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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. [1]

290 relations: Abundance of the chemical elements, Alfred Werner, Algae, Alkane, Alkene, Allergic contact dermatitis, Alloy, Alnico, Alpha Chi Sigma, Aluminothermic reaction, American Elements, Animal, Antiferromagnetism, Apple Inc., Archaea, Arsenate, Arsenic, Arsenic trioxide, Artisanal mining, Atom, Aureolin, Bacteria, Beer head, Beta decay, Beta-Hydride elimination, Bismuth, Blaafarveværket, Blackbird mine, Blast furnace, Bohr magneton, Boron, British Geological Survey, Bromine, Bronze Age, By-product, Cambridge, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, Carbonylation, Carboxylate, Cardiomyopathy, Catalysis, Cativa process, Cattierite, Central African Mining and Exploration Company, Central African Republic, Ceramic, Ceramic art, Ceramic glaze, Cerulean, ..., Chalcogen, Chelation, Chemical element, Chemische Berichte, Child labour, Chirality (chemistry), Chloride, Chlorine, Chromium, Close-packing of equal spheres, Cobalamin, Cobalt, Cobalt blue, Cobalt bomb, Cobalt glass, Cobalt green, Cobalt phosphate, Cobalt sulfide, Cobalt(II) bromide, Cobalt(II) chloride, Cobalt(II) fluoride, Cobalt(II) iodide, Cobalt(II) oxide, Cobalt(II) sulfate, Cobalt(II,III) oxide, Cobalt(III) fluoride, Cobalt(III) oxide, Cobalt, Ontario, Cobalt-60, Cobaltite, Cobaltocene, Cofactor (biochemistry), Coltan, Columbia University, Conflict resource, Coordination complex, Copper, Copperbelt, Corrin, Corrosion, Crystal structure, Cubic crystal system, Curie temperature, Decay product, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dental implant, Dicobalt octacarbonyl, Drying oil, Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Electron capture, Electronegativity, Electronvolt, Electroplating, Empirical formula, Erythrite, Ethylenediamine, External beam radiotherapy, Ferrocene, Ferromagnetism, Fischer–Tropsch process, Flame test, Fluorine, Food irradiation, Froth flotation, Fungus, Gamma ray, Gas turbine, Georg Brandt, Glass, Glaucodot, Glencore, Glenn T. Seaborg, Grazing, Half-life, Halide, Halogen, Heavy metals, Hexamminecobalt(III) chloride, High-speed steel, HSAB theory, Human rights, Hydrodesulfurization, Hydroformylation, Hydrogen, Hydrogenation, Hydrosilylation, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Implant (medicine), Industrial radiography, Ink, Intercalation (chemistry), Investigative journalism, Iodine, IPhone, Iron, Isotope, Isotopes of cobalt, Jet engine, Katanga Province, Kobold, Leaching (metallurgy), Ligand, Limestone Coast, Linear particle accelerator, Lithium cobalt oxide, Lithium-ion battery, Louis Jacques Thénard, Magnet, Magnetism, Magnetite, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Median lethal dose, Metal, Metal ammine complex, Metal aquo complex, Metalloprotein, METAP2, Meteoric iron, Methyl group, Methylcobalamin, Methylmalonyl-CoA, Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, Micronutrient, Mineral, Mineral (nutrient), Mineral acid, Ming dynasty, Mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Molybdenum, Mukondo Mine, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Native metal, Natural Resources Canada, Néel temperature, Neutron, New Caledonia, Nickel, Nickel–cadmium battery, Nickel–metal hydride battery, Nicotiana, Ninety Mile Desert, Nitrile, Nitrile hydratase, Nitrogen, North Island Volcanic Plateau, Nuclear explosion, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear weapon design, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Ontario, Ore, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxygen, Paint, Parity (physics), Passivation (chemistry), Pasteurization, Percobaltate, Periodic Videos, Permeability (electromagnetism), Permissible exposure limit, Petroleum, Phosphorus, Platinum, Polyester resin, Polyethylene terephthalate, Pompeii, Porcelain, Potassium carbonate, Production (economics), Prosthesis, Pyrite, Quartz, R-process, Radiation protection, Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Radionuclide, Recommended exposure limit, Redox, Relative atomic mass, Roasting (metallurgy), Royal Society of Chemistry, Rumen, Ruminant, Safflorite, Samarium–cobalt magnet, Saxony, Schilling test, Shaba II, Single crystal, Skutterudite, Slag, Smaltite, Smelting, South Australia, Specific gravity, Spherocobaltite, Spinel, Stellite, Structural analog, Succinyl-CoA, Sulfur, Sulfuric acid, Superalloy, Supernova, Supply chain, Surfactant, Sven Rinman, Tang dynasty, Temperature, Terephthalic acid, The Washington Post, Titanium, Tobacco smoke, Tobacco smoking, Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride, Tungsten carbide, Ultratrace element, Uluburun shipwreck, Unfree labour, Unified atomic mass unit, United Kingdom, United States Geological Survey, Vaesite, Varnish, Vitallium, Vitamin, Vitamin B12, Vitreous enamel, Weathering, X-ray fluorescence, Xylene, Zambia, Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt, Zinc oxide. Expand index (240 more) »

