61 relations: Adi Shankara, Allen & Unwin, Antoine Léonard Thomas, Aristotle, Augustine of Hippo, Avicenna, Étienne Gilson, Baruch Spinoza, Bernard Williams, Consciousness, David Hume, Discourse on the Method, Dualism, Enchiridion of Augustine, Epistemology, First principle, French language, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gómez Pereira, Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, Grammatical person, Homo sapiens, Hossein Nasr, Instantiation principle, Introspection, Jaakko Hintikka, John Macmurray, John Veitch (poet), Latin, Logical truth, Marginalia, Meditations on First Philosophy, Nicomachean Ethics, Objectivity (philosophy), Oliver Leaman, Ontology, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy, Pierre Gassendi, Plato, Premise, Principia philosophiae cartesianae, Principles of Philosophy, Proposition, Psychology, Radical skepticism, René Descartes, Routledge, Søren Kierkegaard, Self, ..., Self-awareness, Self-consciousness, Skepticism, Solipsism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Substance theory, Syllogism, The City of God (book), Thought experiment, Victor Cousin, Western philosophy. Expand index (11 more) » « Shrink index
Adi Shankara (pronounced; early 8th century CE) was a philosopher and theologian from India who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta.
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Allen & Unwin is an Australian independent publishing company, established in Australia in 1976 as a subsidiary of the British firm George Allen & Unwin Ltd., which was founded by Sir Stanley Unwin in August 1914 and went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth century.
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Antoine Léonard Thomas (1 October 1732 - 17 September 1785) was a French poet and literary critic, best known in his time for his great eloquence.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.
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Augustine of Hippo (or; Oxford English Dictionary. March 2011. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 25 May 2011. Aurelius Augustinus Hipponensis; 13 November 354 – 28 August 430), also known as Saint Augustine or Saint Austin, and also sometimes as Blessed Augustine in the Eastern Orthodox Church, was an early Christian theologian and philosopher whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy. He was the bishop of Hippo Regius (modern-day Annaba, Algeria), located in Numidia (Roman province of Africa). He is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in Western Christianity for his writings in the Patristic Era. Among his most important works are The City of God and Confessions. According to his contemporary, Jerome, Augustine "established anew the ancient Faith." In his early years, he was heavily influenced by Manichaeism and afterward by the Neo-Platonism of Plotinus. After his baptism and conversion to Christianity in 387, Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives. Believing that the grace of Christ was indispensable to human freedom, he helped formulate the doctrine of original sin and made seminal contributions to the development of just war theory. When the Western Roman Empire began to disintegrate, Augustine developed the concept of the pre-Schism Catholic Church as a spiritual City of God, distinct from the material Earthly City. His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview. The segment of the Church that adhered to the concept of the Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople closely identified with Augustine's City of God. In the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion, he is a saint, a preeminent Doctor of the Church, and the patron of the Augustinians. His memorial is celebrated on 28 August, the day of his death. He is the patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, the alleviation of sore eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses.. catholicapologetics.info Many Protestants, especially Calvinists, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of the Protestant Reformation due to his teachings on salvation and divine grace. In the East, some of his teachings are disputed and have in the 20th century in particular come under attack by such theologians as Father John Romanides. But other theologians and figures of the Orthodox Church have shown significant appropriation of his writings, chiefly Father Georges Florovsky. The most controversial doctrine surrounding his name is the filioque, which has been rejected by the Orthodox Church. Other disputed teachings include his views on original sin, the doctrine of grace, and predestination.Saint Augustine in the Greek Orthodox Tradition, by Rev. Dr. George C. Papademetriou. Webpage: http://www.goarch.org/ourfaith/ourfaith8153 Nevertheless, though considered to be mistaken on some points, he is still considered a saint, and has even had influence on some Eastern Church Fathers, most notably Saint Gregory Palamas. In the Orthodox Church his feast day is celebrated on 28 August and carries the title of Blessed.
Avicenna (Latinate form of Ibn-Sīnā (پور سینا / ابن سینا; ابن سینا), full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sīnā (Arabic: أبو علي الحسين ابن عبد الله ابن سينا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath and jurist who is regarded as one of the most significant thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age. Of the 450 works he is known to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine. His most famous works are The Book of Healing – a philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and The Canon of Medicine – a medical encyclopedia. which became a standard medical text at many medieval universities and remained in use as late as 1650. In 1973, Avicenna's Canon Of Medicine was reprinted in New York. Besides philosophy and medicine, Avicenna's corpus includes writings on astronomy, alchemy, geography and geology, psychology, Islamic theology, logic, mathematics, physics and poetry.
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Étienne Gilson (13 June 1884 – 19 September 1978) was a French philosopher and historian of philosophy.
