168 relations: Active metabolite, Acute pancreatitis, Agonist, Alizarin, Alkaloid, American Academy of Pediatrics, Anaphylaxis, Ancient Greek, Antidiarrhoeal, Aspirin, Australia, Austria, Barbiturate, Benzylmorphine, Betäubungsmittelgesetz, Binding selectivity, Biotransformation, Blood, Blood plasma, Body fluid, Breastfeeding, Bromide, Bupropion, Caffeine, Canada, Cancer pain, Clandestine chemistry, Co-codamol, Co-codaprin, Codeine methylbromide, Codeine-N-oxide, Codoxime, Concentration, Confessions of an English Opium-Eater, Constipation, Controlled Substances Act, Cough, Cough medicine, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, Defense National Stockpile Center, Desomorphine, Developing country, Dexamethasone, Dextromethorphan, Diarrhea, Diclofenac, Dihydrocodeine, Dihydromorphine, ..., Diphenhydramine, Diphenoxylate, Dose (biochemistry), Drug withdrawal, Dysphoria, Elixir, Epileptic seizure, Equianalgesic, Ethylmorphine, Euphoria, Fluoxetine, France, Friedrich Sertürner, Genetics, Germany, Glucuronide, Guaifenesin, Hair, Health system, Heroin, Heterocodeine, Hong Kong, Hong Kong dollar, Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone, Hypoventilation, Ibuprofen, Ibuprofen brand names, Indometacin, Intramuscular injection, Irritable bowel syndrome, Isocodeine, Italy, Itch, L-DOPA, Laudanum, League of Nations, Leiden, Ligand (biochemistry), Lightheadedness, Liver, Loperamide, Medicines Act 1968, Methylation, Miosis, Morphine, Naproxen, Nausea, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicocodeine, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Norcodeine, Opiate, Opioid, Opioid overdose, Opium, Oral administration, Orthostatic hypotension, Over-the-counter drug, Oxycodone, Oxymorphone, Pain, Papaver somniferum, Papaveraceae, Papaverine, Paracetamol, Paregoric, Parkinson's disease, Paroxetine, Perspiration, Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland, Phenacetin, Physical dependence, Pierre Jean Robiquet, Pimp C, Poppy seed, Poppy straw, Potency (pharmacology), Pregnancy, Prodrug, Promethazine, Purple drank, Recreational drug use, Rectal administration, Republic of Ireland, Rifampicin, Robitussin, Route of administration, Salicylic acid, Saliva, Schengen Agreement, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Somnolence, Subcutaneous injection, Substance abuse, Suchtmittelgesetz, Sweden, Switzerland, Synergy, The BMJ, Thebacon, Thebaine, Thomas De Quincey, UGK, UGT2B7, United Kingdom, United States, United States dollar, Urinary retention, Urine, USA Today, Vomiting, War on drugs, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, Xerostomia, 6-Monoacetylcodeine. Expand index (118 more) » « Shrink index
An active metabolite is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body.
Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis).
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Alizarin or 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone (also known as Mordant Red 11 and Turkey Red) is an organic compound with formula that has been used throughout history as a prominent red dye, principally for dyeing textile fabrics.
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An anti-diarrhoeal drug (or anti-diarrheal drug in American English) is any medication which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhoea.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
A barbiturate is a drug that acts as a central nervous system depressant, and can therefore produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to death.
Benzylmorphine (Peronine) is a semi-synthetic opioid narcotic introduced to the international market in 1896 and that of the United States very shortly thereafter.
The Betäubungsmittelgesetz (BtMG), generally meaning Narcotics Law, is the controlled-substances law of Germany.
Binding selectivity is defined with respect to the binding of ligands to a substrate forming a complex.
Biotransformation is the chemical modification (or modifications) made by an organism on a chemical compound.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids within the bodies of living people.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating nearby body parts; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by a hormone imbalance or immune response.
Clandestine chemistry is chemistry carried out in secret, and particularly in illegal drug laboratories.
Codeine/acetaminophen or co-codamol (BAN) is a compound analgesic consisting of a combination of codeine phosphate and paracetamol (acetaminophen).
Co-codaprin (BAN) is a non-proprietary name used to denote a compound analgesic, a combination of codeine phosphate with aspirin.
Codeine methylbromide (Eucodin) is the bromomethane (methylbromide) salt of codeine.
Codeine-N-oxide (genocodeine) is an active metabolite of codeine.
