suture (thus exhibiting glide reflection, or opposite isometry).

New!!: Cnidaria and Charnia · See more »


Chironex is a genus of box jellyfish in the family Chirodropidae.

New!!: Cnidaria and Chironex · See more »

Chironex fleckeri

Chironex fleckeri, commonly known as the sea wasp, is a species of dangerously venomous box jellyfish found in coastal waters from northern Australia and New Guinea north to the Philippines and Vietnam.

New!!: Cnidaria and Chironex fleckeri · See more »


Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

New!!: Cnidaria and Chitin · See more »


Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

New!!: Cnidaria and Cholesterol · See more »


The chondrophores or porpitids are a small and very unusual group of hydrozoans classified as the family Porpitidae.

New!!: Cnidaria and Chondrophore · See more »


A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.

New!!: Cnidaria and Chordate · See more »

Chrysaora fuscescens

The Pacific sea nettle (Chrysaora fuscescens), or West Coast sea nettle, is a common free-floating scyphozoan that lives in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Canada to Mexico.

New!!: Cnidaria and Chrysaora fuscescens · See more »


A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

New!!: Cnidaria and Cilium · See more »

Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

New!!: Cnidaria and Circulatory system · See more »

Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

New!!: Cnidaria and Class (biology) · See more »


Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.

New!!: Cnidaria and Cnidaria · See more »


A cnidocyte (also known as a cnidoblast or nematocyte) is an explosive cell containing one giant secretory organelle or cnida (plural cnidae) that defines the phylum Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydrae, jellyfish, etc.). Cnidae are used for prey capture and defense from predators.

New!!: Cnidaria and Cnidocyte · See more »


Coelenterata is an obsolete term encompassing the animal phyla Cnidaria (coral animals, true jellies, sea anemones, sea pens, and their allies) and Ctenophora (comb jellies).

New!!: Cnidaria and Coelenterata · See more »


Colloblasts are a cell type found in ctenophores.

New!!: Cnidaria and Colloblast · See more »

Colony (biology)

In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.

New!!: Cnidaria and Colony (biology) · See more »


In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

New!!: Cnidaria and Concentration · See more »


Conulariida is a poorly understood fossil group that has possible affinity with the Cnidaria.

New!!: Cnidaria and Conulariida · See more »


Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

New!!: Cnidaria and Coral · See more »

Coral reef

Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.

New!!: Cnidaria and Coral reef · See more »


The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

New!!: Cnidaria and Cornea · See more »

Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.

New!!: Cnidaria and Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event · See more »

Crown group

In phylogenetics, the crown group of a collection of species consists of the living representatives of the collection together with their ancestors back to their most recent common ancestor as well as all of that ancestor's descendants.

New!!: Cnidaria and Crown group · See more »

Crown-of-thorns starfish

The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, is a large, multiple-armed starfish that usually preys upon hard, or stony, coral polyps (Scleractinia).

New!!: Cnidaria and Crown-of-thorns starfish · See more »


Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.

New!!: Cnidaria and Ctenophora · See more »


A delicacy is usually a rare or expensive food item that is considered highly desirable, sophisticated or peculiarly distinctive, within a given culture.

New!!: Cnidaria and Delicacy · See more »


Demospongiae is the most diverse class in the phylum Porifera.

New!!: Cnidaria and Demosponge · See more »


Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

New!!: Cnidaria and Diffusion · See more »


Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

New!!: Cnidaria and Digestion · See more »


The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.

New!!: Cnidaria and Dinoflagellate · See more »


Diploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are two primary germ layers: the ectoderm and endoderm.

New!!: Cnidaria and Diploblasty · See more »


Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

New!!: Cnidaria and DNA · See more »

Doushantuo Formation

The Doushantuo Formation is a fossil Lagerstätte in Weng'an County, Guizhou Province, China that is notable for being one of the oldest beds to contain minutely preserved microfossils, phosphatic fossils that are so characteristic they have given their name to "Doushantuo type preservation".

New!!: Cnidaria and Doushantuo Formation · See more »


Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers.

New!!: Cnidaria and Dynamite · See more »

East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

New!!: Cnidaria and East Asia · See more »


Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

New!!: Cnidaria and Ectoderm · See more »


The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.

New!!: Cnidaria and Ediacaran · See more »

Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

New!!: Cnidaria and Egg cell · See more »


An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.