Abundance of the chemical elements

The abundance of the chemical elements is a measure of the occurrence of the chemical elements relative to all other elements in a given environment.

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Alfred Werner

Alfred Werner (12 December 1866 – 15 November 1919) was a Swiss chemist who was a student at ETH Zurich and a professor at the University of Zurich.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

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In organic chemistry, an alkene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon–carbon double bond.

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Allergic contact dermatitis

Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a form of contact dermatitis that is the manifestation of an allergic response caused by contact with a substance; the other type being irritant contact dermatitis (ICD).

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An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.

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Alnico is an acronym referring to a family of iron alloys which in addition to iron are composed primarily of aluminium (Al), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co), hence al-ni-co.

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Alpha Chi Sigma

Alpha Chi Sigma (ΑΧΣ) is a professional fraternity specializing in the field of chemistry.

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Aluminothermic reaction

Aluminothermic reactions are exothermic chemical reactions using aluminium as the reducing agent at high temperature.

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American Elements

American Elements is a global manufacturer and distributor of the elements on the periodic table with a 10,000-page online compendium of information on the properties and uses of the elements.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the magnetic moments of atoms or molecules, usually related to the spins of electrons, align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins (on different sublattices) pointing in opposite directions.

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Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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The arsenate ion is.

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Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Arsenic trioxide

Arsenic trioxide is an inorganic compound with the formula.

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Artisanal mining

Artisanal and Small Scale Mining (ASM) is emerging as an important socio-economic sector for the rural poor in many developing nations.

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Aureolin (sometimes called Cobalt Yellow) is a pigment sparingly used in oil and watercolor painting.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Beer head

Beer head (also head or collar), is the frothy foam on top of beer which is produced by bubbles of gas, typically carbon dioxide, rising to the surface.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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Beta-Hydride elimination

β-Hydride elimination is a reaction in which an alkyl group bonded to a metal centre is converted into the corresponding metal-bonded hydride and an alkene.

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Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.

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Blaafarveværket, or the Blue Colour Works, was a mining and industrial company located at Åmot in Modum in Buskerud, Norway, which existed from 1776 to 1898.

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Blackbird mine

Blackbird mine was a large cobalt mining facility in Lemhi County, Idaho, United States.

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Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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Bohr magneton

In atomic physics, the Bohr magneton (symbol μB) is a physical constant and the natural unit for expressing the magnetic moment of an electron caused by either its orbital or spin angular momentum.

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Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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British Geological Survey

The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.

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Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.

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Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbonylation refers to reactions that introduce carbon monoxide into organic and inorganic substrates.

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A carboxylate is a salt or ester of a carboxylic acid.

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Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Cativa process

The Cativa process is a method for the production of acetic acid by the carbonylation of methanol.

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Cattierite (CoS2) is a cobalt sulfide mineral found in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Central African Mining and Exploration Company

The Central African Mining and Exploration Company (CAMEC) was a mining company active in the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and in other parts of Africa.

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Central African Republic

The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Ceramic art

Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay.

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Ceramic glaze

Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing.

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Cerulean, also spelled caerulean, is a colour term that may be applied to certain colours with the hue ranging roughly between blue and azure overlapping with both.

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The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.

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Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemische Berichte

Chemische Berichte (usually abbreviated as Ber. or Chem. Ber.) was a German-language scientific journal of all disciplines of chemistry founded in 1868.

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Child labour

Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.

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Chirality (chemistry)

Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.

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The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Close-packing of equal spheres

In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).

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Cobalamin (Cbl) is a general term that is referred to a number of compounds, that have cobalt ion in the middle, hence the name of the compound.

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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.

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Cobalt blue

Cobalt blue is a blue pigment made by sintering cobalt(II) oxide with alumina at 1200 °C.

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Cobalt bomb

A cobalt bomb is a type of "salted bomb": a nuclear weapon designed to produce enhanced amounts of radioactive fallout, intended to contaminate a large area with radioactive material.

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Cobalt glass

Cobalt glass—known as "smalt" when ground as a pigment—is a deep blue colored glass prepared by including a cobalt compound, typically cobalt oxide or cobalt carbonate, in a glass melt.

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Cobalt green

Cobalt green is an ambiguous term for either of two families of green inorganic pigments.

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Cobalt phosphate

Cobalt phosphate is the inorganic compound with the formula Co3(PO4)2.

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Cobalt sulfide

Cobalt sulfide is the name for chemical compounds with a formula CoxSy.

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Cobalt(II) bromide

Cobalt(II) bromide (CoBr2) is an inorganic compound.

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Cobalt(II) chloride

Cobalt(II) chloride is an inorganic compound of cobalt and chlorine, with the formula CoCl2.

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Cobalt(II) fluoride

Cobalt(II) fluoride is a chemical compound with the formula (CoF2).

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Cobalt(II) iodide

Cobalt(II) iodide or cobaltous iodide are the inorganic compounds with the formula CoI2 and the hexahydrate CoI2(H2O)6.

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Cobalt(II) oxide

Cobalt(II) oxide or cobalt monoxide is an inorganic compound that appears as olive-green to red crystals, or as a greyish or black powder.

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Cobalt(II) sulfate

Cobalt(II) sulfate is any of the inorganic compounds with the formula CoSO4(H2O)x.

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Cobalt(II,III) oxide

Cobalt(II,III) oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula Co3O4.

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Cobalt(III) fluoride

Cobalt(III) fluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula CoF3.

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Cobalt(III) oxide

Cobalt (III) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula of Co2O3.

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Cobalt, Ontario

Cobalt is a town in the district of Timiskaming, in the province of Ontario, Canada, with a population of 1,118 according to the Canada 2016 Census.

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Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.

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Cobaltite is a sulfide mineral composed of cobalt, arsenic, and sulfur, CoAsS.

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Cobaltocene, known also as bis(cyclopentadienyl)cobalt(II) or even "bis Cp cobalt", is an organocobalt compound with the formula Co(C5H5)2.

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound or metallic ion that is required for an enzyme's activity.

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Coltan (short for columbite–tantalites and known industrially as tantalite) is a dull black metallic ore, from which the elements niobium and tantalum are extracted.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Conflict resource

Conflict resources are natural resources extracted in a conflict zone and sold to perpetuate the fighting.

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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The Copperbelt is a natural region in Central Africa which sits on the border region between northern Zambia and the southern Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Corrin is a heterocyclic compound.

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Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

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Curie temperature

In physics and materials science, the Curie temperature (TC), or Curie point, is the temperature above which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties, to be replaced by induced magnetism.

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Decay product

In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

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Dental implant

A dental implant (also known as an endosseous implant or fixture) is a surgical component that interfaces with the bone of the jaw or skull to support a dental prosthesis such as a crown, bridge, denture, facial prosthesis or to act as an orthodontic anchor.

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Dicobalt octacarbonyl

Dicobalt octacarbonyl is the inorganic compound Co2(CO)8.

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Drying oil

A drying oil is an oil that hardens to a tough, solid film after a period of exposure to air.

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Economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Sparsely populated in relation to its area, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is home to a vast potential of natural resources and mineral wealth.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XVIII, alternatively 18th Dynasty or Dynasty 18) is classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1549/1550 BC to 1292 BC.

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Electron capture

Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.

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Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).

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Electroplating is a process that uses an electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a thin coherent metal coating on an electrode.

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Empirical formula

In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is the simplest positive integer ratio of atoms present in a compound.

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Erythrite or red cobalt is a secondary hydrated cobalt arsenate mineral with the formula (Co3(AsO4)2·8H2O).

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Ethylenediamine (abbreviated as en when a ligand) is the organic compound with the formula C2H4(NH2)2.

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External beam radiotherapy

External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) or teletherapy is the most common form of radiotherapy (radiation therapy).

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Ferrocene is an organometallic compound with the formula Fe(C5H5)2.

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Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.

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Fischer–Tropsch process

The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.

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Flame test

A flame test is an analytic procedure used in chemistry to detect the presence of certain elements, primarily metal ions, based on each element's characteristic emission spectrum.

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Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Food irradiation

Food irradiation is the process of exposing food and food packaging to ionizing radiation.

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Froth flotation

Froth flotation is a process for selectively separating hydrophobic materials from hydrophilic.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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Gas turbine

A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.

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Georg Brandt

Georg Brandt (26 June 1694 – 29 April 1768) was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist who discovered cobalt (c.1735).

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Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Glaucodot is a cobalt iron arsenic sulfide mineral with formula: (Co,Fe)AsS.

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Glencore plc (an acronym for Global Energy Commodity Resources) is an Anglo–Swiss multinational commodity trading and mining company with headquarters in Baar, Switzerland, and a registered office in Saint Helier, Jersey.

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Glenn T. Seaborg

Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

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Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.

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Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.

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The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Heavy metals

Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.

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Hexamminecobalt(III) chloride

Hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula Cl3.

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High-speed steel

High-speed steel (HSS or HS) is a subset of tool steels, commonly used as cutting tool material.

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HSAB theory

HSAB concept is an initialism for "hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases".

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is a catalytic chemical process widely used to remove sulfur (S) from natural gas and from refined petroleum products, such as gasoline or petrol, jet fuel, kerosene, diesel fuel, and fuel oils.

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Hydroformylation, also known as oxo synthesis or oxo process, is an industrial process for the production of aldehydes from alkenes.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.

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Hydrosilylation, also called catalytic hydrosilation, describes the addition of Si-H bonds across unsaturated bonds.

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Immediately dangerous to life or health

The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.

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Implant (medicine)

An implant is a medical device manufactured to replace a missing biological structure, support a damaged biological structure, or enhance an existing biological structure.

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Industrial radiography

Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen.

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Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.

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Intercalation (chemistry)

In chemistry, intercalation is the reversible inclusion or insertion of a molecule (or ion) into materials with layered structures.

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Investigative journalism

Investigative journalism is a form of journalism in which reporters deeply investigate a single topic of interest, such as serious crimes, political corruption, or corporate wrongdoing.

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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The iPhone line of products use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

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Isotopes of cobalt

Naturally occurring cobalt (27Co) is composed of 1 stable isotope, 59Co.

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Jet engine

A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.

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Katanga Province

Katanga was one of the eleven provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1966 and 2015, when it was split into the Tanganyika, Haut-Lomami, Lualaba and Haut-Katanga provinces.

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The kobold (occasionally cobold) is a sprite stemming from Germanic mythology and surviving into modern times in German folklore.

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Leaching (metallurgy)

Leaching is a process where ore is soluble and impurities are insoluble, widely used extractive metallurgy technique which converts metals into soluble salts in aqueous media.

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Limestone Coast

The Limestone Coast is a name used since the early twenty-first century for a South Australian government region located in the south east of South Australia which immediately adjoins the continental coastline and the Victorian border.

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Linear particle accelerator

A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.

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Lithium cobalt oxide

Lithium cobalt oxide, sometimes called lithium cobaltateA.

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Lithium-ion battery

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery (abbreviated as LIB) is a type of rechargeable battery in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.

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Louis Jacques Thénard

Louis Jacques Thénard (4 May 1777 – 21 June 1857) was a French chemist.

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A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.

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Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.

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Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.

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Mössbauer spectroscopy

Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.

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Median lethal dose

In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metal ammine complex

In coordination chemistry, metal ammine complexes are metal complexes containing at least one ammonia (NH3) ligand.

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Metal aquo complex

Metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand.

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Metalloprotein is a generic term for a protein that contains a metal ion cofactor.

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Methionine aminopeptidase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the METAP2 gene.

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Meteoric iron

Meteoric iron, sometimes meteoritic iron, is a native metal found in meteorites and made from the elements iron and nickel mainly in the form of the mineral phases kamacite and taenite.

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Methyl group

A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.

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Methylcobalamin (mecobalamin, MeCbl, or MeB) is a cobalamin, a form of 12.

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Methylmalonyl-CoA is the thioester consisting of coenzyme A linked to methylmalonic acid.

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Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase

Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM), mitochondrial, also known as methylmalonyl-CoA isomerase, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MUT gene.

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Micronutrients are essential elements required by organisms in small quantities throughout life to orchestrate a range of physiological functions to maintain health.

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A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Mineral (nutrient)

In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

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Mineral acid

A mineral acid (or inorganic acid) is an acid derived from one or more inorganic compounds.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Mining industry of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is a significant factor in the world's production of cobalt, copper, diamond, tantalum, tin, and gold as well.

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Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

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Mukondo Mine

Mukondo Mine is a copper and cobalt mine in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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Native metal

A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure in nature.

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Natural Resources Canada

The Department of Natural Resources (Ministère des Ressources naturelles), operating under the FIP applied title Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), is the ministry of the government of Canada responsible for natural resources, energy, minerals and metals, forests, earth sciences, mapping and remote sensing.

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Néel temperature

The Néel temperature or magnetic ordering temperature, TN, is the temperature above which an antiferromagnetic material becomes paramagnetic—that is, the thermal energy becomes large enough to destroy the microscopic magnetic ordering within the material.

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| magnetic_moment.

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New Caledonia

New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.

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Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Nickel–cadmium battery

The nickel–cadmium battery (NiCd battery or NiCad battery) is a type of rechargeable battery using nickel oxide hydroxide and metallic cadmium as electrodes.

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Nickel–metal hydride battery

A nickel metal hydride battery, abbreviated NiMH or Ni–MH, is a type of rechargeable battery.

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Nicotiana is a genus of herbaceous plants and shrubs of the family Solanaceae, that is indigenous to the Americas, Australia, south west Africa and the South Pacific.

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Ninety Mile Desert

The Ninety Mile Desert is an area in South Australia.

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A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.

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Nitrile hydratase

In enzymology, nitrile hydratases (NHases) are mononuclear iron or non-corrinoid cobalt enzymes that catalyse the hydration of diverse nitriles to their corresponding amides R-C≡N + H2O → R-C(O)NH2.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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North Island Volcanic Plateau

The North Island Volcanic Plateau (often called the Central Plateau and occasionally the Waimarino Plateau) is a volcanic plateau covering much of central North Island of New Zealand with volcanoes, lava plateaus, and crater lakes.

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Nuclear explosion

A nuclear explosion is an explosion that occurs as a result of the rapid release of energy from a high-speed nuclear reaction.

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Nuclear fallout

Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and the shock wave have passed.

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Nuclear isomer

A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).

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Nuclear weapon design

Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.

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Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.

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An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.

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Oxidation state

The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Paint is any liquid, liquefiable, or mastic composition that, after application to a substrate in a thin layer, converts to a solid film.

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Parity (physics)

In quantum mechanics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the flip in the sign of one spatial coordinate.

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Passivation (chemistry)

Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.

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Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.

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Percobaltates are chemical compounds where the oxidation state of cobalt is +5.

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Periodic Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.

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Permeability (electromagnetism)

In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself.

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Permissible exposure limit

The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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Polyester resin

Polyester resins are unsaturated synthetic resins formed by the reaction of dibasic organic acids and polyhydric alcohols.

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Polyethylene terephthalate

Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.

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Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.

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Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Potassium carbonate

Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, which is soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol) and forms a strongly alkaline solution.

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Production (economics)

Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output).

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In medicine, a prosthesis (plural: prostheses; from Ancient Greek prosthesis, "addition, application, attachment") is an artificial device that replaces a missing body part, which may be lost through trauma, disease, or congenital conditions.

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The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).

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Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.

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The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.

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Radiation protection

Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this".

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Radioactive tracer

A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.

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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Recommended exposure limit

A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Relative atomic mass

Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) or atomic weight is a dimensionless physical quantity defined as the ratio of the average mass of atoms of a chemical element in a given sample to one unified atomic mass unit.

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Roasting (metallurgy)

Roasting is a process of heating of sulfide ore to a high temperature in presence of air.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences".

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The rumen, also known as a paunch, forms the larger part of the reticulorumen, which is the first chamber in the alimentary canal of ruminant animals.

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Ruminants are mammals that are able to acquire nutrients from plant-based food by fermenting it in a specialized stomach prior to digestion, principally through microbial actions.

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Safflorite is a rare cobalt iron arsenide mineral with formula: (Co,Fe)As2.

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Samarium–cobalt magnet

A samarium–cobalt (SmCo) magnet, a type of rare earth magnet, is a strong permanent magnet made of an alloy of samarium and cobalt.

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The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).

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Schilling test

The Schilling test is a medical investigation used for patients with 12 (cobalamin) deficiency.

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Shaba II

Shaba II was a brief conflict fought in the Zairean province of Shaba (now Katanga) in 1978.

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Single crystal

A single crystal or monocrystalline solid is a material in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries.

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Named after the city of Skotterud, Norway, Skutterudite is a cobalt arsenide mineral containing variable amounts of nickel and iron substituting for cobalt with a general formula: CoAs3.

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Slag is the glass-like by-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.

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Smaltite is a variety of the mineral skutterudite consisting of cobalt iron nickel arsenide: (Co,Fe,Ni)As2.

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Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to melt out a base metal.

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South Australia

South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.

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Specific gravity

Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.

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Spherocobaltite or sphaerocobaltite is a cobalt carbonate mineral with chemical composition CoCO3.

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Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals.

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Stellite is a range of cobalt-chromium alloys designed for wear resistance.

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Structural analog

A structural analog, also known as a chemical analog or simply an analog, is a compound having a structure similar to that of another compound, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.

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Succinyl-Coenzyme A, abbreviated as Succinyl-CoA or SucCoA, is a combination of succinic acid and coenzyme A.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy that exhibits several key characteristics: excellent mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, good surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation.

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A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Supply chain

A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.

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Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.

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Sven Rinman

Sven Rinman 23 June(N.S)/12 June(O.S) 1720 – 20 December 1792 was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist who discovered the pigment cobalt green, sometimes also called Rinman's green.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Terephthalic acid

Terephthalic acid is an organic compound with formula C6H4(CO2H)2.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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Tobacco smoke

Cigarette smoke is an aerosol produced by the incomplete combustion of tobacco during the smoking of cigarettes.

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride

Tris(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride is a coordination complex with the formula Cl3 (where "en" is the abbreviation for ethylenediamine).

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Tungsten carbide

Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.

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Ultratrace element

In biochemistry, an ultratrace element is a chemical element that normally comprises less than one microgram per gram of a given organism (i.e. less than 0.0001% by weight), but which plays a significant role in its metabolism.

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Uluburun shipwreck

The Uluburun Shipwreck is a Late Bronze Age shipwreck dated to the late 14th century BC, discovered close to the east shore of Uluburun (Grand Cape), and about miles southeast of Kaş, in south-western Turkey.

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Unfree labour

Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.

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Unified atomic mass unit

The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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Vaesite (NiS2) is a mineral found together with cattierite in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

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Varnish is a transparent, hard, protective finish or film that is primarily used in wood finishing but also for other materials.

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Vitallium is a trademark for an alloy of 65% cobalt, 30% chromium, 5% molybdenum, and other substances.

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A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.

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Vitreous enamel

Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.

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Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.

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X-ray fluorescence

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.

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Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.

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Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.

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Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt

Huayou Cobalt Co., Ltd is primarily a supplier of cobalt, including cobalt tetroxide, cobalt oxide, cobalt carbonate, cobalt hydroxide, cobalt oxalate, cobalt sulfate, and cobalt monoxide.

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Zinc oxide

Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the formula ZnO.

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Bush sickness, Co (element), Co2+, Cobalt (element), Cobalt alloy, Cobaltic, Cobaltous, Cobolt, Element 27.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cobalt

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