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Cnidaria

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Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species. [1]

232 relations: Adhesive, Algae, Alternation of generations, Ammonia, Amoeba (genus), Amphiprioninae, Andrew Dalby, Animal, Anthozoa, Antioxidant, Aquarium, Arctic, Asexual reproduction, Atmosphere (unit), Bacteria, Bark (botany), Basement membrane, Berthold Hatschek, Bilateria, Biochemistry, Biomineralization, Blastula, Body orifice, Box jellyfish, Brine shrimp, Butterflyfish, Calcareous sponge, Calcium carbonate, Cambrian, Carbon dioxide, Cartwheel (gymnastics), Cell (biology), Charnia, Chironex, Chironex fleckeri, Chitin, Cholesterol, Chondrophore, Chordate, Chrysaora fuscescens, Cilium, Circulatory system, Class (biology), Cnidaria, Cnidocyte, Coelenterata, Colloblast, Colony (biology), Concentration, Conulariida, ..., Coral, Coral reef, Cornea, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crown group, Crown-of-thorns starfish, Ctenophora, Delicacy, Demosponge, Diffusion, Digestion, Dinoflagellate, Diploblasty, DNA, Doushantuo Formation, Dynamite, East Asia, Ectoderm, Ediacaran, Egg cell, Endosymbiont, Enzyme, Epithelium, Erosion, Eumetazoa, Evolution, Exodermis, Exoskeleton, Filter feeder, Fish, Food chain, Fringing reef, Fungus, Gastrodermis, Gastrulation, Geometer moth, Gland, Gonad, Gorgonia, Great Barrier Reef, Haaretz, Haootia, Harpoon, Heavy metals, Hexactinellid, Homoscleromorpha, Human digestive system, Hybrid (biology), Hydra (genus), Hydroid (zoology), Hydrostatic skeleton, Hydrothermal vent, Hydrozoa, Inorganic compound, Invertebrate, Irukandji syndrome, Japan, Jellyfish, Jet propulsion, Jewellery, Korea, Lagerstätte, Larva, Lens (anatomy), Leptogorgia, Lion's mane jellyfish, Lunar phase, Mangrove, Medusa, Medusozoa, Mesoderm, Mesoglea, Mesozoic, Metamorphosis, Mitochondrion, Molecular clock, Molecular phylogenetics, Monophyly, Morphology (biology), Motility, Motor nerve, Mucus, Muscle, Myocyte, Myxozoa, Nerve, Nervous system, Nudibranch, Nutrient, Obelia, Ocean, Operculum (animal), Order (biology), Ordovician, Organ (anatomy), Organic compound, Organic matter, Organism, Osmotic pressure, Oxygen toxicity, Pacific Ocean, Parasitism, Parrotfish, PDF, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetics, Phylum, Placozoa, Plankton, Plant, Planula, Planulozoa, Polar regions of Earth, Polarity in embryogenesis, Pollution, Polymerization, Polymorphism (biology), Polyp, Polypodium (animal), Portuguese man o' war, Predation, Primary production, Protein, Protist, Protozoa, Reef, Regeneration (biology), Respiration (physiology), Retina, Rhizostomae, RNA, Rotational symmetry, Rudists, Salinity, Salmonidae, Science (journal), Scleractinia, Scuba set, Scyphozoa, Sea anemone, Sea pen, Seagrass, Secretion, Sediment, Sensory neuron, Sessility (motility), Sexual reproduction, Silt, Simple eye in invertebrates, Siphonophorae, Sister group, Skeleton, Southeast Asia, Species, Sperm, Sponge, Sponge spicule, Starfish, Statocyst, Stauromedusae, Staurozoa, Storm drain, Striated muscle tissue, Strobilation, Sturgeon, Sugar, Symbiosis, Synapse, Tentacle, Tide, Total organic carbon, Trade secret, Trimorphism, Triploblasty, Tube-dwelling anemone, Tubularia, Turtle, Venom, Yolk, Zooid, Zooxanthellae. Expand index (182 more) »

Adhesive

An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.

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Algae

Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Alternation of generations

Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.

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Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Amoeba (genus)

Amoeba is a genus of single-celled amoeboids in the family Amoebidae.

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Amphiprioninae

Clownfish or anemonefish are fishes from the subfamily Amphiprioninae in the family Pomacentridae.

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Andrew Dalby

Andrew Dalby, (born 1947 in Liverpool) is an English linguist, translator and historian who has written articles and several books on a wide range of topics including food history, language, and Classical texts.

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Animal

Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Anthozoa

Anthozoa is a class of marine invertebrates which includes the sea anemones, stony corals, soft corals and gorgonians.

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Antioxidant

Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Aquarium

An aquarium (plural: aquariums or aquaria) is a vivarium of any size having at least one transparent side in which aquatic plants or animals are kept and displayed.

