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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. [1]

299 relations: Abiogenic petroleum origin, Acetic acid, Acid rain, Adit, Alkene, American Lung Association, American Nurses Association, Ammonia, Anthracite, Appalachia, Aquae Sulis, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Arsenic, ASME, Asphaltene, Backstop resources, Barrel of oil equivalent, Bath, Somerset, Bergius process, Biobased economy, Biochar, Biodegradation, Biotic material, Bituminous coal, Blast furnace, Bog, Boiler, Borough (Pennsylvania), Bottom ash, Boundary Dam Power Station, BP, British Geological Survey, Bronze Age, Burning Mountain, Cannel coal, Car Dyke, Carbochemistry, Carbon, Carbon capture and storage, Carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere, Carbon monoxide, Carbon sequestration, Carboniferous, Carbonization, Castra, Centralia mine fire, Centralia, Pennsylvania, Chemical synthesis, Chester, ..., Christmas stocking, Climate change, Coal, Coal assay, Coal blending, Coal dust, Coal gas, Coal gasification, Coal homogenization, Coal in Australia, Coal in China, Coal liquefaction, Coal measures, Coal mining, Coal mining in India, Coal mining in the United States, Coal pier, Coal pollution mitigation, Coal power in the United States, Coal Region, Coal seam fire, Coal tar, Coal-mining region, Coal-water slurry fuel, Coalbed methane, Coalworker's pneumoconiosis, Cogeneration, Coke (fuel), Coke strength after reaction, Combustibility and flammability, Cupola furnace, Dash for Gas, Diesel fuel, Diplococcus, Direct reduced iron, Dutch language, East Anglia, Electric generator, Electric power industry, Electricity, Electricity generation, Energy density, Energy in the United Kingdom, Energy industry, Energy Information Administration, England, Enhanced oil recovery, Environmental impact of the coal industry, Eschweiler, European Union, First-foot, Fischer–Tropsch process, Flue, Flue gas, Flue-gas desulfurization, Fluidized bed combustion, Fly ash, Formaldehyde, Fossil fuel, Fossil fuel phase-out, Funeral, Funk & Wagnalls, Furnace, Futures contract, Gas turbine, Gasification, Gasoline, German language, Germanic languages, Germany, Global warming, Graphite, Greenhouse gas, Groundwater, Gyttja, Hearn Generating Station, Heat of combustion, Heat recovery steam generator, Heavy metals, Hedge (finance), Henry III of England, Henry VIII of England, Herodotus, Heronbridge Roman Site, High Middle Ages, Hilt's law, Hydraulic fracturing, Hydrogen, Hydrogen economy, Hydrogenation, India, Indo-European languages, Industrial Revolution, Integrated gasification combined cycle, Intercontinental Exchange, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, International Journal of Energy Research, Irish language, Iron, Iron ore, Jet (lignite), John Caius, Joule, Kemper Project, Kentucky, Kilowatt hour, Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill, Lewis and Clark Expedition, Lignite, Liptinite, List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones, Lubrication, Lung cancer, Maceral, Magnetohydrodynamic generator, Marco Polo, Mass fraction (chemistry), McGraw-Hill Education, Mercury (element), Metallurgical coal, Metamorphic rock, Metamorphism, Methanol, Middle Dutch, Mineral, Mineral resource classification, Minerva, Mining in Roman Britain, Molding (process), Molding sand, Mountaintop removal mining, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Natural gas, Natural gas vehicle, Neolithic, New Scientist, New York Mercantile Exchange, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nitrogen, North Dakota, North Sea oil, Northumberland, Oil refinery, Oil sands, Oil spill, Old English, Old Frisian, Old High German, Old Norse, Outcrop, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxy-fuel combustion process, Oxygen, Pacific Northwest, Parts-per notation, Peak coal, Peak oil, Peat, Permian–Triassic extinction event, Petroleum, Petroleum coke, Phosphorus, Physicians for Social Responsibility, Pig iron, Plant matter, Powder River Basin, Power station, Precambrian, Pressure, Price of oil, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Pyre, Quad (unit), Redox, Reducing agent, Reserves-to-production ratio, Rhineland, Risk management, River Fleet, Roman Britain, Roman villa, Santa Claus, Sasol, Schwarze Pumpe power station, Scoria, Sedimentary rock, Selenium, Shaft mining, Shenyang, Short ton, Siemens, Solid fuel, Somerset Coalfield, South Africa, Soviet Union, Space heater, Spontaneous combustion, Spremberg, Steam, Steam engine, Steam locomotive, Steam turbine, Steel, Stratum, Sub-bituminous coal, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Supercritical steam generator, Surface mining, Syngas, Synthetic fuel, Tajikistan, The Coal Question, The Fens, The Midlands, Theophrastus, Thermal efficiency, Thermal power station, Thorium, Tonne, Tonstein, Trametes versicolor, Turbine, Turkestan, U.S. state, United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Upper Paleolithic, Uranium, Urea, Utah, Vattenfall, Vein (geology), Volcanism, Wales, Water cycle, Water heating, Water resource management, Water table, Water wheel, Water-gas shift reaction, Westminster Abbey, Whyalla Steelworks, Wildfire, World, World Coal Association, Wyoming, Yaghnob Valley. 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Abiogenic petroleum origin

