276 relations: Abiogenic petroleum origin, Acetic acid, Acid rain, Adit, Alkene, American Lung Association, American Nurses Association, Ammonia, Antarctica, Anthracite, Appalachia, Aquae Sulis, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Arsenic, ASME, Asphaltene, Australia, Backstop resources, Barrel of oil equivalent, Bath, Somerset, Bergius process, Biobased economy, Biochar, Biodegradation, Biotic material, Bituminous coal, Blast furnace, Bog, Boiler, Borough (Pennsylvania), Bottom ash, BP, British Geological Survey, Bronze Age, Burning Mountain, Cannel coal, Car Dyke, Carbochemistry, Carbon, Carbon capture and storage, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon sequestration, Carboniferous, Carbonization, Castra, Centralia, Pennsylvania, Chemical synthesis, Chester, China, ..., Christmas stocking, Clean coal, Climate change, Coal assay, Coal Blending, Coal dust, Coal gas, Coal gasification, Coal homogenization, Coal in China, Coal liquefaction, Coal measures, Coal mining, Coal pier, Coal Region, Coal seam fire, Coal tar, Coal-mining region, Coal-water slurry fuel, Coalbed methane, Coalworker's pneumoconiosis, Cogeneration, Coke (fuel), Coke strength after reaction, Combustibility, Cupola furnace, Diesel fuel, Diplococcus, Direct reduced iron, East Anglia, Electric generator, Electric power industry, Electricity, Electricity generation, Energy density, Energy Information Administration, England, Enhanced oil recovery, Eschweiler, European Union, First-foot, Fischer–Tropsch process, Flue, Flue gas, Flue-gas desulfurization, Fluidized bed combustion, Fly ash, Formaldehyde, Fossil fuel, Fossil-fuel phase-out, Funeral, Funk & Wagnalls, Furnace, Futures contract, Gas turbine, Gasification, Gasoline, Germany, Global warming, Graphite, Great Britain, Greeks, Greenhouse gas, Groundwater, Gyttja, Heat of combustion, Heat recovery steam generator, Hedge (finance), Henry III of England, Henry VIII of England, Herodotus, Heronbridge Roman Site, High Middle Ages, Hilt's law, Human impact on the environment, Hydraulic fracturing, Hydrogen, Hydrogen economy, Hydrogenation, India, Indonesia, Industrial Revolution, Integrated gasification combined cycle, Intercontinental Exchange, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Iron, Iron ore, Japan, Jet (lignite), John Caius, Joule, Kemper Project, Kentucky, Kilowatt hour, Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill, Lewis and Clark Expedition, Lignite, Liptinite, List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions, List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones, Lubricant, Lung cancer, Maceral, Magnetohydrodynamic generator, Marco Polo, Mass fraction (chemistry), McGraw Hill Financial, Mercury (element), Metamorphic rock, Metamorphism, Methanol, Mineral, Mineral resource classification, Minerva, Mining in Roman Britain, Molding (process), Molding sand, Mountaintop removal mining, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Natural gas, Neolithic, New Scientist, New York Mercantile Exchange, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nitrogen, North Dakota, Northumberland, Oil refinery, Oil sands, Open-pit mining, Outcrop, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxy-fuel, Oxygen, Pacific Northwest, Parts-per notation, Peak coal, Peak oil, Peat, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Petroleum, Petroleum coke, Phosphorus, Physicians for Social Responsibility, Pig iron, Powder River Basin, Power station, Precambrian, Pressure, Price of oil, Pyre, Redox, Reducing agent, Reserves-to-production ratio, Rhineland, Risk management, River Fleet, Roman Britain, Roman villa, Russia, Santa Claus, Sasol, Schwarze Pumpe power station, Scoria, Sedimentary rock, Selenium, Shaft mining, Shenyang, Short ton, Siemens, Solid fuel, Somerset Coalfield, South Africa, South Korea, Soviet Union, Space heater, Spontaneous combustion, Spremberg, Steam, Steam engine, Steam locomotive, Steam turbine, Steel, Stratum, Sub-bituminous coal, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Supercritical steam generator, Surface mining, Syngas, Synthetic fuel, Tajikistan, The Coal Question, The Fens, The Midlands, Theophrastus, Thermal efficiency, Thorium, Tonne, Tonstein, Toxic heavy metal, Trametes versicolor, Turbine, Turkestan, U.S. state, United States, United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Upper Paleolithic, Uranium, Urea, Utah, Vattenfall, Volcanism, Wales, Water heating, Water resource management, Water table, Water wheel, Water-gas shift reaction, Westminster Abbey, Wildfire, World, World Coal Association, Wyoming, Yaghnob Valley. Expand index (226 more) » « Shrink index
Abiogenic petroleum origin is a term used to describe a number of different theories which propose that petroleum and natural gas are formed by inorganic means rather than by the decomposition of organisms.