Codoxime (Codossima) is an opiate analogue that is a derivative of hydrocodone, where the 6-ketone group has been replaced by carboxymethyloxime.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821) is an autobiographical account written by Thomas De Quincey, about his laudanum addiction and its effect on his life.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
The Defense National Stockpile Center (DNSC) is a branch of the United States' Defense Logistics Agency, whose purpose it is to store, secure, and sell raw materials.
Desomorphine is a synthetic opioid developed by Roche, with powerful, fast-acting effects, such as sedation and analgesia.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Diclofenac (sold under a number of trade names) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken or applied to reduce inflammation and as an analgesic reducing pain in certain conditions.
Dihydrocodeine is a semi-synthetic opioid analgesic prescribed for pain or severe dyspnea, or as an antitussive, either alone or compounded with paracetamol (as in co-dydramol) or aspirin.
Dihydromorphine (Paramorfan, Paramorphan) is a semi-synthetic opioid structurally related to and derived from morphine.
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies.
Diphenoxylate is a centrally active opioid drug of the phenylpiperidine series that is used in a combination drug with atropine for the treatment of diarrhea.
A dose is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit.
Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
An elixir (from Arabic: إكسير Iksīr; from Greek ξήριον xērion "powder for drying wounds" from ξηρός xēros "dry") is a clear, sweet-flavored liquid used for medicinal purposes, to be taken orally and intended to cure one's illness.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
An equianalgesic (or opioid) chart is a conversion chart that lists equivalent doses of analgesics (drugs used to relieve pain).
Ethylmorphine (also known as codethyline, dionine, and ethyl morphine) is an opioid analgesic and antitussive.
Euphoria is an affective state in which a person experiences pleasure or excitement and intense feelings of well-being and happiness.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner (19 June 1783 – 20 February 1841) was a German pharmacist.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A glucuronide, also known as glucuronoside, is any substance produced by linking glucuronic acid to another substance via a glycosidic bond.
Guaifenesin, also known as guaiphenesin or glyceryl guaiacolate, is an expectorant medication sold over the counter and usually taken by mouth to assist the bringing up (expectoration) of phlegm from the airways in acute respiratory tract infections.
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
Heterocodeine (6-methoxymorphine) is an opiate derivative, the 6-methyl ether of morphine, and a structural isomer of codeine; it is called "hetero-" because it is the reverse isomer of codeine.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Hong Kong dollar (sign: HK$; code: HKD) is the official currency of Hong Kong.
Hydrocodone, sold under brand names such as Vicodin and Norco among many others, is a semisynthetic opioid derived from codeine, one of the opioid alkaloids found in the opium poppy.
Hydromorphone, also known as dihydromorphinone, and sold under the brand name Dilaudid, among others, is a centrally acting pain medication of the opioid class.
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
The analgesic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen is sold under a wide variety of brand names across the world; the most common being its first registered trademark name of Brufen, along with Advil, Motrin, and Nurofen.
Indometacin (INN; or USAN indomethacin) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used as a prescription medication to reduce fever, pain, stiffness, and swelling from inflammation.
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Isocodeine is an opioid research chemical related to codeine.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
L-DOPA, also known as levodopa or L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine is an amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of humans, as well as some animals and plants.
Laudanum is a tincture of opium containing approximately 10% powdered opium by weight (the equivalent of 1% morphine).
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Lightheadedness is a common and typically unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or a feeling that one may faint.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Loperamide, sold under the brand name Imodium among others, is a medication used to decrease the frequency of diarrhea.
The Medicines Act 1968 is an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom.
In the chemical sciences, methylation denotes the addition of a methyl group on a substrate, or the substitution of an atom (or group) by a methyl group.
Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Naproxen (brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn, and many others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (the same class as ibuprofen) that relieves pain, fever, swelling, and stiffness.
Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nicocodeine (Lyopect, Tusscodin) is an opioid analgesic and cough suppressant, an ester of codeine closely related to dihydrocodeine and the codeine analogue of nicomorphine.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
Norcodeine is an opiate analogue that is the N-demethylated derivative of codeine.
Opiate is a term classically used in pharmacology to mean a drug derived from opium.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
An opioid overdose is toxicity due to excessive opioids.
Opium (poppy tears, with the scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy (scientific name: Papaver somniferum).
Orthostatic hypotension, also known as postural hypotension, occurs when a person's blood pressure falls when suddenly standing up from a lying or sitting position.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Oxycodone, sold under brand names such as Percocet and OxyContin among many others, is an opioid medication which is used for the relief of moderate to severe pain.
Oxymorphone, sold under the brand names Numorphan among others, is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic (painkiller) developed in Germany in 1914.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
Papaver somniferum, commonly known as the opium poppy, or breadseed poppy, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae.