Abiogenic petroleum origin is a term used to describe a number of different hypotheses which propose that petroleum and natural gas are formed by inorganic means rather than by the decomposition of organisms.

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Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Acid rain

Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).

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Adit

An adit (from Latin aditus, entrance) is an entrance to an underground mine which is horizontal or nearly horizontal, by which the mine can be entered, drained of water, ventilated, and minerals extracted at the lowest convenient level.

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Alkene

In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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American Lung Association

The American Lung Association is a voluntary health organization whose mission is to save lives by improving lung health and preventing lung disease through education, advocacy and research.

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American Nurses Association

The American Nurses Association (ANA) is a professional organization to advance and protect the profession of nursing.

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Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Anthracite

Anthracite, often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster.

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Appalachia

Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.

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Aquae Sulis

Aquae Sulis was a small town in the Roman province of Britannia.

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Aromatic hydrocarbon

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.

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Arsenic

Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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ASME

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is a professional association that, in its own words, "promotes the art, science, and practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe" via "continuing education, training and professional development, codes and standards, research, conferences and publications, government relations, and other forms of outreach." ASME is thus an engineering society, a standards organization, a research and development organization, a lobbying organization, a provider of training and education, and a nonprofit organization.

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Asphaltene

Asphaltenes are molecular substances that are found in crude oil, along with resins, aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturates (i.e. saturated hydrocarbons such as alkanes).

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Backstop resources

Backstop resources theory states that as a heavily used limited resource becomes expensive, alternative resources will become cheap by comparison, therefore making the alternatives economically viable options.

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Barrel of oil equivalent

The barrel of oil equivalent (BOE) is a unit of energy based on the approximate energy released by burning one barrel (42 U.S. gallons or 158.9873 litres) of crude oil.

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Bath, Somerset

Bath is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, England, known for its Roman-built baths.

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Bergius process

The Bergius process is a method of production of liquid hydrocarbons for use as synthetic fuel by hydrogenation of high-volatile bituminous coal at high temperature and pressure.

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Biobased economy

Biobased economy, bioeconomy or biotechonomy refers to all economic activity derived from scientific and research activity focused on biotechnology.

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Biochar

Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment.

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Biodegradation

Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.

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Biotic material

Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms.

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Bituminous coal

Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen or asphalt.

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Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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Bog

A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.

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Boiler

A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid (generally water) is heated.

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Borough (Pennsylvania)

In the U.S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania, a borough (sometimes spelled boro) is a self-governing municipal entity, best thought of as a town, usually smaller than a city, but with a similar population density in its residential areas.

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Bottom ash

Bottom ash is part of the non-combustible residue of combustion in a furnace or incinerator.

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Boundary Dam Power Station

Boundary Dam Power Station is the largest coal fired station owned by SaskPower, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada.

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BP

BP plc (stylised as bp), formerly British Petroleum, is a British multinational oil and gas company headquartered in London, England.