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Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).
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Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).
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An adit (from Latin aditus, entrance) is an entrance to an underground mine which is horizontal or nearly horizontal, by which the mine can be entered, drained of water, ventilated, and minerals extracted at the lowest convenient level.
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In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.
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The American Lung Association is a voluntary health organization whose mission is to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung disease through education, advocacy and research.
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The American Nurses Association (ANA) is a professional organization to advance and protect the profession of nursing.
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Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.
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Anthracite is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a high luster.
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Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia.
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Aquae Sulis was a small town in the Roman province of Britannia.
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An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming rings.
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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
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The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is a professional association that, in its own words, "promotes the art, science, and practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe" via "continuing education, training and professional development, codes and standards, research, conferences and publications, government relations, and other forms of outreach." ASME is thus an engineering society, a standards organization, a research and development organization, a lobbying organization, a provider of training and education, and a nonprofit organization.
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Asphaltenes are molecular substances that are found in crude oil, along with resins, aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturates (i.e. saturated hydrocarbons such as alkanes).
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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.
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Backstop resources theory states that as a heavily used limited resource becomes expensive, alternative resources will become cheap by comparison, therefore making the alternatives economically viable options.
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The barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) is a unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel (42 U.S. gallons or 158.9873 litres) of crude oil.
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Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, South West England, that is known for the curative Roman-built baths that still exist there.
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The Bergius process is a method of production of liquid hydrocarbons for use as synthetic fuel by hydrogenation of high-volatile bituminous coal at high temperature and pressure.
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Biobased economy, bioeconomy or biotechonomy refers to all economic activity derived from scientific and research activity focused on biotechnology.
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Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment.
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Biodegradation is the chemical dissolution of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
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Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms.
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Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen.
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A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
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A bog is a mire that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
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A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated.
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In the U.S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania, a borough is a self-governing municipal entity that is usually smaller than a city.
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Bottom ash is part of the non-combustible residue of combustion in a furnace or incinerator.
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BP plc, also referred to by its former name British Petroleum, is one of the world's six "supermajor" oil and gas companies.
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The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.
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The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
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Burning Mountain, the common name for Mount Wingen, is a hill near Wingen, New South Wales, Australia, approximately north of Sydney just off the New England Highway.
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Cannel coal or candle coal, is a type of bituminous coal, also classified as terrestrial type oil shale.
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The Car Dyke was, and to large extent still is, an eighty-five-mile (137 km) long ditch which runs along the western edge of the Fens in eastern England.
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Carbochemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of coals (bituminous coal, anthracite, lignite, graphite, and charcoal) into useful products and raw materials.
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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
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Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.
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Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.
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Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
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Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian Period, at 358.9 ± 0.4 million years ago, to the beginning of the Permian Period, at 298.9 ± 0.15 Ma.
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Carbonization (or carbonisation) is the term for the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation.
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In the Latin language of the ancient Roman Empire, castra (singular castrum) were buildings or plots of land reserved for or constructed for use as a military defensive position.
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Centralia is a borough and a near-ghost town in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, United States.
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In chemistry, chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
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Chester is a walled city in Cheshire, England.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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A Christmas stocking is an empty sock or sock-shaped bag that is hung on Christmas Eve so that Santa Claus (or Father Christmas) can fill it with small toys, candy, fruit, coins or other small gifts when he arrives.
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Clean coal is a concept for processes or approaches that mitigate emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases that arise from the utilization of coal, mainly for electrical power generation, using clean coal technology.
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Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
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Coal Analysis techniques are specific analytical methods designed to measure the particular physical and chemical properties of coals.