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Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi Portuguese origin.
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Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, FBA (21 September 1929 – 10 June 2003) was an English moral philosopher, described by The Times as the "most brilliant and most important British moral philosopher of his time.". His publications include Problems of the Self (1973), Moral Luck (1981), Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy (1985), and Truth and Truthfulness (2002).
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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
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David Hume (7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of radical philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
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The Discourse on the Method is a philosophical and autobiographical treatise published by René Descartes in 1637.
Dualism (from the Latin word duo meaning "two") denotes the state of two parts.
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The Enchiridion, Manual, or Handbook of Augustine of Hippo is alternatively titled, "Faith, Hope, and Love".
Epistemology is a term first used by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier to describe the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge and is also referred to as "theory of knowledge".
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A first principle is a basic, foundational proposition or assumption that cannot be deduced from any other proposition or assumption.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
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Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet, composer, and Latin and Greek scholar.
Gómez Pereira (1500–1567) was a Spanish philosopher, doctor, and natural humanist from Medina del Campo.
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Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (1 July 1742 – 24 February 1799) was a German scientist, satirist, and Anglophile.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker, the addressee, and others.
Homo sapiens (Latin: "wise man") is the binomial nomenclature (also known as the scientific name) for the human species.
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Seyyed Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian University Professor of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.
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The principle of instantiation or principle of exemplification is the concept in metaphysics and logic that there can be no uninstantiated or unexemplified properties (or universals).
Introspection is the examination of one's own conscious thoughts and feelings.
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Kaarlo Jaakko Juhani Hintikka (12 January 1929 – 12 August 2015) was a Finnish philosopher and logician.
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John Macmurray MC (16 February 1891 – 21 June 1976) was a Scottish philosopher.
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John Veitch (October 24, 1829 – September 3, 1894), Scottish poet, philosopher, and historian, son of a Peninsular War veteran, was born at Peebles, and educated at Edinburgh University.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Logical truth is one of the most fundamental concepts in logic, and there are different theories on its nature.
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Marginalia (or apostil) are scribbles, comments and illuminations in the margins of a book.
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Meditations on First Philosophy (subtitled In which the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are demonstrated) is a philosophical treatise by René Descartes first published in 1641 (in Latin).
The Nicomachean Ethics is the name normally given to Aristotle's best-known work on ethics.
Objectivity is a central philosophical concept, related to reality and truth, which has been variously defined by sources.
Oliver Leaman is a Professor of Philosophy and Zantker Professor of Judaic Studies.
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Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
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Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures.
Philosophy is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
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Pierre Gassendi (also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 – 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher, priest, scientist, astronomer, and mathematician.
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Plato (Greek: Πλάτων Plátōn "broad" in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher and mathematician in Classical Greece, and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
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A premise or premiss is a statement that an argument claims will induce or justify a conclusion.
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Principia philosophiae cartesianae or Renati Descartes Principia Philosophiae, More Geometrico Demonstrata is a philosophical work of Baruch Spinoza published in Amsterdam in 1663.
Principles of Philosophy (Principia philosophiae) is a book by René Descartes.
The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary philosophy.
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Psychology is the study of mind and behavior.
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Radical skepticism or radical scepticism is the philosophical position that knowledge is most likely impossible.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 159611 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist who spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.
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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
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Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (or;; 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a Danish philosopher, theologian, poet, social critic and religious author who is widely considered to be the first existentialist philosopher.
The self is the subject of one's own experience of phenomena: perception, emotions, thoughts.
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Self-awareness is the capacity for introspection and the ability to recognize oneself as an individual separate from the environment and other individuals.
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Self-consciousness is an acute sense of self-awareness.
Skepticism or scepticism (see spelling differences) is generally any questioning attitude towards unempirical knowledge or opinions/beliefs stated as facts, or doubt regarding claims that are taken for granted elsewhere.
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Solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist.
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The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely-accessible to internet users.
Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties.
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A syllogism (συλλογισμός syllogismos, "conclusion, inference") is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.
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De Civitate Dei (full title: De Civitate Dei contra Paganos, translated in English as The City of God Against the Pagans) or The City of God is a book of Christian philosophy written in Latin by Augustine of Hippo in the early 5th century AD.
A thought experiment or Gedankenexperiment (from German) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.
Victor Cousin (28 November 1792 – 14 January 1867) was a French philosopher.
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Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
Cogito Ergo Sum, Cogito, ergo sum, Cognito ergo sum, Dubito, ergo cogito, ergo sum, Ergo Sum Cogito, I think therefore I am, I think therefore i am, I think, therefore I am, I think, therefore I am., I think, therefore i am, I think, therefore, I am, Je pense donc je suis, Je pense, donc je suis, The Cogito.