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British Geological Survey

The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Burning Mountain

Burning Mountain, the common name for Mount Wingen, is a hill near Wingen, New South Wales, Australia, approximately north of Sydney just off the New England Highway.

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Cannel coal

Cannel coal or candle coal, is a type of bituminous coal, also classified as terrestrial type oil shale.

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Car Dyke

The Car Dyke was, and to a large extent still is, a -long ditch which runs along the western edge of the Fens in eastern England.

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Carbochemistry

Carbochemistry is the branch of chemistry that studies the transformation of coals (bituminous coal, anthracite, lignite, graphite, and charcoal) into useful products and raw materials.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon capture and storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) (or carbon capture and sequestration or carbon control and sequestration) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon sequestration

Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming.

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Carboniferous

The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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Carbonization

Carbonization (or carbonisation) is the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation.

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Castra

In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word castrum (plural castra) was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp.

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Centralia mine fire

The Centralia mine fire is a coal seam fire that has been burning underneath the borough of Centralia, Pennsylvania, United States, since at least May 27, 1962.

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Centralia, Pennsylvania

Centralia is a borough and near-ghost town in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, United States.

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Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.

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Chester

Chester (Caer) is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales.

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Christmas stocking

A Christmas stocking is an empty sock or sock-shaped bag that is hung on Christmas Eve so that Santa Claus (or Father Christmas) can fill it with small toys, candy, fruit, coins or other small gifts when he arrives.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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Coal

Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coal assay

Coal analysis techniques are specific analytical methods designed to measure the particular physical and chemical properties of coals.

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Coal blending

Coal blending is the process of mixing coals after coal has been mined to achieve quality attributes that are desirable for the coal’s intended application (e.g. steam generation, coking).

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Coal dust

Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, or pulverizing of coal.

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Coal gas

Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.

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Coal gasification

Coal gasification is the process of producing syngas–a mixture consisting primarily of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapour (H2O)–from coal and water, air and/or oxygen.

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Coal homogenization

Coal homogenization refers to the process of mixing coal to reduce the variance of the product supplied.

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Coal in Australia

Coal is mined in every state of in Australia, but mainly in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.

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Coal in China

China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world and is the largest user of coal-derived electricity.

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Coal liquefaction

Coal liquefaction is a process of converting coal into liquid hydrocarbons: liquid fuels and petrochemicals.

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Coal measures

The coal measures is a lithostratigraphical term for the coal-bearing part of the Upper Carboniferous System.

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Coal mining

Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.

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Coal mining in India

Coal mining in India began in 1774 when John Sumner and Suetonius Grant Heatly of the East India Company commenced commercial exploitation in the Raniganj Coalfield along the Western bank of Damodar river.

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Coal mining in the United States

Coal mining in the United States is an industry in transition.

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Coal pier

A coal pier is a transloading facility designed for the transfer of coal between rail and ship.

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Coal pollution mitigation

Coal pollution mitigation, often referred to by the public relations term clean coal, is a series of systems and technologies that seek to mitigate the pollution and other environmental effects normally associated with the burning (though not the mining or processing) of coal, which is widely regarded as the dirtiest of the common fuels for industrial processes and power generation.

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Coal power in the United States

Coal power in the United States accounted for 39% of the country's electricity production at utility-scale facilities in 2014, 33% in 2015, and 30.4% in 2016 Coal supplied 12.6 quadrillion BTUs of primary energy to electric power plants in 2017, which made up 91% of coal's contribution to US energy supply.

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Coal Region

The Coal Region is a historically important coal-mining area in Northeastern Pennsylvania in the central Ridge-and-valley Appalachian Mountains, comprising Lackawanna, Luzerne, Columbia, Carbon, Schuylkill, Northumberland, and the extreme northeast corner of Dauphin counties.

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Coal seam fire

A coal-seam fire refers to natural burning of an outcrop or underground coal seam.

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Coal tar

Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.

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Coal-mining region

Coal mining regions are significant resource extraction industries in many parts of the world.

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Coal-water slurry fuel

Coal-water slurry fuel is a combustible mixture of fine coal particles suspended in water.