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Arctic

The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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Atmosphere (unit)

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bark (botany)

Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants.

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Basement membrane

The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, extracellular matrix of tissue that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans.

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Berthold Hatschek

Berthold Hatschek (3 April 1854 – 18 January 1941) was an Austrian zoologist remembered for embryological and morphological studies of invertebrates.

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Bilateria

The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biomineralization

Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.

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Blastula

The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals.

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Body orifice

A body orifice is any opening in the body of an animal.

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Box jellyfish

Box jellyfish (class Cubozoa) are cnidarian invertebrates distinguished by their cube-shaped medusae.

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Brine shrimp

Artemia is a genus of aquatic crustaceans also known as brine shrimp.

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Butterflyfish

The butterflyfish are a group of conspicuous tropical marine fish of the family Chaetodontidae; the bannerfish and coralfish are also included in this group.

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Calcareous sponge

The calcareous sponges of class Calcarea are members of the animal phylum Porifera, the cellular sponges.

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Cambrian

The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Cartwheel (gymnastics)

A cartwheel is a sideways rotary movement of the body.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Charnia

Charnia is a genus of frond-like Ediacaran lifeforms with segmented, leaf-like ridges branching alternately to the right and left from a zig-zag medial suture (thus exhibiting glide reflection, or opposite isometry).

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Chironex

Chironex is a genus of box jellyfish in the family Chirodropidae.

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Chironex fleckeri

Chironex fleckeri, commonly known as the sea wasp, is a species of dangerously venomous box jellyfish found in coastal waters from northern Australia and New Guinea north to the Philippines and Vietnam.

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Chitin

Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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Cholesterol

Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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Chondrophore

The chondrophores or porpitids are a small and very unusual group of hydrozoans classified as the family Porpitidae.

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Chordate

A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Chrysaora fuscescens

The Pacific sea nettle (Chrysaora fuscescens), or West Coast sea nettle, is a common free-floating scyphozoan that lives in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Canada to Mexico.

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Cilium

A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Cnidaria

Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.

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Cnidocyte

A cnidocyte (also known as a cnidoblast or nematocyte) is an explosive cell containing one giant secretory organelle or cnida (plural cnidae) that defines the phylum Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydrae, jellyfish, etc.). Cnidae are used for prey capture and defense from predators.

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Coelenterata

Coelenterata is an obsolete term encompassing the animal phyla Cnidaria (coral animals, true jellies, sea anemones, sea pens, and their allies) and Ctenophora (comb jellies).

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Colloblast

Colloblasts are a cell type found in ctenophores.

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Colony (biology)

In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.

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Concentration

In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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Conulariida

Conulariida is a poorly understood fossil group that has possible affinity with the Cnidaria.

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Coral

Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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Coral reef

Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.

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Cornea

The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.

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Crown group

In phylogenetics, the crown group of a collection of species consists of the living representatives of the collection together with their ancestors back to their most recent common ancestor as well as all of that ancestor's descendants.

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Crown-of-thorns starfish

The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, is a large, multiple-armed starfish that usually preys upon hard, or stony, coral polyps (Scleractinia).

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Ctenophora

Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.

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Delicacy

A delicacy is usually a rare or expensive food item that is considered highly desirable, sophisticated or peculiarly distinctive, within a given culture.

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Demosponge

Demospongiae is the most diverse class in the phylum Porifera.

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Diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Digestion

Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Dinoflagellate

The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.

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Diploblasty

Diploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are two primary germ layers: the ectoderm and endoderm.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Doushantuo Formation

The Doushantuo Formation is a fossil Lagerstätte in Weng'an County, Guizhou Province, China that is notable for being one of the oldest beds to contain minutely preserved microfossils, phosphatic fossils that are so characteristic they have given their name to "Doushantuo type preservation".

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Dynamite

Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers.

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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Ectoderm

Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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Ediacaran

The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Endosymbiont

An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epithelium

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Erosion

In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).

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Eumetazoa

Eumetazoa (Greek: εὖ, well + μετά, after + ζῷον, animal) or '''Diploblasts''', or Epitheliozoa, or Histozoa are a proposed basal animal clade as sister group of the Porifera.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Exodermis

The exodermis is a layer of cells from the outermost layer of the cortex of many angiosperms.

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Exoskeleton

An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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Filter feeder

Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

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Fish

Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

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Fringing reef

A fringing reef is one of the four main types of coral reef recognized by most coral reef scientists.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gastrodermis

The gastrodermis is the inner layer of cells that serves as a lining membrane of the gastrovascular cavity of Cnidarians.

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Gastrulation

Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.

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Geometer moth

The geometer moths are moths belonging to the family Geometridae of the insect order Lepidoptera, the moths and butterflies.

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Gland

A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).

