200 relations: Aachen, Abandoned mine, Aberfan disaster, Acid mine drainage, Afterdamp, Air pollution, Alberta, Annapolis Royal, Anthracite, Aquaculture in China, Aquifer, Arauco Basin, Asphyxia, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asturias, Australia, Australian Securities Exchange, Ōmuta, Fukuoka, Barack Obama, BBC News, Bituminous coal, Blackdamp, Bucket-wheel excavator, Bundestag, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Catalonia, Cement, Central Belt, Cercs Mine Museum, Cerrejón, Chapter 11, Title 11, United States Code, Child labour, China, Coal, Coal dust, Coal in Australia, Coal in China, Coal measures, Coal mining in India, Coal mining in the United States, Coal preparation plant, Coal seam fire, Coal slurry, Coal-mining region, Coalbrookdale, Coalworker's pneumoconiosis, Colombia, Conveyor system, ..., Crandall Canyon Mine, Damodar River, Donald Trump, Donets, Dragline excavator, Drainage, Drilling and blasting, Durham, England, Dynamite, East India Company, Ecology, Electrical equipment in hazardous areas, Energy in Germany, Energy in Indonesia, Energy in Kazakhstan, Energy in Poland, Energy in Russia, Energy in South Africa, Energy Information Administration, Energy policy of China, Energy value of coal, Environmental ethics, Environmental impact of the coal industry, Environmental justice and coal mining in Appalachia, Excavator, Explosive material, Firedamp, Fortress of Louisbourg, Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, Gas, Gas engine, Geology, George Bretz (photographer), George W. Bush, Global warming, Greenhouse gas, Hambach surface mine, Harvard Business Review, Headframe, Health, Hokutan Horonai coal mine, Hurrying, Hydrogen sulfide, Illegal mining, India, Indonesia, Industrial Revolution, Interfax-Ukraine, Iron ore, Jack (device), Joggins, Kazakhstan, Kyiv Post, Life expectancy, Lignite, List of books about coal mining, List of countries by coal production, London, Longwall mining, Lung, Martin County coal slurry spill, Methane, Middle Ages, Midlothian, Virginia, Mine reclamation, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Mineral resource classification, Mining accident, Miocene, Mortality rate, Mountaintop removal mining, Natural gas, Natural resource, New South Wales, New Taipei City, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nitrogen, North Sea, Nova Scotia, Nutrient cycle, Obed Mountain coal mine spill, Oil well, Open-pit mining, Outburst (mining), Overburden, Oxygen, Peabody Energy, Peak coal, Photovoltaic system, Pingxi District, Pneumoconiosis, Poland, Port Morien, Powder River Basin, Power shovel, Problems in coal mining, Proven reserves, RAG AG, Rail freight transport, Raniganj Coalfield, Rebelion.org, Renewable energy, Retreat mining, Rock burst, Roman Britain, Room and pillar mining, Ruhr, Russia, Saarland, Safety lamp, Sago Mine disaster, Self-contained self-rescue device, Sengoku period, Short ton, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies, Soil microbiology, South Africa, South Wales, South Wales Coalfield, South Wales Evening Post, Spanish Civil War, Spoil tip, State of the art, Steam engine, Steam shovel, Steel, Stratum, Sub-bituminous coal, Subsidence, Suetonius Grant Heatly, Surface mining, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, Svalbard, Svalbard Treaty, Tailings, Taiwan, Taiwan Coal Mine Museum, The Midlands, The New York Times, Tower Colliery, Ukraine, United States, United States presidential election, 2016, University of Concepción, Upper Big Branch Mine disaster, Utah, Waterway, World Coal Association, World War I, Yorkshire. Expand index (150 more) » « Shrink index
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
An abandoned mine is a mine or quarry which is no longer producing or operational, though definitions vary.
The Aberfan disaster was the catastrophic collapse of a colliery spoil tip at 9.15 am on 21 October 1966.
Acid mine drainage, acid and metalliferous drainage (AMD), or acid rock drainage (ARD) is the outflow of acidic water from metal mines or coal mines.
Afterdamp is the toxic mixture of gases left in a mine following an explosion caused by firedamp, which itself can initiate a much larger explosion of coal dust.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
Annapolis Royal, formerly known as Port Royal, is a town located in the western part of Annapolis County, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Anthracite, often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster.
China, with one-fifth of the world's population, accounts for two-thirds of the world's reported aquaculture production.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
The Arauco Basin (Cuenca de Arauco) is a sediment-filled depression –a sedimentary basin– in south-central Chile.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Australian Securities Exchange (ASX, sometimes referred to outside Australia as the Sydney Stock Exchange) is Australia's primary securities exchange.
is a city in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen or asphalt.