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Coal blending is the process of mixing coals after coal has been mined to achieve quality attributes that are desirable for the coal’s intended application (e.g. steam generation, coking).
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Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, or pulverizing of coal.
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Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.
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Coal gasification is the process of producing syngas–a mixture consisting primarily of methane (CH4) carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O)–from coal and water, air and/or oxygen.
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Coal homogenization refers to the process of mixing coal to reduce the variance of the product supplied.
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China is the largest consumer of coal in the world, and is about to become the largest user of coal-derived electricity, generating 1.95 trillion kilowatt-hours per year, or 68.7% of its electricity from coal as of 2006 (compared to 1.99 trillion kilowatt-hours per year, or 49% for the US).
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Coal liquefaction is a process of converting coal into liquid hydrocarbons: liquid fuels and petrochemicals.
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The Coal Measures is a lithostratigraphical term for the coal-bearing part of the Upper Carboniferous System.
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The goal of coal mining is to obtain coal from the ground.
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A coal pier is a transloading facility designed for the transfer of coal between rail and ship.
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The Coal Region is a historically important coal-mining area in Northeastern Pennsylvania in the central Appalachian Mountains, comprising Lackawanna, Luzerne, Columbia, Carbon, Schuylkill, Northumberland, and the extreme northeast corner of Dauphin counties.
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A coal seam fire or mine fire is the underground smouldering of a coal deposit, often in a coal mine.
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Coal tar is a brown or black liquid of extremely high viscosity.
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Coal mining regions are significant resource extraction industries in many parts of the world.
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Coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF, CWS, CWF) is a fuel consisting of fine coal particles suspended in water.
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Coalbed methane (CBM or coal-bed methane), coalbed gas, coal seam gas (CSG), or coal-mine methane (CMM) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds.
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Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), also known as black lung disease or black lung, is caused by long exposure to coal dust.
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Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.
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Coke is a fuel with few impurities and a high carbon content, usually made from coal.
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Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR) refers to coke "hot" strength, generally a quality reference in a simulated reaction condition in an industrial blast furnace.
Combustibility is a measure of how easily a substance will set on fire, through fire or combustion.
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A cupola or cupola furnace is a melting device used in foundries that can be used to melt cast iron, ni-resist iron and some bronzes.
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Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
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A diplococcus (plural diplococci) is a round bacterium (a coccus) that typically occurs in the form of two joined cells.
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Direct-reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets or fines) by a reducing gas produced from natural gas or coal.
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East Anglia is an area in the East of England.
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In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy for use in an external circuit.
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The electric power industry is the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric power to the general public.
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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.
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Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from other sources of primary energy.
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Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass, though the latter is more accurately termed specific energy.
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The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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Enhanced oil recovery (abbreviated EOR) is the implementation of various techniques for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field.
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Eschweiler is a municipality in the district of Aachen in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany on the river Inde, near the German-Belgian-Dutch frontier, and about east of Aachen and west of Cologne.
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The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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In Scottish and Northern English folklore, the first-foot, also known in Manx Gaelic as quaaltagh or qualtagh, is the first person to enter the household of a home on New Year's Day and a bringer of good fortune for the coming year.
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The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.
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A flue is a duct, pipe, or opening in a chimney for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, furnace, water heater, boiler, or generator to the outdoors.
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Flue gas is the gas exiting to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator.
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Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants, and from the emissions of other sulfur oxide emitting processes.
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Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a combustion technology used to burn solid fuels.
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Fly ash, also known as "pulverised fuel ash" in the United Kingdom, is one of the residues generated by coal combustion, and is composed of the fine particles that are driven out of the boiler with the flue gases.
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Formaldehyde is a naturally-occurring organic compound with the formula CH2O.
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Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms.
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Fossil fuel phase out is the proposed energy transition beyond fossil fuels through multiple means, including transport electrification, decommissioning of operating fossil fuel-fired power plants and prevention of the construction of new fossil-fuel-fired power stations.
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A funeral is a ceremony for honoring, respecting, sanctifying, or remembering the life of a person who has died.
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Funk & Wagnalls was an American publisher known for its reference works, including A Standard Dictionary of the English Language (1st ed. 1894), and the Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia (25 volumes, 1st ed. 1912).
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A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.
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In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a contract between two parties to buy or sell an asset for a price agreed upon today (the futures price) with delivery and payment occurring at a future point, the delivery date.