New!!: Cnidaria and Endosymbiont · See more »


Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

New!!: Cnidaria and Enzyme · See more »


Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

New!!: Cnidaria and Epithelium · See more »


In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).

New!!: Cnidaria and Erosion · See more »


Eumetazoa (Greek: εὖ, well + μετά, after + ζῷον, animal) or '''Diploblasts''', or Epitheliozoa, or Histozoa are a proposed basal animal clade as sister group of the Porifera.

New!!: Cnidaria and Eumetazoa · See more »


Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

New!!: Cnidaria and Evolution · See more »


The exodermis is a layer of cells from the outermost layer of the cortex of many angiosperms.

New!!: Cnidaria and Exodermis · See more »


An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

New!!: Cnidaria and Exoskeleton · See more »

Filter feeder

Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

New!!: Cnidaria and Filter feeder · See more »


Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

New!!: Cnidaria and Fish · See more »

Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

New!!: Cnidaria and Food chain · See more »

Fringing reef

A fringing reef is one of the four main types of coral reef recognized by most coral reef scientists.

New!!: Cnidaria and Fringing reef · See more »


A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

New!!: Cnidaria and Fungus · See more »


The gastrodermis is the inner layer of cells that serves as a lining membrane of the gastrovascular cavity of Cnidarians.

New!!: Cnidaria and Gastrodermis · See more »


Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.

New!!: Cnidaria and Gastrulation · See more »

Geometer moth

The geometer moths are moths belonging to the family Geometridae of the insect order Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies.

New!!: Cnidaria and Geometer moth · See more »


A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).

New!!: Cnidaria and Gland · See more »


A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

New!!: Cnidaria and Gonad · See more »


Gorgonia is a genus of soft corals, sea fans in the family Gorgoniidae.

New!!: Cnidaria and Gorgonia · See more »

Great Barrier Reef

The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over over an area of approximately.

New!!: Cnidaria and Great Barrier Reef · See more »


Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.

New!!: Cnidaria and Haaretz · See more »


Haootia quadriformis is an extinct animal belonging to the Ediacaran biota.

New!!: Cnidaria and Haootia · See more »


A harpoon is a long spear-like instrument used in fishing, whaling, sealing, and other marine hunting to catch large fish or marine mammals such as whales.

New!!: Cnidaria and Harpoon · See more »

Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

New!!: Cnidaria and Heavy metals · See more »


Hexactinellid sponges are sponges with a skeleton made of four- and/or six-pointed siliceous spicules, often referred to as glass sponges.

New!!: Cnidaria and Hexactinellid · See more »


Homoscleromorpha is a class of marine sponges composed of two families: Plakinidae and Oscarellidae.

New!!: Cnidaria and Homoscleromorpha · See more »

Human digestive system

The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).

New!!: Cnidaria and Human digestive system · See more »

Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

New!!: Cnidaria and Hybrid (biology) · See more »

Hydra (genus)

Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.

New!!: Cnidaria and Hydra (genus) · See more »

Hydroid (zoology)

Hydroids are a life stage for most animals of the class Hydrozoa, small predators related to jellyfish.

New!!: Cnidaria and Hydroid (zoology) · See more »

Hydrostatic skeleton

A hydrostatic skeleton, or hydroskeleton, is a skeleton supported by fluid pressure.

New!!: Cnidaria and Hydrostatic skeleton · See more »

Hydrothermal vent

A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.

New!!: Cnidaria and Hydrothermal vent · See more »


Hydrozoa (hydrozoans, from ancient Greek ὕδρα, hydra, "sea serpent" and ζῷον, zoon, "animal") are a taxonomic class of individually very small, predatory animals, some solitary and some colonial, most living in salt water.

New!!: Cnidaria and Hydrozoa · See more »

Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.

New!!: Cnidaria and Inorganic compound · See more »


Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

New!!: Cnidaria and Invertebrate · See more »

Irukandji syndrome

Irukandji syndrome is a condition induced by venomization by the sting of Carukia barnesi, a species of Irukandji jellyfish, and certain other box jellyfish.

New!!: Cnidaria and Irukandji syndrome · See more »


Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

New!!: Cnidaria and Japan · See more »


Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.

New!!: Cnidaria and Jellyfish · See more »

Jet propulsion

Jet propulsion is thrust produced by passing a jet of matter (typically fluid) in the opposite direction to the direction of motion.

New!!: Cnidaria and Jet propulsion · See more »


Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.