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Gonad

A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Gorgonia

Gorgonia is a genus of soft corals, sea fans in the family Gorgoniidae.

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Great Barrier Reef

The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over over an area of approximately.

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Haaretz

Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.

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Haootia

Haootia quadriformis is an extinct animal belonging to the Ediacaran biota.

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Harpoon

A harpoon is a long spear-like instrument used in fishing, whaling, sealing, and other marine hunting to catch large fish or marine mammals such as whales.

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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Hexactinellid

Hexactinellid sponges are sponges with a skeleton made of four- and/or six-pointed siliceous spicules, often referred to as glass sponges.

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Homoscleromorpha

Homoscleromorpha is a class of marine sponges composed of two families: Plakinidae and Oscarellidae.

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Human digestive system

The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).

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Hybrid (biology)

In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.

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Hydra (genus)

Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.

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Hydroid (zoology)

Hydroids are a life stage for most animals of the class Hydrozoa, small predators related to jellyfish.

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Hydrostatic skeleton

A hydrostatic skeleton, or hydroskeleton, is a skeleton supported by fluid pressure.

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Hydrothermal vent

A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.

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Hydrozoa

Hydrozoa (hydrozoans, from ancient Greek ὕδρα, hydra, "sea serpent" and ζῷον, zoon, "animal") are a taxonomic class of individually very small, predatory animals, some solitary and some colonial, most living in salt water.

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Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is typically a chemical compound that lacks C-H bonds, that is, a compound that is not an organic compound, but the distinction is not defined or even of particular interest.

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Invertebrate

Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Irukandji syndrome

Irukandji syndrome is a condition induced by venomization by the sting of Carukia barnesi, a species of Irukandji jellyfish, and certain other box jellyfish.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jellyfish

Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.

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Jet propulsion

Jet propulsion is thrust produced by passing a jet of matter (typically fluid) in the opposite direction to the direction of motion.

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Jewellery

Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.

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Korea

Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Lagerstätte

A Lagerstätte (from Lager 'storage, lair' Stätte 'place'; plural Lagerstätten) is a sedimentary deposit that exhibits extraordinary fossils with exceptional preservation—sometimes including preserved soft tissues.

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Larva

A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.

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Leptogorgia

Leptogorgia is a genus of soft coral in the family Gorgoniidae.

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Lion's mane jellyfish

The lion's mane jellyfish, also known as the giant jellyfish or the hair jelly, is the largest known species of jellyfish.

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Lunar phase

The lunar phase or phase of the Moon is the shape of the directly sunlit portion of the Moon as viewed from Earth.

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Mangrove

A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.

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Medusa

In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.

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Medusozoa

Medusozoa is a clade in the phylum Cnidaria, and is often considered a subphylum.

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Mesoderm

In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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Mesoglea

Mesoglea, also known as mesohyl, is the translucent, non-living, jelly-like substance found between the two epithelial cell layers (i.e., between the ectoderm and endoderm) in the bodies of cnidarians and sponges.

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Mesozoic

The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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Metamorphosis

Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Molecular clock

The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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Monophyly

In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Morphology (biology)

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.

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Motility

Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.

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Motor nerve

A motor nerve is a nerve located in the central nervous system (CNS), usually the spinal cord, that sends motor signals from the CNS to the muscles of the body.This is different from the motor neuron, which includes a cell body and branching of dendrites, while the nerve is made up of a bundle of axons.

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Mucus

Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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Muscle

Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Myocyte

A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.

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Myxozoa

Myxozoa (etymology: Greek: μύξα myxa "slime" or "mucus" + thematic vowel o + ζῷον zoon "animals") is a class of aquatic, obligately parasitic cnidarian animals.

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Nerve

A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nudibranch

Nudibranchs are a group of soft-bodied, marine gastropod molluscs which shed their shells after their larval stage.

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Nutrient

A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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Obelia

Obelia is a genus of hydrozoans, which consists mainly of marine and some freshwater animal species and have both the polyp and medusa stages in their life cycle.

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Ocean

An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.

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Operculum (animal)

An operculum is an anatomical feature, a stiff structure resembling a lid or a small door that opens and closes, and thus controls contact between the outside world and an internal part of an animal.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Ordovician

The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Organic matter

Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.

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Organism

In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.

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Osmotic pressure

Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.

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Oxygen toxicity

Oxygen toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen at increased partial pressures.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Parasitism

In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.

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Parrotfish

Parrotfishes are a group of marine species found in relatively shallow tropical and subtropical oceans around the world.

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PDF

The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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Permian–Triassic extinction event

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Phylogenetics

In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Phylum

In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Placozoa

The Placozoa are a basal form of free-living (non-parasitic) multicellular organism.

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Plankton

Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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Plant

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Planula

A planula is the free-swimming, flattened, ciliated, bilaterally symmetric larval form of various cnidarian species.