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A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of internal combustion engine.
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Gasification is a process that converts organic or fossil fuel based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
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Gasoline, also known as petrol outside of North America, is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines.
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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
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Global warming and climate change are terms for the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
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Graphite, archaically referred to as Plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon.
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Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.
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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Anatolia, Southern Italy, and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered around the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
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A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range.
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Groundwater (or ground water) is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
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Gyttja (sometimes Gytta) is a mud formed from the partial decay of peat.
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The heat of combustion (\Delta H_c^\circ) is the energy released as heat when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions.
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A heat recovery steam generator or HRSG is an energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from a hot gas stream.
A hedge is an investment position intended to offset potential losses/gains that may be incurred by a companion investment.
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Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.
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Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death.
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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος Hēródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484–425 BC).
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Heronbridge Roman Site is the remains a Roman settlement on both sides of Watling Street, about south of Chester in Cheshire, England, with evidence of industrial activity (furnaces) in the late 1st and 2nd centuries.
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The High Middle Ages or High Medieval Period was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (c. 1001–1300).
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Hilt's law is a geological term that states the deeper the coal, the deeper its rank (grade).
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Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes impacts on biophysical environments, biodiversity, and other resources.
Hydraulic fracturing (also hydrofracturing, hydrofracking, fracking or fraccing) is a well-stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.
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The hydrogen economy is a proposed system of delivering energy using hydrogen.
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Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.
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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
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The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
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An integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a technology that uses a gasifier to turn coal and other carbon based fuels into gas—synthesis gas (syngas).
Intercontinental Exchange, Inc. (ICE) is an American network of exchanges and clearing houses for financial and commodity markets.
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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
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Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
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Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.
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Pendant in Jet, Magdalenian, Marsoulas MHNT Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is considered to be a minor gemstone.
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John Caius MD (born John Kays) (6 October 1510 – 29 July 1573), also known as Johannes Caius, was an English physician, and second founder of the present Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
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The joule, symbol J, is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
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The Kemper Project, also called the Kemper County energy facility, is an electrical generating station currently under construction in Kemper County, Mississippi.
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Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
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The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW·h, or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hours, or 3.6 megajoules.
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The TVA Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill occurred just before 1 a.m. on Monday December 22, 2008, when an ash dike ruptured at an solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant in Roane County, Tennessee, USA.
The Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States, departing in May 1804, from near St. Louis on the Mississippi River, making their way westward through the continental divide to the Pacific coast.
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Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft brown combustible sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
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In coal geology, liptinite is the finely-ground and macerated remains found in coal deposits.
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This is a list of sovereign states and territories by carbon dioxide emissions due to certain forms of human activity.
States in the U.S. which have significant mineral deposits often create a state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone to promote interest in their natural resources, history, tourism, etc.
A lubricant is a substance introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.
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Lung cancer, also known as carcinoma of the lung or pulmonary carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
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A maceral is a component, organic in origin, of coal or oil shale.
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A magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHD generator) is a magnetohydrodynamic device that transforms thermal energy and kinetic energy into electricity.
Marco Polo (September 15, 1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant traveller whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde (Book of the Marvels of the World, also known as The Travels of Marco Polo, c. 1300), a book that introduced Europeans to Central Asia and China.
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In chemistry, the mass fraction w_i is the ratio of one substance with mass m_i to the mass of the total mixture m_, defined as The sum of all the mass fractions is equal to 1: Mass fraction can also be expressed, with a denominator of 100, as percentage by mass (frequently, though erroneously, called percentage by weight, abbreviated wt%).
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McGraw Hill Financial, Inc. is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in New York City.
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Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
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Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
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Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
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A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic, representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure.
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Mineral resource classification is the classification of mineral deposits based on their geologic certainty and economic value.
Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy.
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Mining was one of the most prosperous activities in Roman Britain.
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Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.
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Molding sand, also known as foundry sand, is sand that when moistened and compressed or oiled or heated tends to pack well and hold its shape.
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Mountaintop removal mining (MTR), also known as mountaintop mining (MTM), is a form of surface mining that involves the mining of the summit or summit ridge of a mountain.
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The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is an energy research laboratory owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy.
Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.
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The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.
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New Scientist is a UK-based weekly non-peer-reviewed English-language international science magazine, founded in 1956.