Blackdamp (also known as stythe or choke damp) is an asphyxiant, reducing the available oxygen content of air to a level incapable of sustaining human or animal life.
Bucket-wheel excavators (BWEs) are heavy equipment used in surface mining.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is a unit of the United States Department of Labor.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
A cement is a binder, a substance used for construction that sets, hardens and adheres to other materials, binding them together.
The Central Belt of Scotland is the area of highest population density within Scotland.
The Cercs Mine Museum (Museu de les Mines de Cercs) is a museum dedicated to coal mining, located in the Sant Corneli colony, in the Cercs municipal area, in the region of El Berguedà.
Cerrejón is a large open-pit coal mine in Colombia.
Chapter 11 is a chapter of Title 11, the United States Bankruptcy Code, which permits reorganization under the bankruptcy laws of the United States.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, or pulverizing of coal.
Coal is mined in every state of in Australia, but mainly in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria.
China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world and is the largest user of coal-derived electricity.
The coal measures is a lithostratigraphical term for the coal-bearing part of the Upper Carboniferous System.
Coal mining in India began in 1774 when John Sumner and Suetonius Grant Heatly of the East India Company commenced commercial exploitation in the Raniganj Coalfield along the Western bank of Damodar river.
Coal mining in the United States is an industry in transition.
A coal "washer" in Eastern Kentucky A modern coal breaker in Mahanoy City, Pennsylvania combines washing, crushing, grading, sorting, stockpiling, and shipping in one facility built into a stockpile of anthracite coal below a mountain top strip mine A coal preparation plant (CPP; also known as a coal handling and preparation plant (CHPP), coal handling plant, prep plant, tipple or wash plant) is a facility that washes coal of soil and rock, crushes it into graded sized chunks (sorting), stockpiles grades preparing it for transport to market, and more often than not, also loads coal into rail cars, barges, or ships.
A coal-seam fire refers to natural burning of an outcrop or underground coal seam.
Coal slurry is a mixture of solids (mined coal) and liquids (usually water) produced by a coal preparation plant.
Coal mining regions are significant resource extraction industries in many parts of the world.
Coalbrookdale is a village in the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, England, containing a settlement of great significance in the history of iron ore smelting.
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), also known as black lung disease or black lung, is caused by long-term exposure to coal dust.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another.
The Crandall Canyon Mine, formerly Genwal Mine, was an underground bituminous coal mine in northwestern Emery County, Utah.
Damodar River (Pron: /ˈdæmoˌdaː/) is a river flowing across the Indian states of Jharkhand and West Bengal.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
The Siverskyi Donets (Siverśkyj Doneć) or Seversky Donets (Severskij Donec), usually simply called the Donets, is a river on the south of the East European Plain.
A dragline excavator is a piece of heavy equipment used in civil engineering and surface mining.
Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area.
Drilling and blasting is the controlled use of explosives and other methods such as gas pressure blasting pyrotechnics, to break rock for excavation.
Durham (locally) is a historic city and the county town of County Durham in North East England.
Dynamite is an explosive made of nitroglycerin, sorbents (such as powdered shells or clay) and stabilizers.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
In electrical engineering, hazardous locations (sometimes abbreviated to HazLoc, pronounced Haz·Lōk) are defined as places where fire or explosion hazards may exist due to flammable gases, flammable liquid–produced vapors, combustible liquid–produced vapors, combustible dusts, or ignitable fibers/flyings present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures.
Energy in Germany is sourced predominantly by fossil fuels, followed by nuclear power, biomass (wood and biofuels), wind, hydro and solar.
Energy in Indonesia describes energy and electricity production, consumption, import and export in Indonesia.
Energy in Kazakhstan describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Kazakhstan.
Energy in Poland describes energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Poland.
Energy in Russia describes energy and electricity production, consumption and export from Russia.
South Africa was the world's sixth hard coal producer in 2009.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
Ensuring adequate energy supply to sustain economic growth has been a core concern of the Chinese government since 1949.
The energy value of coal, or the fuel content, is the amount of potential energy in coal that can be converted into actual heating ability.
Environmental ethics is the part of environmental philosophy which considers extending the traditional boundaries of ethics from solely including humans to including the non-human world.
The environmental impact of the coal industry includes issues such as land use, waste management, water and air pollution, caused by the coal mining, processing and the use of its products.
Environmental justice and coal mining in Appalachia is the study of environmental justice – the interdisciplinary body of social science literature studying theories of the environment and justice; environmental laws, policies, and their implementations and enforcement; development and sustainability; and political ecology – in relation to Coal mining in Appalachia.
Excavators (hydraulic) are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, dipper (or stick), bucket and cab on a rotating platform known as the "house".
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Firedamp is flammable gas found in coal mines.