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Coalbed methane

Coalbed methane (CBM or coal-bed methane), coalbed gas, coal seam gas (CSG), or coal-mine methane (CMM) is a form of natural gas extracted from coal beds.

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Coalworker's pneumoconiosis

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), also known as black lung disease or black lung, is caused by long-term exposure to coal dust.

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Cogeneration

Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.

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Coke (fuel)

Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.

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Coke strength after reaction

Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR) refers to coke "hot" strength, generally a quality reference in a simulated reaction condition in an industrial blast furnace.

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Combustibility and flammability

Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.

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Cupola furnace

A cupola or cupola furnace is a melting device used in foundries that can be used to melt cast iron, Ni-resist iron and some bronzes.

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Dash for Gas

The Dash for Gas was the 1990s shift by the newly privatized electric companies in the United Kingdom towards generation of electricity using natural gas.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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Diplococcus

A diplococcus (plural diplococci) is a round bacterium (a coccus) that typically occurs in the form of two joined cells.

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Direct reduced iron

Direct-reduced iron (DRI), also called sponge iron, is produced from the direct reduction of iron ore (in the form of lumps, pellets, or fines) to iron by a reducing gas or elemental carbon produced from natural gas or coal.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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East Anglia

East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England.

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Electric generator

In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.

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Electric power industry

The electric power industry covers the generation, transmission, distribution and sale of electric power to the general public and industry.

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Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Electricity generation

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.

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Energy density

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.

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Energy in the United Kingdom

Energy use in the United Kingdom stood at 2,249 TWh (193.4 million tonnes of oil equivalent) in 2014.

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Energy industry

The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution.

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Energy Information Administration

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Enhanced oil recovery

Enhanced oil recovery (abbreviated EOR) is the implementation of various techniques for increasing the amount of crude oil that can be extracted from an oil field.

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Environmental impact of the coal industry

The environmental impact of the coal industry includes issues such as land use, waste management, water and air pollution, caused by the coal mining, processing and the use of its products.

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Eschweiler

Eschweiler is a municipality in the district of Aachen in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany on the river Inde, near the German-Belgian-Dutch frontier, and about east of Aachen and west of Cologne.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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First-foot

In Scottish and Northern English folklore, the first-foot, also known in Manx Gaelic as quaaltagh or qualtagh, is the first person to enter the home of a household on New Year's Day and a bringer of good fortune for the coming year.

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Fischer–Tropsch process

The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.

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Flue

A flue is a duct, pipe, or opening in a chimney for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, furnace, water heater, boiler, or generator to the outdoors.

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Flue gas

Flue gas is the gas exiting to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator.

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Flue-gas desulfurization

Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) is a set of technologies used to remove sulfur dioxide from exhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants, and from the emissions of other sulfur oxide emitting processes (e.g trash incineration).

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Fluidized bed combustion

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a combustion technology used to burn solid fuels.

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Fly ash

Fly ash, also known as "pulverised fuel ash" in the United Kingdom, is a coal combustion product that is composed of the particulates (fine particles of burned fuel) that are driven out of coal-fired boilers together with the flue gases.

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Formaldehyde

No description.

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Fossil fuel

A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.

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Fossil fuel phase-out

Fossil fuel phase out refers to the discontinuation of the use of fossil fuels, through the decommissioning of operating fossil fuel-fired power plants, the prevention of the construction of new ones, and the use of alternative energy to replace the role of fossil fuels.

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Funeral

A funeral is a ceremony connected with the burial, cremation, or interment of a corpse, or the burial (or equivalent) with the attendant observances.

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Funk & Wagnalls

Funk & Wagnalls was an American publisher known for its reference works, including A Standard Dictionary of the English Language (1st ed. 1893-5), and the Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopedia (25 volumes, 1st ed. 1912).

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Furnace

A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.

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Futures contract

In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.

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Gas turbine

A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.

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Gasification

Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

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Gasoline

Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Groundwater

Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Gyttja

Gyttja (sometimes Gytta, from Swedish gyttja) is a mud formed from the partial decay of peat.

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Hearn Generating Station

The Richard L. Hearn Generating Station (named after Richard Lankaster Hearn) is a decommissioned electrical generating station in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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Heat of combustion

The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.