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The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CME Group of Chicago.
Newcastle upon Tyne (RP:; Locally), commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
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North Dakota (locally) is the 39th state of the United States, having been admitted to the union on November 2, 1889.
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Northumberland (RP pronunciation) is a county in North East England.
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An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas.
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Oil sands, tar sands or, more technically, bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit.
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Open-pit or open-cast mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
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An outcrop or rocky outcrop is a visible exposure of bedrock or ancient superficial deposits on the surface of the Earth.
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The Oxford English Dictionary (OED), published by the Oxford University Press, is a descriptive (as opposed to prescriptive) dictionary of the English language.
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Oxy-fuel refers to technology that burns pure oxygen with gaseous fuel.
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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
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The Pacific Northwest (in the United States, commonly abbreviated as PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and, loosely, by the Rocky Mountains on the east.
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In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
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According to M. King Hubbert's Hubbert peak theory, Peak coal is the point in time at which the maximum global coal production rate is reached, after which, according to the theory, the rate of production will enter a terminal decline.
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Peak oil, an event based on M. King Hubbert's theory, is the point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which the rate of production is expected to enter terminal decline.
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Peat (turf) is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands or mires.
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The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.
Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.
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Petroleum coke (often abbreviated pet coke or petcoke) is a carbonaceous solid delivered from oil refinery coker units or other cracking processes.
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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
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Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) is the largest physician-led organization in the US working to protect the public from the threats of nuclear proliferation, climate change, and environmental toxins.
Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore.
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The Powder River Basin is a geologic structural basin in southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming, about east to west and north to south, known for its coal deposits.
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A power station (also referred to as a generating station, power plant, powerhouse, or generating plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
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Positions of landmasses near the end of the Precambrian The Precambrian or Pre-Cambrian; sometimes abbreviated pЄ is the largest span of time in Earth's history before the current Phanerozoic Eon, and is a Supereon divided into several eons of the geologic time scale.
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Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
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The price of oil, or the oil price, generally refers to the spot price of a barrel of benchmark crude oil.
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A pyre (πυρά; pyrá, from πῦρ, pyr, "fire"), also known as a funeral pyre, is a structure, usually made of wood, for burning a body as part of a funeral rite or execution.
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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.
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A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
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The Reserves-to-production ratio (RPR or R/P) is the remaining amount of a non-renewable resource, expressed in time.
The Rhineland (Rheinland) has become the name for several areas of Western Germany along the Middle and Lower Rhine.
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Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.
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The River Fleet is the largest of London's subterranean rivers.
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Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") is the name given to the areas of the island of Great Britain that were governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 409 or 410.
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Roman villa is a term used to describe a Roman country house built for the upper class during the Roman republic and the Roman Empire.
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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Father Christmas, Kris Kringle and simply "Santa", is an important figure with legendary, historical and folkloric origins who, in many Western cultures, is said to bring gifts to the homes of the good children on 24 December, the night before Christmas Day.
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Sasol Limited is an integrated energy and chemical company based in Johannesburg, South Africa.
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Schwarze Pumpe power station (Kraftwerk Schwarze Pumpe translated: Black Pump Power Station) is a modern lignite-fired power station in the "Schwarze Pumpe" (Black Pump) district in Spremberg, Germany consisting of 2 × 800 megawatts (MW) units.
Scoria is a highly vesicular, dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts).
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Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.
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Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
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Shaft mining or shaft sinking refers to the method of excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.
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Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or as Fengtian, is the provincial capital and largest city of Liaoning Province, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
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The short ton is a unit of weight equal to, that is most commonly used in the United States where it is known simply as the ton.
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Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich.
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Solid fuel refers to various types of solid material that are used as fuel to produce energy and provide heating, usually released through combustion.
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The Somerset Coalfield in northern Somerset, England is an area where coal was mined from the 15th century until 1973.
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South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa.
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South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (lit. The Republic of Great Han; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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A space heater is a device for heating an enclosed area.
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Spontaneous combustion or spontaneous ignition is a type of combustion which occurs by self heating (increase in temperature due to exothermic internal reactions), followed by thermal runaway (self heating which rapidly accelerates to high temperatures) and finally, ignition.
