128 relations: Acronym, Algorithm, Alphabet (formal languages), Amino acid, Analog television, ASCII, Asemic writing, –30–, Bag tag, BCH code, Binary Golay code, Biology, Black Chamber, Braille, Character (computing), Chess notation, Cipher, CJK characters, Code (cryptography), Code (semiotics), Code word, Codec, Cognition, Commercial code (communications), Communication, Communication channel, Communication source, Computer science, Concatenation, Content format, Cornet, Coupon, Data, Data compression, Data storage, Decoding methods, Digital signal processing, Digital-to-analog converter, DNA, Electronic color code, Encoder, Encoding (memory), Entropy encoding, Equipment codes, Error detection and correction, Espionage, Flag semaphore, Formal language, Gödel numbering, Gödel's incompleteness theorems, ..., Gene, Genetic code, Gesture, Goppa code, Hadamard code, Hamming code, Herbert Yardley, History of cryptography, Huffman coding, IATA airport code, Information, Information processing, Information theory, International Standard Book Number, Journalism, Kogan, Kraft–McMillan inequality, Kurt Gödel, Language, Language of flowers, Length, Letter (alphabet), List of country calling codes, List of HTTP header fields, Low-density parity-check code, Marketing, Markup language, Mathematical notation, Mathematics, Messenger RNA, Morse code, Music, Natural number, Neural coding, Neuron, NTSC, Nucleotide, PAL, Parsing, Partial function, Phonics, Plain language, Pronunciation, Protein, Quantum error correction, Reed–Muller code, Reed–Solomon error correction, Resistor, SECAM, Secrecy, Semantics encoding, Semaphore line, Semiotics, Sheet music, Sign language, Space, Space–time code, Speech, Station code, Stop codon, String (computer science), Substring, Symbol, Telegraphy, Text Encoding Initiative, Time, Traffic light, Transmission (telecommunications), Turbo code, UMTS, Unicode, UTF-8, Variable-width encoding, Visual system, Wide character, Word, Writing, Writing system. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
In formal language theory, a string is defined as a finite sequence of members of an underlying base set; this set is called the alphabet of a string or collection of strings.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Asemic writing is a wordless open semantic form of writing.
–30– has been traditionally used by journalists in North America to indicate the end of a story.
Bag tags, also known as baggage tags, baggage checks or luggage tickets, have traditionally been used by bus, train, and airline carriers to route checked luggage to its final destination.
In coding theory, the BCH codes or Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem codes form a class of cyclic error-correcting codes that are constructed using polynomials over a finite field (also called Galois field).
In mathematics and electronics engineering, a binary Golay code is a type of linear error-correcting code used in digital communications.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
The Black Chamber, also known as The Cipher Bureau, was the United States' first peacetime cryptanalytic organization, and a forerunner of the National Security Agency.
Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired.
In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.
Chess notations are various systems that have developed to record either the moves made in a game of chess or the position of pieces on a chessboard.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
In internationalization, CJK is a collective term for the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages, all of which include Chinese characters and derivatives (collectively, CJK characters) in their writing systems.
Cryptography in simple terms means the use of any alphabet or numerical statement which has a meaning or stores a message.
In semiotics, a code is a set of conventions or sub-codes currently in use to communicate meaning.
In communication, a code word is an element of a standardized code or protocol.
A codec is a device or computer program for encoding or decoding a digital data stream or signal.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
In telecommunication, a commercial code is a code once used to save on cablegram costs.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
A communication channel or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking.
A source or sender is one of the basic concepts of communication and information processing.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings end-to-end.
A content format is an encoded format for converting a specific type of data to displayable information.
The cornet is a brass instrument similar to the trumpet but distinguished from it by its conical bore, more compact shape, and mellower tone quality.
In marketing, a coupon is a ticket or document that can be redeemed for a financial discount or rebate when purchasing a product.
Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables.
In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.
Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.
In coding theory, decoding is the process of translating received messages into codewords of a given code.
Digital signal processing (DSP) is the use of digital processing, such as by computers or more specialized digital signal processors, to perform a wide variety of signal processing operations.
In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC, D/A, D2A, or D-to-A) is a system that converts a digital signal into an analog signal.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
An electronic color code is used to indicate the values or ratings of electronic components, usually for resistors, but also for capacitors, inductors, diodes and others.
An encoder is a device, circuit, transducer, software program, algorithm or person that converts information from one format or code to another, for the purposes of standardization, speed or compression.
Memory has the ability to encode, store and recall information.
In information theory an entropy encoding is a lossless data compression scheme that is independent of the specific characteristics of the medium.
An equipment code describes the communication (COM), navigation (NAV), approach aids and surveillance transponder equipment on board an aircraft.