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Heat recovery steam generator

A heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is an energy recovery heat exchanger that recovers heat from a hot gas stream.

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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Hedge (finance)

A hedge is an investment position intended to offset potential losses or gains that may be incurred by a companion investment.

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Henry III of England

Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.

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Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.

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Herodotus

Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Heronbridge Roman Site

Heronbridge Roman Site is the remains a Roman settlement on both sides of Watling Street, about south of Chester in Cheshire, England, with evidence of industrial activity (furnaces) in the late 1st and 2nd centuries.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.

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Hilt's law

Hilt's law is a geological term that states the deeper the coal, the higher its rank (grade).

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Hydraulic fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen economy

The hydrogen economy is a proposed system of delivering energy using hydrogen.

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Hydrogenation

Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Integrated gasification combined cycle

An integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a technology that uses a high pressure gasifier to turn coal and other carbon based fuels into pressurized gas—synthesis gas (syngas).

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Intercontinental Exchange

Intercontinental Exchange is an American company that owns exchanges for financial and commodity markets, and operates 23 regulated exchanges and marketplaces.

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.

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International Journal of Energy Research

International Journal of Energy Research is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by John Wiley & Sons.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.

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Jet (lignite)

Pendant in Jet, Magdalenian, Marsoulas MHNT Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is a gemstone.

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John Caius

John Caius MD (born John Kays) (6 October 1510 – 29 July 1573), also known as Johannes Caius and Ioannes Caius, was an English physician, and second founder of the present Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.

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Joule

The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Kemper Project

The Kemper Project, also called the Kemper County energy facility or Plant Ratcliffe, is a natural gas-fired electrical generating station currently under construction in Kemper County, Mississippi.

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Kentucky

Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.

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Kilowatt hour

The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.

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Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill

The TVA Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill occurred just before 1 a.m. on Monday December 22, 2008, when an ash dike ruptured at an solid waste containment area at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant in Roane County, Tennessee.

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Lewis and Clark Expedition

The Lewis and Clark Expedition from May 1804 to September 1806, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross the western portion of the United States.

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Lignite

Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.

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Liptinite

In coal geology, liptinite is the finely-ground and macerated remains found in coal deposits.

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List of U.S. state minerals, rocks, stones and gemstones

States in the U.S. which have significant mineral deposits often create a state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone to promote interest in their natural resources, history, tourism, etc.

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Lubrication

Lubrication is the process or technique of using a lubricant to reduce friction and/or wear in a contact between two surfaces.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Maceral

A maceral is a component, organic in origin, of coal or oil shale.

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Magnetohydrodynamic generator

A magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHD generator) is a magnetohydrodynamic converter that transforms thermal energy and kinetic energy into electricity.

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Marco Polo

Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.

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Mass fraction (chemistry)

In chemistry, the mass fraction w_i is the ratio of one substance with mass m_i to the mass of the total mixture m_\text, defined as The symbol Y_i is also used to denote mass fraction.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Metallurgical coal

Metallurgical coal is a grade of low-ash, low-sulfur and low-phosphorus coal that can be used to produce high grade coke.

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Metamorphic rock

Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".

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Metamorphism

Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).

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Methanol

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Middle Dutch

Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500.

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Mineral

A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Mineral resource classification

Mineral resource classification is the classification of mineral resources based on an increasing level of geological knowledge and confidence.

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Minerva

Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, although it is noted that the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks would come to, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy.

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Mining in Roman Britain

Mining was one of the most prosperous activities in Roman Britain.

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Molding (process)

Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.

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Molding sand

Molding sand, also known as foundry sand, is a sand that when moistened and compressed or oiled or heated tends to pack well and hold its shape.

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Mountaintop removal mining

Mountaintop removal mining (MTR), also known as mountaintop mining (MTM), is a form of surface mining at the summit or summit ridge of a mountain.

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National Energy Technology Laboratory

The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is a U.S. national laboratory under the Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Natural gas vehicle

A natural gas vehicle (NGV) is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG).

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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New Scientist

New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.

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New York Mercantile Exchange

The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CME Group of Chicago.