New!!: Cnidaria and Jewellery · See more »


Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

New!!: Cnidaria and Korea · See more »


A Lagerstätte (from Lager 'storage, lair' Stätte 'place'; plural Lagerstätten) is a sedimentary deposit that exhibits extraordinary fossils with exceptional preservation—sometimes including preserved soft tissues.

New!!: Cnidaria and Lagerstätte · See more »


A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

New!!: Cnidaria and Larva · See more »

Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.

New!!: Cnidaria and Lens (anatomy) · See more »


Leptogorgia is a genus of soft coral in the family Gorgoniidae.

New!!: Cnidaria and Leptogorgia · See more »

Lion's mane jellyfish

The lion's mane jellyfish, also known as the giant jellyfish or the hair jelly, is the largest known species of jellyfish.

New!!: Cnidaria and Lion's mane jellyfish · See more »

Lunar phase

The lunar phase or phase of the Moon is the shape of the directly sunlit portion of the Moon as viewed from Earth.

New!!: Cnidaria and Lunar phase · See more »


A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.

New!!: Cnidaria and Mangrove · See more »


In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.

New!!: Cnidaria and Medusa · See more »


Medusozoa is a clade in the phylum Cnidaria, and is often considered a subphylum.

New!!: Cnidaria and Medusozoa · See more »


In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

New!!: Cnidaria and Mesoderm · See more »


Mesoglea, also known as mesohyl, is the translucent, non-living, jelly-like substance found between the two epithelial cell layers (i.e., between the ectoderm and endoderm) in the bodies of cnidarians and sponges.

New!!: Cnidaria and Mesoglea · See more »


The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

New!!: Cnidaria and Mesozoic · See more »


Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

New!!: Cnidaria and Metamorphosis · See more »


The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

New!!: Cnidaria and Mitochondrion · See more »

Molecular clock

The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.

New!!: Cnidaria and Molecular clock · See more »

Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

New!!: Cnidaria and Molecular phylogenetics · See more »


In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

New!!: Cnidaria and Monophyly · See more »

Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

New!!: Cnidaria and Morphology (biology) · See more »


Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.

New!!: Cnidaria and Motility · See more »

Motor nerve

A motor nerve is a nerve located in the central nervous system (CNS), usually the spinal cord, that sends motor signals from the CNS to the muscles of the body.This is different from the motor neuron, which includes a cell body and branching of dendrites, while the nerve is made up of a bundle of axons.

New!!: Cnidaria and Motor nerve · See more »


Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

New!!: Cnidaria and Mucus · See more »


Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

New!!: Cnidaria and Muscle · See more »


A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.

New!!: Cnidaria and Myocyte · See more »


Myxozoa (etymology: Greek: μύξα myxa "slime" or "mucus" + thematic vowel o + ζῷον zoon "animals") is a class of aquatic, obligately parasitic cnidarian animals.

New!!: Cnidaria and Myxozoa · See more »


A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.

New!!: Cnidaria and Nerve · See more »

Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

New!!: Cnidaria and Nervous system · See more »


Nudibranchs are a group of soft-bodied, marine gastropod molluscs which shed their shells after their larval stage.

New!!: Cnidaria and Nudibranch · See more »


A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

New!!: Cnidaria and Nutrient · See more »


Obelia is a genus of hydrozoans, which consists mainly of marine and some freshwater animal species and have both the polyp and medusa stages in their life cycle.

New!!: Cnidaria and Obelia · See more »


An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

New!!: Cnidaria and Ocean · See more »

Operculum (animal)

An operculum is an anatomical feature, a stiff structure resembling a lid or a small door that opens and closes, and thus controls contact between the outside world and an internal part of an animal.

New!!: Cnidaria and Operculum (animal) · See more »

Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

New!!: Cnidaria and Order (biology) · See more »


The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.

New!!: Cnidaria and Ordovician · See more »

Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

New!!: Cnidaria and Organ (anatomy) · See more »

Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

New!!: Cnidaria and Organic compound · See more »

Organic matter

Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.

New!!: Cnidaria and Organic matter · See more »


In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

New!!: Cnidaria and Organism · See more »

Osmotic pressure

Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.

New!!: Cnidaria and Osmotic pressure · See more »

Oxygen toxicity

Oxygen toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen at increased partial pressures.