The Papaveraceae are an economically important family of about 42 genera and approximately 775 known species of flowering plants in the order Ranunculales, informally known as the poppy family.
Papaverine (Latin papaver, "poppy") is an opium alkaloid antispasmodic drug, used primarily in the treatment of visceral spasm and vasospasm (especially those involving the intestines, heart, or brain), and occasionally in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Paregoric, or camphorated tincture of opium, also known as tinctura opii camphorata, is a traditional patent remedy known for its antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic properties.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
The Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland (PSI) is the statutory body responsible for regulating of pharmacists and community pharmacies in Ireland.
Phenacetin (or acetophenetidin) is a pain-relieving and fever-reducing drug, which was widely used between its introduction in 1887 and the 1983 ban imposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Physical dependence is a physical condition caused by chronic use of a tolerance forming drug, in which abrupt or gradual drug withdrawal causes unpleasant physical symptoms.
Pierre Jean Robiquet (13 January 1780 – 29 April 1840) was a French chemist.
Chad Lamont Butler (December 29, 1973 – December 4, 2007), better known by his stage name Pimp C, was an American rapper and record producer.
Poppy seed is an oilseed obtained from the poppy (Papaver somniferum).
Poppy straw (also known as opium straw, mowed opium straw, crushed poppy capsule, poppy chaff, or poppy husk) is derived from opium poppies (Papaver somniferum) that are harvested when fully mature and dried by mechanical means, minus the ripe poppy seeds.
In the field of pharmacology, potency is a measure of drug activity expressed in terms of the amount required to produce an effect of given intensity.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.
Promethazine is a neuroleptic medication and first-generation antihistamine of the phenothiazine family.
Purple drank is a slang term for a concoction which includes a prescription-strength cough syrup used in a manner inconsistent with its labeling, thus making it a recreational drug.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Rectal administration uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the rectum's blood vessels,The rectum has numerous blood vessels available to absorb drugs.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Rifampicin, also known as rifampin, is an antibiotic used to treat several types of bacterial infections, including tuberculosis, leprosy, and Legionnaire's disease.
Robitussin is a brand name and registered trademark for both over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription cough and cold medicines manufactured by Pfizer.
A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.
Salicylic acid (from Latin salix, willow tree) is a lipophilic monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, and a beta hydroxy acid (BHA).
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
The Schengen Agreement is a treaty which led to the creation of Europe's Schengen Area, in which internal border checks have largely been abolished.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 is an international treaty to prohibit production and supply of specific (nominally narcotic) drugs and of drugs with similar effects except under licence for specific purposes, such as medical treatment and research.
Somnolence (alternatively "sleepiness" or "drowsiness") is a state of strong desire for sleep, or sleeping for unusually long periods (compare hypersomnia).
A subcutaneous injection is administered as a bolus into the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis, collectively referred to as the cutis.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
The Suchtmittelgesetz (SMG) (roughly translates to Addictives Law) is the controlled-substances law of Austria, being passed in its current form in 1998 after the accession of the country to the European Union.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Synergy is the creation of a whole that is greater than the simple sum of its parts.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
Thebacon (INN; pronounced), or dihydrocodeinone enol acetate, is a semisynthetic opioid that is similar to hydrocodone and is most commonly synthesised from thebaine.
Thebaine (paramorphine), also known as codeine methyl enol ether, is an opiate alkaloid, its name coming from the Greek Θῆβαι, Thēbai (Thebes), an ancient city in Upper Egypt.
Thomas Penson De Quincey (15 August 17858 December 1859) was an English essayist, best known for his Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1821).
UGK (short for Underground Kingz) was an American hip hop duo from Port Arthur, Texas, formed in 1987, by Chad "Pimp C" Butler and Bernard "Bun B" Freeman.
UGT2B7 (UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase-2B7) is a phase II metabolism isoenzyme found to be active in the liver, kidneys, epithelial cells of the lower gastrointestinal tract and also has been reported in the brain.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Urinary retention is an inability to completely empty the bladder.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
War on Drugs is an American term usually applied to the U.S. federal government's campaign of prohibition of drugs, military aid, and military intervention, with the stated aim being to reduce the illegal drug trade.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.
6-Monoacetylcodeine (6-MAC) is an acetate ester of codeine in which the hydroxyl group on the 6 position has been acetylated.
3-Methylmorphine, ATC code R05DA04, ATCvet code QR05DA04, Codein, Codeine addiction, Codeine dependence, Codeine hydrochloride, Codeine phosphate, Codeine sulfate, Codeine sulphate, CodeineFree, Codicept, Codiene, Coducept, Methylmorphine.