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Newcastle upon Tyne

Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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North Dakota

North Dakota is a U.S. state in the midwestern and northern regions of the United States.

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North Sea oil

North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.

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Northumberland

Northumberland (abbreviated Northd) is a county in North East England.

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Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

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Oil sands

Oil sands, also known as tar sands or crude bitumen, or more technically bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit.

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Oil spill

An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old Frisian

Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Outcrop

An outcrop or rocky outcrop is a visible exposure of bedrock or ancient superficial deposits on the surface of the Earth.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Oxy-fuel combustion process

Oxy-fuel combustion is the process of burning a fuel using pure oxygen instead of air as the primary oxidant.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Pacific Northwest

The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Peak coal

The term Peak coal is used to refer to the point in time at which coal production and consumption reaches its maximum, after which, it is assumed, production and consumption will decline steadily.

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Peak oil

Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline.

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Peat

Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.

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Permian–Triassic extinction event

The Permian–Triassic (P–Tr or P–T) extinction event, colloquially known as the Great Dying, the End-Permian Extinction or the Great Permian Extinction, occurred about 252 Ma (million years) ago, forming the boundary between the Permian and Triassic geologic periods, as well as the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Petroleum coke

Petroleum coke, abbreviated coke or petcoke, is a final carbon-rich solid material that derives from oil refining, and is one type of the group of fuels referred to as cokes.

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Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Physicians for Social Responsibility

Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) is the largest physician-led organization in the US working to protect the public from the threats of nuclear proliferation, climate change, and environmental toxins.

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Pig iron

Pig iron is an intermediate product of the iron industry.

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Plant matter

No description.

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Powder River Basin

The Powder River Basin is a geologic structural basin in southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming, about east to west and north to south, known for its coal deposits.

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Power station

A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.

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Precambrian

The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.

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Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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Price of oil

The price of oil, or the oil price, (generally) refers to the spot price of a barrel of benchmark crude oil—a reference price for buyers and sellers of crude oil such as West Texas Intermediate (WTI), Brent ICE, Dubai Crude, OPEC Reference Basket, Tapis Crude, Bonny Light, Urals oil, Isthmus and Western Canadian Select (WCS).

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Pyre

A pyre (πυρά; pyrá, from πῦρ, pyr, "fire"), also known as a funeral pyre, is a structure, usually made of wood, for burning a body as part of a funeral rite or execution.

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Quad (unit)

A quad is a unit of energy equal to 1015 (a short-scale quadrillion) BTU, or 1.055 × 1018 joules (1.055 exajoules or EJ) in SI units.

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Redox

Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Reducing agent

A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.

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Reserves-to-production ratio

The Reserves-to-production ratio (RPR or R/P) is the remaining amount of a non-renewable resource, expressed in time.

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Rhineland

The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.

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Risk management

Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks (defined in ISO 31000 as the effect of uncertainty on objectives) followed by coordinator and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities.

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River Fleet

The River Fleet is the largest of London's subterranean rivers.

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Roman Britain

Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.

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Roman villa

A Roman villa was a country house built for the upper class in the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, similar in form to the hacienda estates in the colonies of the Spanish Empire.

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Santa Claus

Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).

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Sasol

Sasol Limited is an integrated energy and chemical company based in Sandton, South Africa.

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Schwarze Pumpe power station

Schwarze Pumpe power station (Kraftwerk Schwarze Pumpe translated: Black Pump Power Station) is a modern lignite-fired power station in the "Schwarze Pumpe" (Black Pump) district in Spremberg, Germany consisting of 2 × 800 megawatts (MW) units.

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Scoria

Scoria is a highly vesicular, dark colored volcanic rock that may or may not contain crystals (phenocrysts).

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Sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

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Selenium

Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Shaft mining

Shaft mining or shaft sinking is excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.

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Shenyang

Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.

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Short ton

The short ton is a unit of weight equal to.

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Siemens

Siemens AG is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

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Solid fuel

Solid fuel refers to various forms of solid material that can be burnt to release energy, providing heat and light through the process of combustion.

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Somerset Coalfield

The Somerset Coalfield in northern Somerset, England is an area where coal was mined from the 15th century until 1973.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Space heater

A space heater is a device used to heat a single, small area.

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Spontaneous combustion

Spontaneous combustion or spontaneous ignition is a type of combustion which occurs by self-heating (increase in temperature due to exothermic internal reactions), followed by thermal runaway (self heating which rapidly accelerates to high temperatures) and finally, autoignition.

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Spremberg

Spremberg (Grodk) is a district near the Saxon city of Hoyerswerda and is in the Spree-Neiße district of Brandenburg, Germany.

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Steam

Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.

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Steam engine

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.

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Steam locomotive

A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine.

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Steam turbine

A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.

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Steel

Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.

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Stratum

In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.

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Sub-bituminous coal

Sub-bituminous coal is a type of coal whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal and are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation.

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Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Supercritical steam generator

A supercritical steam generator is a type of boiler that operates at supercritical pressure, frequently used in the production of electric power.

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Surface mining

Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.

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Syngas

Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.

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Synthetic fuel

Synthetic fuel or synfuel is a liquid fuel, or sometimes gaseous fuel, obtained from syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, in which the syngas was derived from gasification of solid feedstocks such as coal or biomass or by reforming of natural gas.

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Tajikistan

Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.

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The Coal Question

The Coal Question; An Inquiry Concerning the Progress of the Nation, and the Probable Exhaustion of Our Coal Mines (1865) was a book by economist William Stanley Jevons that explored the implications of Britain's reliance on coal.

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The Fens

The Fens, also known as the, are a coastal plain in eastern England.

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The Midlands

The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.

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Theophrastus

Theophrastus (Θεόφραστος Theόphrastos; c. 371 – c. 287 BC), a Greek native of Eresos in Lesbos,Gavin Hardy and Laurence Totelin, Ancient Botany, 2015, p. 8.

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Thermal efficiency

In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_ \) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example.

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Thermal power station

A thermal power station is a power station in which heat energy is converted to electric power.

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Thorium

Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.

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Tonne

The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.

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Tonstein

Tonstein (from the German "Ton", meaning clay, plus "Stein", meaning rock) is a hard, compact sedimentary rock that is composed mainly of kaolinite or, less commonly, other clay minerals such as montmorillonite and illite.

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Trametes versicolor

Trametes versicolor – also known as Coriolus versicolor and Polyporus versicolor – is a common polypore mushroom found throughout the world.

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Turbine

A turbine (from the Latin turbo, a vortex, related to the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "turbulence") is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work.

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Turkestan

Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.

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U.S. state

A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.

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United States Department of Energy

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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Upper Paleolithic

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Urea

Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Utah

Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Vattenfall

Vattenfall is a Swedish power company, wholly owned by the Swedish government.

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Vein (geology)

In geology, a vein is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock.

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Volcanism

Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.

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Wales

Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Water cycle

The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.

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Water heating

Water heating is a heat transfer process that uses an energy source to heat water above its initial temperature.

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Water resource management

Water resource management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.

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Water table

The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.

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Water wheel

A water wheel is a machine for converting the energy of flowing or falling water into useful forms of power, often in a watermill.

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Water-gas shift reaction

The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.

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Westminster Abbey

Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of St Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, London, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster.

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Whyalla Steelworks

The Whyalla Steelworks is a fully integrated steelworks and the only manufacturer of rail in Australia.

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Wildfire

A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.

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World

The world is the planet Earth and all life upon it, including human civilization.

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World Coal Association

The World Coal Association (WCA) is an international non-profit, non-governmental association based in London, United Kingdom.

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Wyoming

Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.

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Yaghnob Valley

The Yaghnob Valley is a valley in north-west Tajikistan, between the southern slope of the Zarafshan Range and the northern slope of the Gissar Range.

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Coal bed, Coal business, Coal electricity, Coal fired, Coal industry, Coal pulverization, Coal reserves, Coal seam, Coal-fired, Coalization, Coking coal, DSSN, Fuel Industry, Fuel industry, Health effects caused by burning coal, Liquid coal, Low-sulfur coal, Pit coal, Pitcoal, Sea coal, Sea-coal, Steam coal, Thermal coal, Types of coal, Utah state rock.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal

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