The Fortress of Louisbourg (Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a National Historic Site of Canada and the location of a one-quarter partial reconstruction of an 18th-century French fortress at Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia.
The Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (usually translated from German as Freiberg University of Mining and Technology or Freiberg Mining Academy, University of Technology) is a German university of technology with about 4300 students in the city of Freiberg, Saxony.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
A gas engine is an internal combustion engine which runs on a gas fuel, such as coal gas, producer gas, biogas, landfill gas or natural gas.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
George M. Bretz (1842-1895) was an American photographer who is best known for his photographs of the Northeastern Pennsylvania Coal Region and its coal miners.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
The Tagebau Hambach is a large open-pit coal mine (Tagebau) in Niederzier and Elsdorf, North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany.
Harvard Business Review (HBR) is a general management magazine published by Harvard Business Publishing, a wholly owned subsidiary of Harvard University.
A headframe (also known as a gallows frame, winding tower, hoist frame,Ernst, Dr.-Ing. Richard (1989). Wörterbuch der Industriellen Technik (5th ed.). Wiesbaden: Oscar Brandstetter, 1989. pit frame, shafthead frame, headgear, headstock or poppethead) is the structural frame above an underground mine shaft.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
The is the oldest mine of the Ishikari coalfield of the Sorachi (Mikasa) mining region on the Japanese island of Hokkaido.
A hurrier, also sometimes called a coal drawer or coal thruster, was a child or woman employed by a collier to transport the coal that they had mined.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Illegal mining is mining activity without state permission, in particular in absence of land rights, mining license, exploration or mineral transportation permit.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Interfax-Ukraine News Agency (Інтерфакс-Україна) is a Kiev-based Ukrainian news agency founded in 1992.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
A jack, screwjack or jackscrew is a mechanical device used as a lifting device to lift heavy loads or to apply great forces.
Joggins is a Canadian rural community located in western Cumberland County, Nova Scotia.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Kyiv Post is Ukraine's oldest English language newspaper.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
Books and some articles relating to coal mining, especially historical.
This is a list of countries by coal production, based mostly on the Statistical Review of World Energy ranking countries with coal production larger than 5 million tonnes.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Longwall mining is a form of underground coal mining where a long wall of coal is mined in a single slice (typically 0.6 – 1.0 m thick).
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
The Martin County coal slurry spill was an accident that occurred after midnight on October 11, 2000 when the bottom of a coal slurry impoundment owned by Massey Energy in Martin County, Kentucky broke into an abandoned underground mine below.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Midlothian, Virginia is an unincorporated area in Chesterfield County, Virginia, U.S. Founded over 300 years ago as a coal town, it is now a suburban community located west of Richmond, Virginia and south of the James River in the Greater Richmond Region.
Mine reclamation is the process of restoring land that has been mined to a natural or economically usable state.
The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor which administers the provisions of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Mine Act) to enforce compliance with mandatory safety and health standards as a means to eliminate fatal accidents, to reduce the frequency and severity of nonfatal accidents, to minimize health hazards, and to promote improved safety and health conditions in the nation's mines.
Mineral resource classification is the classification of mineral resources based on an increasing level of geological knowledge and confidence.
A mining accident is an accident that occurs during the process of mining minerals.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Mountaintop removal mining (MTR), also known as mountaintop mining (MTM), is a form of surface mining at the summit or summit ridge of a mountain.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
New Taipei City is a special municipality and the most populous city in Taiwan.
Newcastle upon Tyne, commonly known as Newcastle, is a city in Tyne and Wear, North East England, 103 miles (166 km) south of Edinburgh and 277 miles (446 km) north of London on the northern bank of the River Tyne, from the North Sea.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of matter.
The Obed Mountain coal mine spill was a mining disaster that occurred on October31, 2013, when a waste pit at the Obed Mountain Mine failed near the town of Hinton in Alberta, Canada.
An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.
Open-pit, open-cast or open cut mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
An outburst is the sudden and violent ejection of coal, gas and rock from a coal face and surrounding strata in an underground coal mine.
In mining, overburden (also called waste or spoil) is the material that lies above an area that lends itself to economical exploitation, such as the rock, soil, and ecosystem that lies above a coal seam or ore body.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Peabody Energy Corporation, headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri, is the largest private-sector coal company in the world.
The term Peak coal is used to refer to the point in time at which coal production and consumption reaches its maximum, after which, it is assumed, production and consumption will decline steadily.
A photovoltaic system, also PV system or solar power system, is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics.
Pingxi District (historically spelled Pinghsi), is a rural district in New Taipei, Taiwan.
