128 relations: Aluminium, American English, Ammonia, Asphalt, Australia, Bacton, Norfolk, Benzole, Blast furnace, British English, British Gas, British Gas plc, British thermal unit, BTX (chemistry), Canvey Island, Carbon black, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbonization, Carl Wilhelm Siemens, Cast iron, Central heating, Char, Chemical industry, Coal, Coal gas, Coal tar, Coke (fuel), Coking, Commodity, Condenser (heat transfer), Continent, Creosote, Cresol, Cupola furnace, Damp (mining), Destructive distillation, Diesel fuel, Easington, East Riding of Yorkshire, Electric light, Electrical grid, Electrostatic precipitator, Environmental remediation, Ethylene, Fertilizer, Fire brick, Fischer–Tropsch process, Fractional distillation, Fuel gas, Gas board, Gas engine, ..., Gas holder, Gas lighting, Gas mantle, Gas Works Park, Gasification, Gasworks, Google Books, Great Britain, Grimsby, Haber process, Heat of combustion, History of manufactured fuel gases, HM Treasury, Housing estate, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen sulfide, Industrial Revolution, Joule, Kerosene, Lake Charles, Louisiana, Liquefied natural gas, Management, Marketing, Metallurgy, Methane, Mond gas, Monty Python, Municipal services, Naphthalene, Nationalization, Natural gas, Nitrogen, North Sea, North Sea oil, Petroleum industry, Phenol, Phthalic anhydride, Piping, Plastic, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Producer gas, Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, Pyrolysis, Refrigeration, Retort, Return on investment, Saccharin, Sasol, Scrubber, Sea Gem, Seattle, Smelting, Soot, St Fergus, Steam, Steel, Storage heater, Sulfonamide (medicine), Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Superheater, Syngas, Tar, Television advertisement, Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, The Hong Kong and China Gas Company, Thiol, Underfloor heating, United States, Urbanization, Wales, Water gas, Water-gas shift reaction, White paper, William Murdoch, Wood gas. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Bacton is a village and civil parish in Norfolk, England.
In the United Kingdom, benzole or benzol is a coal-tar product consisting mainly of benzene and toluene.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
British Gas is an energy and home services provider in the United Kingdom.
British Gas plc was an energy and home services provider in the United Kingdom.
The British thermal unit (Btu or BTU) is a traditional unit of heat; it is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit.
In the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, the initialism BTX refers to mixtures of benzene, toluene, and the three xylene isomers, all of which are aromatic hydrocarbons.
Canvey Island is a civil parish and reclaimed island in the Thames estuary in Essex, England.
Carbon black (subtypes are acetylene black, channel black, furnace black, lamp black and thermal black) is a material produced by the incomplete combustion of heavy petroleum products such as FCC tar, coal tar, ethylene cracking tar, with the addition of a small amount of vegetable oil.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbonization (or carbonisation) is the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation.
Sir Charles William Siemens FRSA (originally Carl Wilhelm Siemens; 4 April 1823 – 19 November 1883) was a German-born engineer and entrepreneur who for most of his life worked in Britain and later became a British subject.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building (or portion of a building) from one point to multiple rooms.
Char is the solid material that remains after light gases (e.g. coal gas) and tar have been driven out or released from a carbonaceous material during the initial stage of combustion, which is known as carbonization, charring, devolatilization or pyrolysis.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.
Coal tar is a thick dark liquid which is a by-product of the production of coke and coal gas from coal.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Coking is the deposition of carbon-rich solids.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
In systems involving heat transfer, a condenser is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state, by cooling it.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Creosote is a category of carbonaceous chemicals formed by the distillation of various tars and pyrolysis of plant-derived material, such as wood or fossil fuel.
Cresols (also hydroxytoluene) are organic compounds which are methylphenols.
A cupola or cupola furnace is a melting device used in foundries that can be used to melt cast iron, Ni-resist iron and some bronzes.
Historically, gases (other than breathable air) in coal mines in Britain were collectively known as "damps".
Destructive distillation is the chemical process of the decomposition of unprocessed material by heating it to a high temperature; the term generally applies to processing of organic material in the absence of air or in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen or other reagents, catalysts, or solvents, such as steam or phenols.
Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.
Easington is a small village and civil parish in the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, in the area known as Holderness.
An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.
An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers.
An electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is a filtration device that removes fine particles, like dust and smoke, from a flowing gas using the force of an induced electrostatic charge minimally impeding the flow of gases through the unit.
Environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
A fire brick, firebrick, or refractory brick is a block of refractory ceramic material used in lining furnaces, kilns, fireboxes, and fireplaces.
The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.
Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.
Fuel gas is any one of a number of fuels that under ordinary conditions are gaseous.
The area gas boards were created after the passing of the Gas Act 1948 by Clement Attlee's post-war Labour government in the United Kingdom.
A gas engine is an internal combustion engine which runs on a gas fuel, such as coal gas, producer gas, biogas, landfill gas or natural gas.
A gas holder, or gasometer, is a large container in which natural gas or town gas is stored near atmospheric pressure at ambient temperatures.
Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, such as hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, propane, butane, acetylene, ethylene, or natural gas.
An incandescent gas mantle, gas mantle or Welsbach mantle is a device for generating bright white light when heated by a flame.
Gas Works Park in Seattle, Washington, is a public park on the site of the former Seattle Gas Light Company gasification plant, located on the north shore of Lake Union at the south end of the Wallingford neighborhood.
Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
A gasworks or gas house is an industrial plant for the production of flammable gas.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Grimsby, also known as Great Grimsby, is a large coastal English town and seaport in North East Lincolnshire, of which it is the administrative centre.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
The history of gaseous fuel, important for lighting, heating, and cooking purposes throughout most of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, began with the development of analytical and pneumatic chemistry in the 18th century.
Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.
A housing estate (or sometimes housing complex) is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.
Lake Charles (French: Lac Charles) is the fifth-largest incorporated city in the U.S. state of Louisiana, located on Lake Charles, Prien Lake, and the Calcasieu River.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been converted to liquid form for ease and safety of non-pressurized storage or transport.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Mond gas is a cheap coal gas that was used for industrial heating purposes.
Monty Python (also collectively known as The Pythons) were a British surreal comedy group who created their sketch comedy show Monty Python's Flying Circus, which first aired on the BBC in 1969.
Municipal services or city services refer to basic services that residents of a city expect the city government to provide in exchange for the taxes which citizens pay.
Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.
The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
Phthalic anhydride is the organic compound with the formula C6H4(CO)2O.
Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids (liquids and gases) from one location to another.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Producer gas is fuel gas that is manufactured from material such as coal, as opposed to natural gas.
The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA), also known as the Wheeler-Rayburn Act, was a law that was passed by the United States Congress to facilitate regulation of electric utilities, by either limiting their operations to a single state, and thus subjecting them to effective state regulation, or forcing divestitures so that each became a single integrated system serving a limited geographic area.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.
In a chemistry laboratory, a retort is a glassware device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances.
Return on investment (ROI) is the ratio between the net profit and cost of investment resulting from an investment of some resource.
Sodium saccharin (benzoic sulfimide) is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy that is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations.
Sasol Limited is an integrated energy and chemical company based in Sandton, South Africa.
Scrubber systems (e.g. chemical scrubbers, gas scrubbers) are a diverse group of air pollution control devices that can be used to remove some particulates and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams.
The Sea Gem was the first British offshore oil rig, and the first British offshore rig disaster when in 1965, the rig's legs collapsed, killing 13 of the crew.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.
Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.
St Fergus is a village in the Buchan area of Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A storage heater or heat bank (Australia) is an electrical heater which stores thermal energy during the evening, or at night when base load electricity is available at lower cost, and releases the heat during the day as required.
Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
A superheater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet steam into superheated steam or dry steam.
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.
A television advertisement (also called a television commercial, commercial or ad in American English, and known in British English as a TV advert or simply an advert) is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization.
Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (August 20, 1832 – January 16, 1913), also known as Professor T. S. C. Lowe, was an American Civil War aeronaut, scientist and inventor, mostly self-educated in the fields of chemistry, meteorology, and aeronautics, and the father of military aerial reconnaissance in the United States.
The Hong Kong and China Gas Company Limited, commonly known as Towngas, is the sole provider of towngas in Hong Kong.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Underfloor heating and cooling is a form of central heating and cooling which achieves indoor climate control for thermal comfort using conduction, radiation and convection.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Water gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced from synthesis gas.
The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.
A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter.
William Murdoch (sometimes spelled Murdock) (21 August 1754 – 15 November 1839) was a Scottish engineer and inventor.
Wood gas is a syngas fuel which can be used as a fuel for furnaces, stoves and vehicles in place of gasoline, diesel or other fuels.