New!!: Cnidaria and Oxygen toxicity · See more »

Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

New!!: Cnidaria and Pacific Ocean · See more »


In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

New!!: Cnidaria and Parasitism · See more »


Parrotfishes are a group of marine species found in relatively shallow tropical and subtropical oceans around the world.

New!!: Cnidaria and Parrotfish · See more »


The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

New!!: Cnidaria and PDF · See more »

Permian–Triassic extinction event

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

New!!: Cnidaria and Permian–Triassic extinction event · See more »


Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

New!!: Cnidaria and Photosynthesis · See more »


In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

New!!: Cnidaria and Phylogenetics · See more »


In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

New!!: Cnidaria and Phylum · See more »


The Placozoa are a basal form of free-living (non-parasitic) multicellular organism.

New!!: Cnidaria and Placozoa · See more »


Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

New!!: Cnidaria and Plankton · See more »


Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

New!!: Cnidaria and Plant · See more »


A planula is the free-swimming, flattened, ciliated, bilaterally symmetric larval form of various cnidarian species.

New!!: Cnidaria and Planula · See more »


Planulozoa is a proposed basal ParaHoxozoa clade, conventionally as sister of the Placozoa.

New!!: Cnidaria and Planulozoa · See more »

Polar regions of Earth

The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.

New!!: Cnidaria and Polar regions of Earth · See more »

Polarity in embryogenesis

In developmental biology, an embryo is divided into two hemispheres: the animal pole and the vegetal pole within a blastula.

New!!: Cnidaria and Polarity in embryogenesis · See more »


Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

New!!: Cnidaria and Pollution · See more »


In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

New!!: Cnidaria and Polymerization · See more »

Polymorphism (biology)

Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.

New!!: Cnidaria and Polymorphism (biology) · See more »


A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa.

New!!: Cnidaria and Polyp · See more »

Polypodium (animal)

Polypodium is a genus of parasite attacking the eggs of sturgeon and similar fishes (Acipenseridae and Polyodontidae).

New!!: Cnidaria and Polypodium (animal) · See more »

Portuguese man o' war

The Atlantic Portuguese man o' war (Physalia physalis), also known as the man-of-war, is a marine hydrozoan of the family Physaliidae found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans.

New!!: Cnidaria and Portuguese man o' war · See more »


Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

New!!: Cnidaria and Predation · See more »

Primary production

Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.

New!!: Cnidaria and Primary production · See more »


Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

New!!: Cnidaria and Protein · See more »


A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

New!!: Cnidaria and Protist · See more »


Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

New!!: Cnidaria and Protozoa · See more »


A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water.

New!!: Cnidaria and Reef · See more »

Regeneration (biology)

In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.

New!!: Cnidaria and Regeneration (biology) · See more »

Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

New!!: Cnidaria and Respiration (physiology) · See more »


The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

New!!: Cnidaria and Retina · See more »


Rhizostomae or Rhizostomeae is an order of jellyfish.

New!!: Cnidaria and Rhizostomae · See more »


Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

New!!: Cnidaria and RNA · See more »

Rotational symmetry

Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in biology, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn.

New!!: Cnidaria and Rotational symmetry · See more »


Rudists are a group of box-, tube-, or ring-shaped marine heterodont bivalves that arose during the Late Jurassic and became so diverse during the Cretaceous that they were major reef-building organisms in the Tethys Ocean.

New!!: Cnidaria and Rudists · See more »


Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

New!!: Cnidaria and Salinity · See more »


Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the order Salmoniformes.

New!!: Cnidaria and Salmonidae · See more »

Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

New!!: Cnidaria and Science (journal) · See more »


Scleractinia, also called stony corals or hard corals, are marine animals in the phylum Cnidaria that build themselves a hard skeleton.

New!!: Cnidaria and Scleractinia · See more »

Scuba set

A scuba set is any breathing apparatus that is carried entirely by an underwater diver and provides the diver with breathing gas at the ambient pressure.

New!!: Cnidaria and Scuba set · See more »


The Scyphozoa are an exclusively marine class of the phylum Cnidaria, referred to as the true jellyfish (or "true jellies").

New!!: Cnidaria and Scyphozoa · See more »

Sea anemone

Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.

New!!: Cnidaria and Sea anemone · See more »

Sea pen

Sea pens are colonial marine cnidarians belonging to the order Pennatulacea.

New!!: Cnidaria and Sea pen · See more »


Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.

New!!: Cnidaria and Seagrass · See more »


Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.