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Spremberg (Grodk) is a city near to the Saxon city of Hoyerswerda in the Spree-Neiße district of Brandenburg, Germany.
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Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
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A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
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A steam locomotive is a railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine.
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A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.
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Steels are alloys of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, widely used in construction and other applications because of their high tensile strengths and low costs.
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In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
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Sub-bituminous coal is a type of coal whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal and are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation.
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Sulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
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Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula.
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A supercritical steam generator is a type of boiler that operates at supercritical pressure, frequently used in the production of electric power.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed.
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Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
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Synthetic fuel or synfuel is a liquid fuel, or sometimes gaseous fuel, obtained from syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, in which the syngas was derived from gasification of solid feedstocks such as coal or biomass or by reforming of natural gas.
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Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Çumhuriji Toçikiston/Jumhuriyi Tojikiston; جمهوری تاجیکستان; Респу́блика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan), is a mountainous landlocked sovereign country in Central Asia.
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The Coal Question; An Inquiry Concerning the Progress of the Nation, and the Probable Exhaustion of Our Coal Mines (1865) was a book by economist William Stanley Jevons that explored the implications of Britain's reliance on coal.
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The Fens, also known as the, is a naturally marshy region in eastern England.
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The Midlands is an area spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
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Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos, was the successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic school.
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In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_ \) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, a furnace, or a refrigerator for example.
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Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
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The tonne (British and SI; or metric ton (in the United States) is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to.
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Tonstein (from the German "Ton", meaning clay, plus "Stein", meaning rock) is a hard, compact sedimentary rock that is composed mainly of kaolinite or, less commonly, other clay minerals such as montmorillonite and illite.
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A toxic heavy metal is any relatively dense metal or metalloid that is noted for its potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts.
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Trametes versicolor – also known as Coriolus versicolor and Polyporus versicolor – is a common polypore mushroom found throughout the world.
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A turbine (from the Latin turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence"), is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.
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Turkestan, also spelt as Turkistan, literally means "Land of the Turks".
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A state of the United States of America is one of the 50 constituent political entities that shares its sovereignty with the United States federal government.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the U.S. federal government which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.
The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
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Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
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Utah (or; (Áshįįh bi Tó Hahoodzo; Arapaho: Wo'tééneihí) is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the Union on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest, the 33rd-most populous, and the 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of about 2.9 million, approximately 80% of whom live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, and Nevada to the west. It also touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. Approximately 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or LDS (Mormons), which greatly influences Utah culture and daily life. The world headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is located in Utah's state capital, Salt Lake City., the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, pp 99–100. Retrieved July 2, 2008. Utah is the most religiously homogeneous state in the United States, the only state with a Mormon majority, and the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. The state is a center of transportation, education, information technology and research, government services, mining, and a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation. In 2013, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that Utah had the second fastest-growing population of any state. St. George was the fastest–growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah also has the 14th highest median average income out of U.S. states, and has the 2nd highest income when adjusted for cost of living. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic, lifestyle, and health-related outlook metrics.
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Vattenfall is a Swedish power company, wholly owned by the Swedish government.
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Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east, the Irish Sea to its north and west, and the Bristol Channel to its south.
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Water heating is a thermodynamic process that uses an energy source to heat water above its initial temperature.
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Water resource management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.
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The water table is the surface where the water pressure head is equal to the atmospheric pressure (where gauge pressure.
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A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of free-flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.
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The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.
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Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, located just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.
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A wildfire or wildland fire is an uncontrolled fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside area.
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World is a common name for the whole of human civilization, specifically human experience, history, or the human condition in general, worldwide, i.e. anywhere on Earth or pertaining to anywhere on earth.
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World Coal Association (WCA) is an international non-profit, non-governmental association based in London created to represent the coal industry.
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Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States.
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The Yaghnob Valley is a valley situated in north-west Tajikistan, between the southern slope of the Zarafshan Range and the northern slope of the Gissar Range.
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Coal bed, Coal business, Coal fired, Coal industry, Coal pulverization, Coal reserves, Coal-fired, Coalization, Coking coal, DSSN, Fuel Industry, Fuel industry, Liquid coal, Low-sulfur coal, Pit coal, Pitcoal, Sea coal, Sea-coal, Steam coal, Thermal coal, Types of coal, Utah state rock.