121 relations: Acenaphthene, Acetanilide, Alaska, Alcohol, Allergy, Allura Red AC, Analgesic, Anthracite, Anti-inflammatory, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antipruritic, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Asphalt, Benz(a)anthracene, Benzene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(e)pyrene, Benzo(ghi)perylene, Benzofluoranthene, Benzofuran, Bituminous coal, Boiler, Breastfeeding, California, Carbazole, Carcinogen, Chimney sweeps' carcinoma, Chrysene, Coal, Coal gas, Coke (fuel), Coronene, Creosote, Cresol, Cresolene, Cumene, Cyclohexane, Dandruff, Denorex, Dibenzopyrenes, Distillation, Edgar Purnell Hooley, Education in Chemistry, European Chemicals Agency, Florida, Fluoranthene, Fluorene, Food and Drug Administration, Generic drug, ..., Graphite, Head louse, Health system, Heterocyclic compound, Hydrocarbon keratosis, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Indene, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Keratin, Keratolytic, Lignite, List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens, Mass concentration (chemistry), Methylnaphthalene, Naphtha, Naphthalene, National Health Service, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Psoriasis Foundation, Newton, Chambers & Co., Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Over-the-counter drug, Paracetamol, Permissible exposure limit, Perylene, Petroleum jelly, Pharmaceutical industry, Phenacetin, Phenol, Phenols, Photodermatitis, Picene, Picoline, Pine tar, Pitch (resin), Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polysorbate 80, Pound sterling, Pregnancy, Preservative, Psoriasis, Pyrene, Pyridine, Pyrolysis, Quinoline, Railroad tie, Recommended exposure limit, Royal Society of Chemistry, Samuel Sadler, Sealcoat, Seborrhoeic dermatitis, Shampoo, Slag, Squamous cell carcinoma, Substance of very high concern, T/Gel, Tar, Tarmacadam, Tartrazine, Tetracene, Toluene, Topical medication, Triphenylene, Ultraviolet light therapy, United States, United States dollar, United States Pharmacopeia, WebMD, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Wright's Coal Tar Soap, Xylene. Expand index (71 more) » « Shrink index
Acenaphthene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of naphthalene with an ethylene bridge connecting positions 1 and 8.
Acetanilide is an odourless solid chemical of leaf or flake-like appearance.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Allura Red AC is a red azo dye that goes by several names.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anthracite, often referred to as hard coal, is a hard, compact variety of coal that has a submetallic luster.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
An antifungal medication, also known as an antimycotic medication, is a pharmaceutical fungicide or fungistatic used to treat and prevent mycosis such as athlete's foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others.
Antiparasitics are a class of medications which are indicated for the treatment of parasitic diseases, such as those caused by helminths, amoeba, ectoparasites, parasitic fungi, and protozoa, among others.
Antipruritics, also known as anti-itch drugs, are medications that inhibit the itching (Latin: pruritus) often associated with sunburns, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, chickenpox, fungal infections, insect bites and stings like those from mosquitoes, fleas, and mites, and contact dermatitis and urticaria caused by plants such as poison ivy (urushiol-induced contact dermatitis) or stinging nettle.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Benzanthracene or benzoanthracene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C18H12.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Benzopyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures between and.
Benzopyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C20H12.
Benzoperylene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C22H12.
Benzofluoranthene can refer to.
Benzofuran is the heterocyclic compound consisting of fused benzene and furan rings.
Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen or asphalt.
A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid (generally water) is heated.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Carbazole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Chimney sweep's cancer, also called soot wart, is a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the scrotum.
Chrysene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with the molecular formula that consists of four fused benzene rings.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Coal gas is a flammable gaseous fuel made from coal and supplied to the user via a piped distribution system.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Coronene (also known as superbenzene) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) comprising six peri-fused benzene rings.
Creosote is a category of carbonaceous chemicals formed by the distillation of various tars and pyrolysis of plant-derived material, such as wood or fossil fuel.
Cresols (also hydroxytoluene) are organic compounds which are methylphenols.
Cresolene is a dark liquid with a pungent smell made from coal tar used in the 19th and early 20th century as a disinfectant and to treat various ailments such as colds and measles.
Cumene is the common name for isopropylbenzene, an organic compound that is based on an aromatic hydrocarbon with an aliphatic substitution.
Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy).
Dandruff is a skin condition that mainly affects the scalp.
Denorex Shampoo is used for treating and preventing itching, flaking and scaling of the scalp caused by dandruff or seborrhea (oily, crusting or scaling skin).
Dibenzopyrenes are a group of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with the molecular formula C24H14.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.
Edgar Purnell Hooley (5 June 1860 – 26 January 1942) was a British inventor.
Education in Chemistry is a magazine covering all areas of chemistry education, concentrating on the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools and universities.
The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is an agency of the European Union which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation called Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Fluoranthene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH).
Fluorene, or 9H-fluorene, is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
A generic drug is a pharmaceutical drug that is equivalent to a brand-name product in dosage, strength, route of administration, quality, performance, and intended use, but does not carry the brand name.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
The head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis) is an obligate ectoparasite of humans that causes head lice infestation (pediculosis capitis).
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
A heterocyclic compound or ring structure is a cyclic compound that has atoms of at least two different elements as members of its ring(s).
A hydrocarbon keratosis (also known as "pitch keratosis", "tar keratosis", and "tar wart") is a precancerous keratotic skin lesion that occurs in people who have been occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.
Indene is a flammable polycyclic hydrocarbon with chemical formula C9H8.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
Keratin is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins.
Keratolytic therapy is treatment to remove warts, calluses and other lesions in which the epidermis produces excess skin.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans.
In chemistry, the mass concentration is defined as the mass of a constituent divided by the volume of the mixture: For a pure chemical the mass concentration equals its density (mass divided by volume); thus the mass concentration of a component in a mixture can be called the density of a component in a mixture.
Methylnaphthalene may refer to.
Naphtha is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture.
Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The National Psoriasis Foundation (NPF) is the world's largest nonprofit organization serving people with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
Newton, Chambers & Co. was one of England's largest industrial companies.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
Perylene or perilene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C20H12, occurring as a brown solid.
Petroleum jelly, petrolatum, white petrolatum, soft paraffin/paraffin wax or multi-hydrocarbon, CAS number 8009-03-8, is a semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons (with carbon numbers mainly higher than 25), originally promoted as a topical ointment for its healing properties.
The pharmaceutical industry (or medicine industry) is the commercial industry that discovers, develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as different types of medicine and medications.
Phenacetin (or acetophenetidin) is a pain-relieving and fever-reducing drug, which was widely used between its introduction in 1887 and the 1983 ban imposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.
In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.
Photodermatitis, sometimes referred to as sun poisoning or photoallergy, is a form of allergic contact dermatitis in which the allergen must be activated by light to sensitize the allergic response, and to cause a rash or other systemic effects on subsequent exposure.
Picene is a hydrocarbon found in the pitchy residue obtained in the distillation of peat tar and of petroleum.
Picoline refers to three different methylpyridine isomers, all with the chemical formula C6H7N and a molar mass of 93.13 g mol−1.
Pine tar is a sticky material produced by the high temperature carbonization of pine wood in anoxic conditions (dry distillation or destructive distillation).
Pitch is a name for any of a number of viscoelastic polymers.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polysorbate 80 is a nonionic surfactant and emulsifier often used in foods and cosmetics.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.
Pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of four fused benzene rings, resulting in a flat aromatic system.
Pyridine is a basic heterocyclic organic compound with the chemical formula C5H5N.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Quinoline is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C9H7N.
A railroad tie/railway tie/crosstie (North America) or railway sleeper (Britain, Ireland, South Asia, Australasia, and Africa) is a rectangular support for the rails in railroad tracks.
A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.
The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".
Sir Samuel Alexander Sadler (1842 – 29 September 1911) was an eminent industrialist, public servant and the first Conservative Member of Parliament for Middlesbrough, United Kingdom, the town with which his name is associated.
Sealcoating, or pavement sealing, is the process of applying a protective coating to asphalt-based pavements to provide a layer of protection from the elements: water, oils, and U.V. damage.
Seborrhoeic dermatitis, also known as seborrhoea, is a long-term skin disorder.
Shampoo is a hair care product, typically in the form of a viscous liquid, that is used for cleaning hair.
Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.
Squamous cell carcinomas, also known as epidermoid carcinoma are a number of different types of cancer that result from squamous cells.
A substance of very high concern (SVHC) is a chemical substance (or part of a group of chemical substances) for which it has been proposed that the use within the European Union be subject to authorisation under the REACH Regulation.
T/Gel is a medicated shampoo produced by Neutrogena.
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.
Tarmacadam is a road surfacing material made by combining macadam surfaces, tar, and sand, patented by English inventor Edgar Purnell Hooley in 1902.
Tartrazine is a synthetic lemon yellow azo dye primarily used as a food coloring.
Tetracene, also called naphthacene, is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
A topical medication is a medication that is applied to a particular place on or in the body.
In chemistry, the organic compound triphenylene is a flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of four fused benzene rings.
Ultraviolet light therapy or ultraviolet phototherapy is a form of treatment for certain skin disorders including atopic skin disorder and vitiligo when used with psoralen to form the PUVA treatment.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright.
WebMD is an American corporation known primarily as an online publisher of news and information pertaining to human health and well-being.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
Created by William Valentine Wright in 1860, Wright's Traditional Soap, or Wright's Coal Tar Soap, is a popular brand of antiseptic soap that is designed to thoroughly cleanse the skin.
Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.