Pneumoconiosis is an occupational lung disease and a restrictive lung disease caused by the inhalation of dust, often in mines and from agriculture.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Port Morien (also referred to as "Morien") is a small fishing community of 700 people in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, located in the southeastern Cape Breton Island near the rural community Donkin, and six miles from the town of Glace Bay.
The Powder River Basin is a geologic structural basin in southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming, about east to west and north to south, known for its coal deposits.
A power shovel (also stripping shovel or front shovel or electric mining shovel or Electric Rope Shovel) is a bucket-equipped machine, usually electrically powered, used for digging and loading earth or fragmented rock and for mineral extraction.
If the coal seam reaches a fault, the seam may be significantly displaced, depending on the type of fault and its offset.
Proven reserves, also called measured reserves, 1P, and reserves, are industry specific terms regarding fossil fuel energy sources.
RAG AG, formerly Ruhrkohle AG, is the largest German coal mining corporation.
Rail freight transport is the use of railroads and trains to transport cargo as opposed to human passengers.
Raniganj Coalfield is primarily located in the Asansol and Durgapur subdivisions of Paschim Bardhaman district in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Rebelión is a nonprofit news site, started in Spain at the end of 1996 by a group of journalists.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Retreat mining is the removal of pillars in the underground mining technique known as room and pillar mining.
A rock burst is a spontaneous, violent fracture of rock that can occur in deep mines.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
Room and pillar (variant of breast stoping), also called pillar and stall, is a mining system in which the mined material is extracted across a horizontal plane, creating horizontal arrays of rooms and pillars.
The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
A safety lamp is any of several types of lamp that provides illumination in coal mines and is designed to operate in air that may contain coal dust or gases both of which are potentially flammable or explosive.
The Sago Mine disaster was a coal mine explosion on January 2, 2006, at the Sago Mine in Sago, West Virginia, United States, near the Upshur County seat of Buckhannon.
A self-contained self-rescue device, SCSR, self-contained self-rescuer, or air pack is a portable oxygen source for providing breathable air when the surrounding atmosphere lacks oxygen or is contaminated with toxic gases, e.g. carbon monoxide.
The is a period in Japanese history marked by social upheaval, political intrigue and near-constant military conflict.
The short ton is a unit of weight equal to.
The Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies (The Roman Society) was founded in 1910 as the sister society to the Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies.
Soil microbiology is the study of organisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Wales (De Cymru) is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west.
The South Wales Coalfield (Welsh: Maes glo De Cymru) is a large region of south Wales that is rich in coal deposits, especially the South Wales Valleys.
The South Wales Evening Post is a tabloid daily newspaper distributed in the South West region of Wales The paper has three daily editions - Swansea, Neath and Port Talbot and Carmarthenshire and is published by South West Wales Publications, part of the Local World group.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
A spoil tip (also called a spoil bank, boney pile, gob pile, bing, batch, boney dump or pit heap) is a pile built of accumulated spoil – the overburden or other waste rock removed during coal and ore mining.
State of the art (sometimes cutting edge) refers to the highest level of general development, as of a device, technique, or scientific field achieved at a particular time.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
A steam shovel is a large steam-powered excavating machine designed for lifting and moving material such as rock and soil.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
Sub-bituminous coal is a type of coal whose properties range from those of lignite to those of bituminous coal and are used primarily as fuel for steam-electric power generation.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea level.
Suetonius Grant Heatly (sometimes spelled as Heatley) (1751–1793) was a judge employed by the British East India Company and, with John Sumner, established what is considered to be the first coal mine in India.
Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit (the overburden) are removed, in contrast to underground mining, in which the overlying rock is left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts or tunnels.
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) is the primary federal law that regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States.
Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
The Svalbard Treaty (originally the Spitsbergen Treaty) recognises the sovereignty of Norway over the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, at the time called Spitsbergen.
Tailings, also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes, tails, refuse, leach residue or slickens, terra-cone (terrikon), are the materials left over after the process of separating the valuable fraction from the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of an ore.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Taiwan Coal Mine Museum is a museum about coal mining in Pingxi District, New Taipei City, Taiwan.
The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Tower Colliery (Welsh: Glofa'r Tŵr) was the oldest continuously working deep-coal mine in the United Kingdom, and possibly the world, until its closure in 2008.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States presidential election of 2016 was the 58th quadrennial American presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016.
Universidad de Concepción, also known by its acronym UdeC, is a traditional Chilean private university, the work of the Penquista community, one of the most traditional and prestigious in its country, considered complex due to its extensive research in the various areas of knowledge.
The Upper Big Branch Mine disaster occurred on April 5, 2010 roughly underground in Raleigh County, West Virginia at Massey Energy's Upper Big Branch coal mine located in Montcoal.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
The World Coal Association (WCA) is an international non-profit, non-governmental association based in London, United Kingdom.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yorkshire (abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom.
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