New!!: Cnidaria and Secretion · See more »


Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

New!!: Cnidaria and Sediment · See more »

Sensory neuron

Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.

New!!: Cnidaria and Sensory neuron · See more »

Sessility (motility)

In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile.

New!!: Cnidaria and Sessility (motility) · See more »

Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

New!!: Cnidaria and Sexual reproduction · See more »


Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.

New!!: Cnidaria and Silt · See more »

Simple eye in invertebrates

A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.

New!!: Cnidaria and Simple eye in invertebrates · See more »


The Siphonophorae or Siphonophora, the siphonophores, are an order of the hydrozoans, a class of marine animals belonging to the phylum Cnidaria.

New!!: Cnidaria and Siphonophorae · See more »

Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.

New!!: Cnidaria and Sister group · See more »


The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

New!!: Cnidaria and Skeleton · See more »

Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

New!!: Cnidaria and Southeast Asia · See more »


In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

New!!: Cnidaria and Species · See more »


Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

New!!: Cnidaria and Sperm · See more »


Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.

New!!: Cnidaria and Sponge · See more »

Sponge spicule

Spicules are structural elements found in most sponges.

New!!: Cnidaria and Sponge spicule · See more »


Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.

New!!: Cnidaria and Starfish · See more »


The statocyst is a balance sensory receptor present in some aquatic invertebrates, including molluscs, bivalves, cnidarians, ctenophorans, echinoderms, cephalopods, and crustaceans.

New!!: Cnidaria and Statocyst · See more »


Stauromedusae are the stalked jellyfishes.

New!!: Cnidaria and Stauromedusae · See more »


Staurozoa is a class of jellyfishes.

New!!: Cnidaria and Staurozoa · See more »

Storm drain

A storm drain, storm sewer (U.S. and Canada), surface water drain/sewer (United Kingdom), or stormwater drain (Australia and New Zealand) is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from impervious surfaces such as paved streets, car parks, parking lots, footpaths, sidewalks, and roofs.

New!!: Cnidaria and Storm drain · See more »

Striated muscle tissue

Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue which does not.

New!!: Cnidaria and Striated muscle tissue · See more »


Strobilation or transverse fission is a form of asexual reproduction consisting of the spontaneous transverse segmentation of the body.

New!!: Cnidaria and Strobilation · See more »


Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.

New!!: Cnidaria and Sturgeon · See more »


Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

New!!: Cnidaria and Sugar · See more »


Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

New!!: Cnidaria and Symbiosis · See more »


In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

New!!: Cnidaria and Synapse · See more »


In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.

New!!: Cnidaria and Tentacle · See more »


Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.

New!!: Cnidaria and Tide · See more »

Total organic carbon

Total organic carbon (TOC) is the amount of carbon found in an organic compound and is often used as a non-specific indicator of water quality or cleanliness of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment.

New!!: Cnidaria and Total organic carbon · See more »

Trade secret

A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers.

New!!: Cnidaria and Trade secret · See more »


In biology, trimorphism is the existence in certain plants and animals of three distinct forms, especially in connection with the reproductive organs.

New!!: Cnidaria and Trimorphism · See more »


Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

New!!: Cnidaria and Triploblasty · See more »

Tube-dwelling anemone

Tube-dwelling anemones or ceriantharians look very similar to sea anemones but belong to an entirely different subclass of anthozoans.

New!!: Cnidaria and Tube-dwelling anemone · See more »


Tubularia is a genus of hydroids that appear to be furry pink tufts or balls at the end of long strings, thus causing them to be sometimes be called "pink-mouthed" or "pink-hearted" hydroids.

New!!: Cnidaria and Tubularia · See more »


Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.

New!!: Cnidaria and Turtle · See more »


Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.

New!!: Cnidaria and Venom · See more »


Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.

New!!: Cnidaria and Yolk · See more »


A zooid or zoöid is a single animal that is part of a colonial animal.

New!!: Cnidaria and Zooid · See more »


Zooxanthellae are single-celled dinoflagellates that are able to live in symbiosis with marine invertebrates such as corals, jellyfish, and sea anemones.

New!!: Cnidaria and Zooxanthellae · See more »

Redirects here:

Acalephae, Cindaria, Cnid, Cnidarian, Cnidarian venoms, Cnidarians, Cnideria, Coelenteratology, Nidaria, Nidarians, Sub-Phylum Cnidaria.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidaria

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »