162 relations: Abraham Cowley, Agwa de Bolivia, Alan García, Albert Niemann (chemist), Alcohol and Drugs History Society, Alkaloid, Altitude sickness, Amazon basin, Andean civilizations, Andes, Anesthetic, Anise, Antiquity (journal), Aphrodisiac, Apus, Argentina, Arhuaco, Asthma, Astringent, Aymara language, Benzoylecgonine, Berry (botany), Biceps, Biological patent, Bleach, Bogotá, Bolivia, Boliviana negra, Calcium oxide, Camphor, Cash crop, Cerro de Pasco, Chewing tobacco, Chicha, Choco languages, Chuspas, Coca, Coca alkaloid, Coca Colla, Coca eradication, Coca Museum, Coca Sek, Coca tea, Coca wine, Coca-Cola, Cocaine, Cochabamba, Colombia, Cronquist system, Cusco, ..., Cuscohygrine, Digestion, Dihydrocuscohygrine, Divination, Drug Enforcement Administration, Ecgonine, Ecuador, Eloria noyesi, Energy drink, Erythroxylaceae, Erythroxylum coca, Erythroxylum novogranatense, Evo Morales, Family (biology), Flowering plant, Genetic engineering, Geography of Taiwan, Glyphosate, Gynoecium, Herbicide, Huaca Prieta, Huánuco, Hugo Chávez, Hydroxytropacocaine, Hygrine, Illegal drug trade in Latin America, Inca Empire, Inca mythology, International Narcotics Control Board, Internet Archive, Inti, Java, Kogi people, La Paz, Larva, Leaf, Lime (material), Limestone, Linales, Liqueur, Longevity, Malaria, Malpighiales, Maywood, New Jersey, Methylecgonine cinnamate, Mexico, Moche culture, Monsanto, Montane ecosystems, Moth, Mummy, National Assembly (Venezuela), Nicotine, Nosebleed, Opium Law, Order (biology), Ore, Pachamama, Paez people, Paolo Mantegazza, Peer-to-peer, Peptic ulcer disease, Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru, Peru, Petal, Pharmacology, Philip II of Spain, Plan Colombia, Plant breeding, Poporo, Procaine, Prunus spinosa, Psychoactive drug, Pungency, Quasi-judicial body, Quechuan languages, Quinoa, Recreational drug use, Red Bull Simply Cola, Rheumatism, Riboflavin, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Smuggling, Sodium bicarbonate, Soybean, Stamen, Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons, Stepan Company, Tasseography, Taxon, Tea, The Washington Times, Thiamine, Timothy Plowman, Tobacco, Topa Inca Yupanqui, Trepanning, Tropacocaine, Trujillo Province, Peru, United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, United Nations General Assembly, University of Göttingen, Vin Mariani, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, War on drugs, Weed, Wiwa language, Wool, Yungas. Expand index (112 more) » « Shrink index
Abraham Cowley (161828 July 1667) was an English poet born in the City of London late in 1618.
Agwa de Bolivia (usually shortened to AGWA) is a herbal liqueur made with Bolivian coca leaves, ethanol, methanol, and 37 other natural herbs and botanicals including green tea, ginseng, and guarana, distilled and produced in Amsterdam by BABCO Europe Limited.
Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez (born 23 May 1949) is a Peruvian politician who served as President of Peru from 1985 to 1990 and again from 2006 to 2011.
Albert Friedrich Emil Niemann (May 20, 1834 – January 19, 1861) was a German chemist.
The Alcohol and Drugs History Society (ADHS) is a scholarly organization whose members study the history of a variety of illegal, regulated, and unregulated drugs such as opium, alcohol, and coffee.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
Altitude sickness, also known as acute mountain sickness (AMS), is a negative health effect of high altitude, caused by acute exposure to low amounts of oxygen at high altitude.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The Andean civilizations were a patchwork of different cultures and peoples that developed from the Andes of Colombia southward down the Andes to northern Argentina and Chile, plus the coastal deserts of Peru and northern Chile.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
An anesthetic (or anaesthetic) is a drug to prevent pain during surgery, completely blocking any feeling as opposed to an analgesic.
Anise (Pimpinella anisum), also called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia.
Antiquity is an academic journal dedicated to the subject of archaeology.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
Apus is a small constellation in the southern sky.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Arhuaco are an indigenous people of Colombia.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
An astringent (sometimes called adstringent) is a chemical that shrinks or constricts body tissues.
Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
Benzoylecgonine is the main metabolite of cocaine.
In botany, a berry is a fleshy fruit without a stone produced from a single flower containing one ovary.
The biceps, also biceps brachii is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
A biological patent is a patent on an invention in the field of biology that by law allows the patent holder to exclude others from making, using, selling, or importing the protected invention for a limited period of time.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
Also known as supercoca or la millionaria, boliviana negra is a relatively new form of coca (Erythroxylum coca) that is resistant to the herbicide glyphosate.
Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound.
Camphor is a waxy, flammable, white or transparent solid with a strong aroma.
A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.
Cerro de Pasco (population 70,000) is a city in central Peru, located at the top of the Andean mountains.
Chewing tobacco is a type of smokeless tobacco product consumed by placing a portion of the tobacco between the cheek and gum or upper lip teeth and chewing.
In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented (alcoholic) or non-fermented beverage usually derived from grains, maize, or fruit.
The Choco languages (also Chocoan, Chocó, Chokó) are a small family of Native American languages spread across Colombia and Panama.
A chuspas (which is Quechua for bag) is a pouch that is used to carry coca and cocoa leaves, used primarily in the Andean region of South America.
Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America.
Coca alkaloids are the alkaloids found in the coca plant, Erythroxylum coca.
Coca Colla is an energy drink produced in Bolivia with the use of coca extract as its base.
Coca eradication is a strategy promoted by the United States government starting in 1961 as part of its "War on Drugs" to eliminate the cultivation of coca, a plant whose leaves are not only traditionally used by indigenous cultures but also, in modern society, in the manufacture of cocaine.
The Coca Museum (in Spanish, Museo de la Coca) covers the history of the coca plant from the Andean region and related drug cocaine.
Coca Sek is a carbonated beverage that the Páez people of south-western Colombia began selling in December 2005.
Coca tea, also called mate de coca, is an herbal tea (infusion) made using the raw or dried leaves of the coca plant, which is native to South America.
Coca wine is an alcoholic beverage combining wine with cocaine.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Cochabamba (Quchapampa, Quchapanpa) is a city & municipality in central Bolivia, in a valley in the Andes mountain range.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants.
Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
Cuscohygrine is a pyrrolidine alkaloid found in coca.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Dihydrocuscohygrine is an alkaloid that has been isolated from coca leaves.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.
Ecgonine (tropane derivative) is a tropane alkaloid found naturally in coca leaves.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The coca tussock moth (Eloria noyesi) is a beige moth whose larvae feed on coca plants.
An energy drink is a type of beverage containing stimulant drugs, usually including caffeine, which is marketed as providing mental and physical stimulation (marketed as "energy", but distinct from food energy).
Erythroxylaceae (the coca family) is a family of flowering trees and shrubs consisting of 4 genera and approximately 242 species.
Erythroxylum coca is one of two species of cultivated coca.
Erythroxylum novogranatense is a neotropical species of Erythroxylum (Erythroxylaceae).
Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), popularly known as Evo, is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology.
Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.
Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) is a broad-spectrum systemic herbicide and crop desiccant.
Gynoecium (from Ancient Greek γυνή, gyne, meaning woman, and οἶκος, oikos, meaning house) is most commonly used as a collective term for the parts of a flower that produce ovules and ultimately develop into the fruit and seeds.
Herbicides, also commonly known as weedkillers, are chemical substances used to control unwanted plants.
Huaca Prieta is the site of a prehistoric settlement beside the Pacific Ocean in the Chicama Valley, just north of Trujillo, La Libertad Province, Peru.
Huánuco is a city in central Peru.
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was President of Venezuela from 1999 to 2013.
Hydroxytropacocaine is a tropane alkaloid found in Erythroxylum coca.
Hygrine is a pyrrolidine alkaloid, found mainly in coca leaves (0.2%).
The illegal drug trade in Latin America concerns primarily the production and sale of cocaine and cannabis, including the export of these banned substances to the United States and Europe.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
Inca mythology includes many stories and legends that attempt to explain or symbolize Inca beliefs.
The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is the independent and quasi-judicial control organ for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Inti is the ancient Incan sun god.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
The Kogi or Cogui or Kágaba, meaning "jaguar" in the Kogi language, are an indigenous ethnic group that lives in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in Colombia.
La Paz, officially known as Nuestra Señora de La Paz (Our Lady of Peace), also named Chuqi Yapu (Chuquiago) in Aymara, is the seat of government and the de facto national capital of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (the constitutional capital of Bolivia is Sucre).
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Lime is a calcium-containing inorganic mineral in which oxides, and hydroxides predominate.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
Linales is a botanical name of an order of flowering plants.
A liqueur is an alcoholic beverage made from a distilled spirit that has been flavored with either fruit, cream, herbs, spices, flowers or nuts, and is bottled with added sugars and other sweeteners (such as high-fructose corn syrup).
The word "longevity" is sometimes used as a synonym for "life expectancy" in demography.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
The Malpighiales comprise one of the largest orders of flowering plants, containing about species, about 7.8% of the eudicots.
Maywood is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
Methylecgonine cinnamate is a natural tropane alkaloid found within the coca plant.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.
Monsanto Company was an agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology corporation.
Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains.
Moths comprise a group of insects related to butterflies, belonging to the order Lepidoptera.
A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.