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Planulozoa

Planulozoa is a proposed basal ParaHoxozoa clade, conventionally as sister of the Placozoa.

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Polar regions of Earth

The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.

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Polarity in embryogenesis

In developmental biology, an embryo is divided into two hemispheres: the animal pole and the vegetal pole within a blastula.

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Pollution

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.

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Polymerization

In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

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Polymorphism (biology)

Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.

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Polyp

A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa.

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Polypodium (animal)

Polypodium is a genus of parasite attacking the eggs of sturgeon and similar fishes (Acipenseridae and Polyodontidae).

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Portuguese man o' war

The Atlantic Portuguese man o' war (Physalia physalis), also known as the man-of-war, is a marine hydrozoan of the family Physaliidae found in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans.

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Predation

Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Primary production

Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protist

A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Protozoa

Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.

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Reef

A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water.

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Regeneration (biology)

In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.

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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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Retina

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Rhizostomae

Rhizostomae or Rhizostomeae is an order of jellyfish.

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Rotational symmetry

Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in biology, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn.

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Rudists

Rudists are a group of box-, tube-, or ring-shaped marine heterodont bivalves that arose during the Late Jurassic and became so diverse during the Cretaceous that they were major reef-building organisms in the Tethys Ocean.

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Salinity

Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Salmonidae

Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the order Salmoniformes.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Scleractinia

Scleractinia, also called stony corals or hard corals, are marine animals in the phylum Cnidaria that build themselves a hard skeleton.

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Scuba set

A scuba set is any breathing apparatus that is carried entirely by an underwater diver and provides the diver with breathing gas at the ambient pressure.

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Scyphozoa

The Scyphozoa are an exclusively marine class of the phylum Cnidaria, referred to as the true jellyfish (or "true jellies").

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Sea anemone

Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.

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Sea pen

Sea pens are colonial marine cnidarians belonging to the order Pennatulacea.

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Seagrass

Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.

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Secretion

Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.

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Sediment

Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

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Sensory neuron

Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.

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Sessility (motility)

In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Silt

Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.

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Simple eye in invertebrates

A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.

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Siphonophorae

The Siphonophorae or Siphonophora, the siphonophores, are an order of the hydrozoans, a class of marine animals belonging to the phylum Cnidaria.

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Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.

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Skeleton

The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Sperm

Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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Sponge

Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.

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Sponge spicule

Spicules are structural elements found in most sponges.

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Starfish

Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.

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Statocyst

The statocyst is a balance sensory receptor present in some aquatic invertebrates, including molluscs, bivalves, cnidarians, ctenophorans, echinoderms, cephalopods, and crustaceans.

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Stauromedusae

Stauromedusae are the stalked jellyfishes.

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Staurozoa

Staurozoa is a class of jellyfishes.

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Storm drain

A storm drain, storm sewer (U.S. and Canada), surface water drain/sewer (United Kingdom), or stormwater drain (Australia and New Zealand) is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from impervious surfaces such as paved streets, car parks, parking lots, footpaths, sidewalks, and roofs.

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Striated muscle tissue

Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue that features repeating functional units called sarcomeres, in contrast with smooth muscle tissue which does not.

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Strobilation

Strobilation or transverse fission is a form of asexual reproduction consisting of the spontaneous transverse segmentation of the body.

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Sturgeon

Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.

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Sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Symbiosis

Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Synapse

In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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Tentacle

In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.

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Tide

Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.

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Total organic carbon

Total organic carbon (TOC) is the amount of carbon found in an organic compound and is often used as a non-specific indicator of water quality or cleanliness of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment.

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Trade secret

A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial method, or compilation of information not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers.

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Trimorphism

In biology, trimorphism is the existence in certain plants and animals of three distinct forms, especially in connection with the reproductive organs.

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Triploblasty

Triploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.

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Tube-dwelling anemone

Tube-dwelling anemones or ceriantharians look very similar to sea anemones but belong to an entirely different subclass of anthozoans.

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Tubularia

Tubularia is a genus of hydroids that appear to be furry pink tufts or balls at the end of long strings, thus causing them to be sometimes be called "pink-mouthed" or "pink-hearted" hydroids.

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Turtle

Turtles are diapsids of the order Testudines (or Chelonii) characterized by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs and acting as a shield.

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Venom

Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.

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Yolk

Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.

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Zooid

A zooid or zoöid is a single animal that is part of a colonial animal.

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Zooxanthellae

Zooxanthellae are single-celled dinoflagellates that are able to live in symbiosis with marine invertebrates such as corals, jellyfish, and sea anemones.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Acalephae, Cindaria, Cnid, Cnidarian, Cnidarian venoms, Cnidarians, Cnideria, Coelenteratology, Nidaria, Nidarians, Sub-Phylum Cnidaria.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidaria

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