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
Flag semaphore (from the Greek σῆμα, sema, meaning sign and φέρω, phero, meaning to bear; altogether the sign-bearer) is the telegraphy system conveying information at a distance by means of visual signals with hand-held flags, rods, disks, paddles, or occasionally bare or gloved hands.
In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.
In mathematical logic, a Gödel numbering is a function that assigns to each symbol and well-formed formula of some formal language a unique natural number, called its Gödel number.
Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
A gesture is a form of non-verbal communication or non-vocal communication in which visible bodily actions communicate particular messages, either in place of, or in conjunction with, speech.
In mathematics, an algebraic geometric code (AG-code), otherwise known as a Goppa code, is a general type of linear code constructed by using an algebraic curve X over a finite field \mathbb_q.
The Hadamard code is an error-correcting code named after Jacques Hadamard that is used for error detection and correction when transmitting messages over very noisy or unreliable channels.
In telecommunication, Hamming codes are a family of linear error-correcting codes.
Herbert Osborn Yardley (April 13, 1889 – August 7, 1958) was an American cryptologist.
Cryptography, the use of codes and ciphers to protect secrets, began thousands of years ago.
In computer science and information theory, a Huffman code is a particular type of optimal prefix code that is commonly used for lossless data compression.
An IATA airport code, also known as an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier.
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events.
Kogan (Ко́ган) is a Russian version of the Jewish surname Cohen, which denotes the descendants of the high priests of ancient Israel.
In coding theory, the Kraft–McMillan inequality gives a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a prefix code (in Leon G. Kraft's version) or a uniquely decodable code (in Brockway McMillan's version) for a given set of codeword lengths.
Kurt Friedrich Gödel (April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian, and later American, logician, mathematician, and philosopher.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
The language of flowers, sometimes called floriography, is a means of cryptological communication through the use or arrangement of flowers.
In geometric measurements, length is the most extended dimension of an object.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Country calling codes or country dial in codes are telephone dialing prefixes for the member countries or regions of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
HTTP header fields are components of the header section of request and response messages in the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).
In information theory, a low-density parity-check (LDPC) code is a linear error correcting code, a method of transmitting a message over a noisy transmission channel.
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text.
Mathematical notation is a system of symbolic representations of mathematical objects and ideas.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country").
Neural coding is a neuroscience field concerned with characterising the hypothetical relationship between the stimulus and the individual or ensemble neuronal responses and the relationship among the electrical activity of the neurons in the ensemble.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,National Television System Committee (1951–1953),, 17 v. illus., diagrs., tables.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a color encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).
Parsing, syntax analysis or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language, computer languages or data structures, conforming to the rules of a formal grammar.
In mathematics, a partial function from X to Y (written as or) is a function, for some subset X ′ of X.
Phonics is a method for teaching reading and writing of the English language by developing learners' phonemic awareness—the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate phonemes—in order to teach the correspondence between these sounds and the spelling patterns (graphemes) that represent them.
Plain language is writing designed to ensure the reader understands as quickly, easily, and completely as possible.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Quantum error correction (QEC) is used in quantum computing to protect quantum information from errors due to decoherence and other quantum noise.
Reed–Muller codes are a family of linear error-correcting codes used in communications.
Reed–Solomon codes are a group of error-correcting codes that were introduced by Irving S. Reed and Gustave Solomon in 1960.
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for "Sequential colour with memory"), is an analogue color television system first used in France.
Secrecy (also called clandestinity or furtiveness) is the practice of hiding information from certain individuals or groups who do not have the "need to know", perhaps while sharing it with other individuals.
A semantics encoding is a translation between formal languages.
A semaphore telegraph is a system of conveying information by means of visual signals, using towers with pivoting shutters, also known as blades or paddles.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
Sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols to indicate the pitches (melodies), rhythms or chords of a song or instrumental musical piece.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
A space–time code (STC) is a method employed to improve the reliability of data transmission in wireless communication systems using multiple transmit antennas.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
A station code is an abbreviation used on railways for railway stations.
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
A substring is a contiguous sequence of characters within a string.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is a text-centric community of practice in the academic field of digital humanities, operating continuously since the 1980s.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights, robots (in South Africa and most of Africa), and traffic control signals (in technical parlance), are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.
In telecommunications, transmission (abbreviations: TX, Xmit) is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or wireless.
In information theory, turbo codes (originally in French Turbocodes) are a class of high-performance forward error correction (FEC) codes developed around 1990–91 (but first published in 1993), which were the first practical codes to closely approach the channel capacity, a theoretical maximum for the code rate at which reliable communication is still possible given a specific noise level.
The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.
A variable-width encoding is a type of character encoding scheme in which codes of differing lengths are used to encode a character set (a repertoire of symbols) for representation in a computer.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
A wide character is a computer character datatype that generally has a size greater than the traditional 8-bit character.
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.