The National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional) is a de jure legislature for Venezuela that was first elected in 2000.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
A nosebleed, also known as epistaxis, is the common occurrence of bleeding from the nose.
The Opium Law (or Opiumwet in Dutch) is the section of the Dutch law which covers nearly all psychotropic drugs.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Pachamama is a goddess revered by the indigenous people of the Andes.
The Páez people, also known as the Nasa, are a Native American people who live in the southwestern highlands of Colombia, especially in the Cauca Department, but also the Caquetá Department lowlands and Tierradentro.
Paolo Mantegazza (31 October 1831 – 28 August 1910) was an Italian neurologist, physiologist, and anthropologist, noted for his experimental investigation of coca leaves into its effects on the human psyche.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a break in the lining of the stomach, first part of the small intestine or occasionally the lower esophagus.
This is a chart of cultural periods of Peru and the Andean Region developed by Edward Lanning and used by some archaeologists studying the area.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
Plan Colombia was the name of a United States foreign aid, military and diplomatic initiative aimed at combating Colombian drug cartels and left-wing insurgent groups in Colombia.
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.
Poporo is a device used by indigenous cultures in present and pre-Columbian South America for storage of small amounts of lime.
Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group.
Prunus spinosa (blackthorn, or sloe) is a species of flowering plant in the rose family Rosaceae.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Pungency is the condition of having a strong, sharp smell or flavor that is often so strong that it is unpleasant.
A quasi-judicial body is a non judicial body which can interpret law.
Quechua, usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes and highlands of South America.
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa; (or, from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa) is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a grain crop primarily for its edible seeds. Quinoa is not a grass, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.). Quinoa provides protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and dietary minerals in rich amounts above those of wheat, corn, rice or oats. It is gluten-free. After harvest, the seeds are processed to remove the bitter-tasting outer seed coat. Quinoa originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America, and was domesticated 3,000 to 4,000 years ago for human consumption in the Lake Titicaca basin of Peru and Bolivia, though archaeological evidence shows livestock uses 5,200 to 7,000 years ago.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Red Bull Simply Cola is a beverage from Red Bull GmbH, makers of the energy drink Red Bull.
Rheumatism or rheumatic disorder is an umbrella term for conditions causing chronic, often intermittent pain affecting the joints and/or connective tissue.
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Santa Cruz de la Sierra ('Holy Cross of the Mountain Range'), commonly known as Santa Cruz, is the largest city in Bolivia and the capital of the Santa Cruz department.
The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is an isolated mountain range separated from the Andes chain that runs through Colombia.
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.
Smuggling is the illegal transportation of objects, substances, information or people, such as out of a house or buildings, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
The stamen (plural stamina or stamens) is the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower.
The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) is an Australian legislative instrument produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA).
Stepan Company is a manufacturer of specialty chemicals headquartered in Northfield, Illinois.
Tasseography (also known as tasseomancy or tassology) is a divination or fortune-telling method that interprets patterns in tea leaves, coffee grounds, or wine sediments.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
The Washington Times is an American daily newspaper that covers general interest topics with a particular emphasis on American politics.
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food, and manufactured as a dietary supplement and medication.
Timothy Plowman (November 17, 1944 – January 7, 1989) was an ethnobotanist best known for his intensive work over the course of 15 years on the genus Erythroxylum in general, and the cultivated coca species in particular.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Topa Inca Yupanqui or Túpac Inca Yupanqui ('Tupaq Inka Yupanki'), translated as "noble Inca accountant," was the eleventh Sapa Inca (1471–93) of the Inca Empire, fifth of the Hanan dynasty, and tenth of the Inca civilization.
Trepanning, also known as trepanation, trephination, trephining or making a burr hole (the verb trepan derives from Old French from Medieval Latin trepanum from Greek trypanon, literally "borer, auger") is a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull, exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial diseases or release pressured blood buildup from an injury.
Tropacocaine (tropacaine, benzoylpseudotropine, pseudotropine benzoate, descarbomethoxycocaine) is a cocaine-related alkaloid.
Trujillo Province is one of twelve provinces in the region La Libertad in Peru.
The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.
Vin Mariani (French: Mariani wine) was a tonic and patent medicine created about 1863 by Angelo Mariani, a French chemist who became intrigued with coca and its economic potential after reading Paolo Mantegazza’s paper on coca's effects.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.
War on Drugs is an American term usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.
A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place".
Damana (also known as Malayo, Wiwa, Arosario, Arsario, Guamaca, Guamaka, Maracasero, Marocasero, Sancá, Sanja, Sanka, Wamaka) is a Chibchan language spoken by the indigenous Wiwa people on the southern and eastern slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in northern Colombia.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
The Yungas (Aymara yunka warm or temperate Andes or earth, Quechua yunka warm area on the slopes of the Andes) is a narrow band of forest along the eastern slope of the Andes Mountains from Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina.