216 relations: Aaron T. Beck, Abnormal psychology, Alan Baddeley, Alan M. Leslie, Albert Bandura, Albert Ellis, Alexander Luria, Allan Paivio, Allen Newell, Amos Tversky, Anne Treisman, Antonio Damasio, Applied psychology, Artificial intelligence, Attention, Attentional control, Auditory system, Autobiographical memory, Baddeley's model of working memory, Behaviorism, Brian MacWhinney, Carl Wernicke, Categorization, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Childhood memory, Choice, Cocktail party effect, Cognition, Cognitive bias, Cognitive biology, Cognitive description, Cognitive development, Cognitive intervention, Cognitive module, Cognitive neuropsychology, Cognitive neuroscience, Cognitive poetics, Cognitive revolution, Cognitive robotics, Cognitive science, Cognitive style, Cognitivism (psychology), Computational theory of mind, Concept learning, Confabulation, Connectionism, Consciousness, Coping (psychology), Creativity, Daniel Kahneman, ..., Daniel Schacter, David Ausubel, David Rumelhart, Déjà vu, Decay theory, Decision-making, Dedre Gentner, Descriptive knowledge, Developmental psychology, Digital infinity, Discursive psychology, Donald Broadbent, Dual process theory, Dual-coding theory, Ecological psychology, Economics, Educational psychology, Eiffel Tower, Eleanor Rosch, Eleanor Saffran, Elizabeth Bates, Elizabeth Loftus, Ellen Markman, Emotion and memory, Empiricism, Endel Tulving, Episodic memory, Eric Lenneberg, Eugene Galanter, Evolutionary psychology, Expressive aphasia, Eyewitness memory, False memory, Fergus I. M. Craik, Flashbulb memory, Form perception, Formal fallacy, Frederic Bartlett, Fuzzy-trace theory, George Armitage Miller, George Berkeley, George Mandler, George Sperling, Giacomo Rizzolatti, Glasser's choice theory, Gordon H. Bower, Gordon Moskowitz, Grammar, Hallucination, Henry L. Roediger III, Herbert A. Simon, Hermann Ebbinghaus, Hierarchy, Illusory truth effect, Imagination inflation, Immanuel Kant, Information theory, Interference theory, Intertrial priming, James McClelland (psychologist), Jean Matter Mandler, Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, John Locke, John Robert Anderson (psychologist), Karl H. Pribram, Knowledge organization, Knowledge representation and reasoning, Language, Language acquisition, Language processing in the brain, Larry Squire, Learning disability, Lev Vygotsky, Linguistics, List of memory biases, Logic, Long-term memory, Media psychology, Memory, Memory and aging, Mental image, Mental process, Meta-analysis, Metacognition, Michael Gazzaniga, Michael Posner (psychologist), Mind–body dualism, Models of abnormality, Mood (psychology), Nancy Kanwisher, Naturalistic decision-making, Neurocognitive, Noam Chomsky, Numerical cognition, Olfaction, Orienting response, Otto Selz, Outline of object recognition, Paradigm, Pattern recognition, Paul Broca, Perception, Perceptual control theory, Personal information management, Personality psychology, Philip Johnson-Laird, Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonology, Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Plato, Problem solving, Procedural knowledge, Procedural memory, Propositional formula, Proprioception, Psychoactive drug, Psychodynamics, Psychological adaptation, Psychological nativism, Psychology of reasoning, Psychophysics, Receptive aphasia, René Descartes, Richard Shiffrin, Robert A. Bjork, Robert Sternberg, Roger Shepard, Rubicon model (psychology), Saul Sternberg, Schema (psychology), Scholarpedia, Semantic memory, Serial-position effect, Seymour Papert, Short-term memory, Similarity (psychology), Situated cognition, Social cognition, Social information processing (theory), Social psychology, Socioeconomic status, Somatosensory system, Source-monitoring error, Spaced repetition, Steven Pinker, Stimulus–response model, Structuralism (psychology), Subconscious, Susan Carey, Taste, The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two, Theory of mind, Thought, Time perception, Ulric Neisser, Visual system, Vittorio Gallese, Vittorio Guidano, Von Restorff effect, Water-level task, Willem Levelt, William Kaye Estes, Working memory, World War II. Expand index (166 more) » « Shrink index
Aaron Temkin Beck (born July 18, 1921) is an American psychiatrist who is professor emeritus in the department of psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania.
Abnormal psychology is the branch of psychology that studies unusual patterns of behavior, emotion and thought, which may or may not be understood as precipitating a mental disorder.
Alan David Baddeley, CBE, FRS, FMedSci (born 23 March 1934) is a British psychologist.
Alan M. Leslie is a Scottish psychologist and Professor of Psychology and Cognitive science at Rutgers University, where he directs the Cognitive Development Laboratory (CDL) and is co-director of the Rutgers University Center for Cognitive Science (RUCCS) along with Ernest Lepore.
Albert Bandura (born December 4, 1925) is a psychologist who is the David Starr Jordan Professor Emeritus of Social Science in Psychology at Stanford University.
Albert Ellis (September 27, 1913 – July 24, 2007) was an American psychologist who in 1955 developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT).
Alexander Romanovich Luria (p; 16 July 1902 – 14 August 1977) was a notable neuropsychologist, often credited as a father of modern neuropsychological assessment.
Allan Urho Paivio (March 29, 1925 - June 19, 2016) was a Professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario.
Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology.
Amos Nathan Tversky (עמוס טברסקי; March 16, 1937 – June 2, 1996) was a cognitive and mathematical psychologist, a student of cognitive science, a collaborator of Daniel Kahneman, and a figure in the discovery of systematic human cognitive bias and handling of risk.
Anne Marie Treisman (née Taylor; 27 February 1935 – 9 February 2018)Dean of the Faculty.
Antonio Damasio (António Damásio) is a Portuguese-American neuroscientist.
Applied psychology is the use of psychological methods and findings of scientific psychology to solve practical problems of human and animal behavior and experience.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
Attentional control refers to an individual's capacity to choose what they pay attention to and what they ignore.
The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing.
Autobiographical memory is a memory system consisting of episodes recollected from an individual's life, based on a combination of episodic (personal experiences and specific objects, people and events experienced at particular time and place) and semantic (general knowledge and facts about the world) memory.
Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch proposed a model of working memory in 1974, in an attempt to present a more accurate model of primary memory (often referred to as short-term memory).
Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is a systematic approach to understanding the behavior of humans and other animals.
Brian James MacWhinney (born August 22, 1945) is a Professor of Psychology and Modern Languages at Carnegie Mellon University.
Carl (or Karl) Wernicke (15 May 1848 – 15 June 1905) was a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist.
Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood.
The Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (CASBS) is a interdisciplinary research lab at Stanford University that offers a residential postdoctoral fellowship program for scientists and scholars studying "the five core social and behavioral disciplines of anthropology, economics, political science, psychology, and sociology".
Childhood memory refers to memories formed during childhood.
Choice involves decision making.
The cocktail party effect is the phenomenon of the brain's ability to focus one's auditory attention (an effect of selective attention in the brain) on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, as when a partygoer can focus on a single conversation in a noisy room.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.
Cognitive biology is an emerging science that regards natural cognition as a biological function.
Cognitive description is a term used in psychology to describe the cognitive workings of the human mind.
Cognitive development is a field of study in neuroscience and psychology focusing on a child's development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain and cognitive psychology.
A cognitive intervention is a form of psychological intervention, a technique and therapy practiced in counseling.
The Economist, Sep 27th 2007 --> A cognitive module is, in theories of the modularity of mind and the closely related society of mind theory, a specialised tool or sub-unit that can be used by other parts to resolve cognitive tasks.
Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of cognitive psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes.
The term cognitive neuroscience was coined by George Armitage Miller and Michael Gazzaniga in year 1976.
Cognitive poetics is a school of literary criticism that applies the principles of cognitive science, particularly cognitive psychology, to the interpretation of literary texts.
The cognitive revolution was an intellectual movement that began in the 1950s as an interdisciplinary study of the mind and its processes, which became known collectively as cognitive science.
Cognitive robotics is concerned with endowing a robot with intelligent behavior by providing it with a processing architecture that will allow it to learn and reason about how to behave in response to complex goals in a complex world.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Cognitive style or "thinking style" is a concept used in cognitive psychology to describe the way individuals think, perceive and remember information.
In psychology, cognitivism is a theoretical framework for understanding the mind that gained credence in the 1950s.
In philosophy, the computational theory of mind (CTM) refers to a family of views that hold that the human mind is an information processing system and that cognition and consciousness together are a form of computation.
Concept learning, also known as category learning, concept attainment, and concept formation, is defined by Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin (1967) as "the search for and listing of attributes that can be used to distinguish exemplars from non exemplars of various categories".
In psychiatry, confabulation (verb: confabulate) is a disturbance of memory, defined as the production of fabricated, distorted, or misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world, without the conscious intention to deceive.
Connectionism is an approach in the fields of cognitive science, that hopes to represent mental phenomena using artificial neural networks.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Coping is the conscious effort to reduce stress.
Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and somehow valuable is formed.
Daniel Kahneman (דניאל כהנמן; born March 5, 1934) is an Israeli-American psychologist notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making, as well as behavioral economics, for which he was awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (shared with Vernon L. Smith).
Daniel Lawrence Schacter (born June 17, 1952) is an American psychologist.
David Paul Ausubel (October 25, 1918 – July 9, 2008) was an American psychologist.
David Everett Rumelhart (June 12, 1942 – March 13, 2011) was an American psychologist who made many contributions to the formal analysis of human cognition, working primarily within the frameworks of mathematical psychology, symbolic artificial intelligence, and parallel distributed processing.
Déjà vu is the feeling that the situation currently being experienced has already been experienced in the past.
Decay theory proposes that memory fades due to the mere passage of time.
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.
Dedre Gentner is a professor in the Department of Psychology at Northwestern University.
Descriptive knowledge, also declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions.
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Digital infinity is a technical term in theoretical linguistics.
Discursive psychology (DP) is a form of discourse analysis that focuses on psychological themes in talk, text, and images.
Donald Eric (D.E.) Broadbent FRS (Birmingham, 6 May 1926 – 10 April 1993) was an influential experimental psychologist from the UK His career and research bridged the gap between the pre-World War II approach of Sir Frederic Bartlett and what became known as Cognitive Psychology in the late 1960s.
In psychology, a dual process theory provides an account of how thought can arise in two different ways, or as a result of two different processes.
Dual-coding theory, a theory of cognition, was hypothesized by Allan Paivio of the University of Western Ontario in 1971.
Ecological psychology is a term claimed by several schools of psychology with the main one involving the work of James J. Gibson and his associates, and another one the work of Roger G. Barker, Herb Wright and associates at the University of Kansas in Lawrence.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning.
The Eiffel Tower (tour Eiffel) is a wrought iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.
Eleanor Rosch (once known as Eleanor Rosch Heider; born 1938) is a professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, specializing in cognitive psychology and primarily known for her work on categorization, in particular her prototype theory, which has profoundly influenced the field of cognitive psychology.
Eleanor M. Saffran (May 16, 1938 – November 23, 2002) was a researcher in the field of Cognitive Neuropsychology.
Elizabeth Bates (July 26, 1947 – December 13, 2003) was a Professor of psychology and cognitive science at the University of California, San Diego.
Elizabeth F. Loftus (born Elizabeth Fishman, October 16, 1944)Bower, G. H., (2007).
Ellen Markman is Lewis M. Terman Professor of Psychology at Stanford University.
Emotion can have a powerful effect on humans and animals.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Endel Tulving (born May 26, 1927) is an Estonian Canadian experimental psychologist and cognitive neuroscientist whose research on human memory has influenced psychological scientists, neuroscientists, and clinicians.
Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.
Eric Heinz Lenneberg (19 September 1921 – 31 May 1975) was a linguist and neurologist who pioneered ideas on language acquisition and cognitive psychology, particularly in terms of the concept of innateness.
Eugene Galanter was one of the modern founders of cognitive psychology.
Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective.
Expressive aphasia, also known as Broca's aphasia, is a type of aphasia characterized by partial loss of the ability to produce language (spoken, manual, or written), although comprehension generally remains intact.
Eyewitness memory is a person's episodic memory for a crime or other dramatic event that he or she has witnessed.
A false memory is a psychological phenomenon where a person recalls something that did not happen.
Fergus Ian Muirden Craik FRS (born 17 April 1935, Edinburgh, Scotland) is a cognitive psychologist known for his research on levels of processing in memory.
A flashbulb memory is a highly detailed, exceptionally vivid 'snapshot' of the moment and circumstances in which a piece of surprising and consequential (or emotionally arousing) news was heard.
Form perception is the recognition of visual elements of objects, specifically those to do with shapes, patterns and previously identified important characteristics.
In philosophy, a formal fallacy, deductive fallacy, logical fallacy or non sequitur (Latin for "it does not follow") is a pattern of reasoning rendered invalid by a flaw in its logical structure that can neatly be expressed in a standard logic system, for example propositional logic.
Sir Frederic Charles Bartlett FRS (20 October 1886 – 30 September 1969) was a British psychologist and the first professor of experimental psychology at the University of Cambridge.
Fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) is a theory of cognition originally proposed by Charles Brainerd and Valerie F. Reyna that draws upon dual-trace conceptions to predict and explain cognitive phenomena, particularly in the memory and reasoning domains.
George Armitage Miller (February 3, 1920 – July 22, 2012) was an American psychologist who was one of the founders of the cognitive psychology field.
George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).
George Mandler (June 11, 1924 – May 6, 2016) was an Austrian-born American psychologist, who became a distinguished professor of psychology at the University of California, San Diego.
George Sperling (born 1934) is an American cognitive psychologist.
Giacomo Rizzolatti (born April 28, 1937) is an Italian neurophysiologist who works at the University of Parma.
The term choice theory is the work of William Glasser, MD, author of the book so named, and is the culmination of some 50 years of theory and practice in psychology and counselling.
Gordon H. Bower (born December 30, 1932) is a cognitive psychologist studying human memory, language comprehension, emotion, and behavior modification.
Gordon Blaine Moskowitz (born October 6, 1963) is a social psychologist working in the field of social cognition.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Henry L. "Roddy" Roediger III (born July 24, 1947) is an American psychology researcher in the area of human learning and memory.
Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".
Hermann Ebbinghaus (January 24, 1850 – February 26, 1909) was a German psychologist who pioneered the experimental study of memory, and is known for his discovery of the forgetting curve and the spacing effect.
A hierarchy (from the Greek hierarchia, "rule of a high priest", from hierarkhes, "leader of sacred rites") is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "above", "below", or "at the same level as" one another A hierarchy can link entities either directly or indirectly, and either vertically or diagonally.
The illusory truth effect (also known as the validity effect, truth effect or the reiteration effect) is the tendency to believe information to be correct after repeated exposure.
Imagination inflation refers to the finding that imagining an event which never happened can increase confidence that it actually occurred.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.
Interference theory is a theory regarding human memory.
In cognitive psychology, intertrial priming is an accumulation of the priming effect over multiple trials, where "priming" is the effect of the exposure to one stimulus on subsequently presented stimuli.
James Lloyd "Jay" McClelland, FBA (born December 1, 1948) is the Lucie Stern Professor at Stanford University, where he was formerly the chair of the Psychology Department.
Jean Matter Mandler is Distinguished Research Professor of Cognitive Science at the University of California, San Diego and Visiting Professor at University College London.
Jean Piaget (9 August 1896 – 16 September 1980) was a Swiss psychologist and epistemologist known for his pioneering work in child development.
Jerome Seymour Bruner (October 1, 1915 – June 5, 2016) was an American psychologist who made significant contributions to human cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Robert Anderson (born August 27, 1947) is a Canadian-born American psychologist.
Karl H. Pribram (February 25, 1919 – January 19, 2015) was a professor at Georgetown University, in the United States, an emeritus professor of psychology and psychiatry at Stanford University and distinguished professor at Radford University.
Knowledge organization (KO), organization of knowledge, organization of information, or information organization is a branch of library and information science (LIS) concerned with activities such as document description, indexing, and classification performed in libraries, databases, archives, etc.
Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR, KR², KR&R) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
Language processing refers to the way humans use words to communicate ideas and feelings, and how such communications are processed and understood.
Larry Ryan Squire (most often Larry R. Squire; born May 4, 1941) is a professor of psychiatry, neurosciences, and psychology at the University of California San Diego, and a Senior Research Career Scientist at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.
Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (p; – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet psychologist, the founder of an unfinished theory of human cultural and bio-social development commonly referred to as cultural-historical psychology, a prominent advocate for a new theory of consciousness, the "psychology of superman", and leader of the Vygotsky Circle (also referred to as "Vygotsky-Luria Circle").
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
In psychology and cognitive science, a memory bias is a cognitive bias that either enhances or impairs the recall of a memory (either the chances that the memory will be recalled at all, or the amount of time it takes for it to be recalled, or both), or that alters the content of a reported memory.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.
Media psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the interaction of human behavior and media and technology.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Age-related memory loss, sometimes described as "normal aging", is qualitatively different from memory loss associated with dementias such as Alzheimer's disease, and is believed to have a different brain mechanism.
A mental image or mental picture is the representation in a person's mind of the physical world outside that person.
Mental process or mental function are all the things that individuals can do with their minds.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Metacognition is "cognition about cognition", "thinking about thinking", "knowing about knowing", becoming "aware of one's awareness" and higher-order thinking skills.
Michael S. Gazzaniga (born December 12, 1939) is a professor of psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he heads the new SAGE Center for the Study of the Mind.
Michael I. Posner (born September 12, 1936) is an American psychologist, the editor of numerous cognitive and neuroscience compilations, and an eminent researcher in the field of attention.
Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical,Hart, W.D. (1996) "Dualism", in A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, ed.
Models of abnormality are general hypotheses as to the nature of psychological abnormalities.
In psychology, a mood is an emotional state.
Nancy Kanwisher FBA (born 1958) is a professor in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences and an investigator at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The naturalistic decision making (NDM) framework emerged as a means of studying how people make decisions and perform cognitively complex functions in demanding, real-world situations.
Neurocognitive functions are cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological matrix at the cellular molecular level.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
Numerical cognition is a subdiscipline of cognitive science that studies the cognitive, developmental and neural bases of numbers and mathematics.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
The orienting response (OR), also called orienting reflex, is an organism's immediate response to a change in its environment, when that change is not sudden enough to elicit the startle reflex.
Otto Selz (14 February 1881 – 27 August 1943) was a German psychologist from Munich, Bavaria, who formulated the first non-associationist theory of thinking, in 1913.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to object recognition: Object recognition – technology in the field of computer vision for finding and identifying objects in an image or video sequence.
In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.
Pattern recognition is a branch of machine learning that focuses on the recognition of patterns and regularities in data, although it is in some cases considered to be nearly synonymous with machine learning.
Pierre Paul Broca (28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Perceptual control theory (PCT) is a model of behavior based on the principles of negative feedback, but differing in important respects from engineering control theory.
Personal information management (PIM) is the activities people perform in order to acquire, organize, maintain, retrieve and use personal information items such as documents (paper-based and digital), web pages and email messages for everyday use to complete tasks (work-related or not) and fulfill a person's various roles (as parent, employee, friend, member of community, etc.). More simply, PIM is the art of getting things done in our lives through information. Practically, PIM is concerned with how people organize and maintain personal information collections, and methods that can help people in doing so.
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals.
Philip N. Johnson-Laird (born 12 October 1936) is a professor at Princeton University's Department of Psychology and author of several notable books on human cognition and the psychology of reasoning.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Piaget's theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.
Procedural knowledge, also known as imperative knowledge, is the knowledge exercised in the performance of some task.
Procedural memory is a type of implicit memory (unconscious memory) and long-term memory which aids the performance of particular types of tasks without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
In propositional logic, a propositional formula is a type of syntactic formula which is well formed and has a truth value.
Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.
A psychoactive drug, psychopharmaceutical, or psychotropic is a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior.
Psychodynamics, also known as psychodynamic psychology, in its broadest sense, is an approach to psychology that emphasizes systematic study of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, feelings, and emotions and how they might relate to early experience.
A psychological adaptation is a functional, cognitive or behavioral trait that benefits an organism in its environment.
In the field of psychology, nativism is the view that certain skills or abilities are "native" or hard-wired into the brain at birth.
The psychology of reasoning is the study of how people reason, often broadly defined as the process of drawing conclusions to inform how people solve problems and make decisions.
Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.
Wernicke's aphasia, also known as receptive aphasia, sensory aphasia, or posterior aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which individuals have difficulty understanding written and spoken language.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Richard Shiffrin (born March 13, 1942) is professor of cognitive science in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Indiana University, Bloomington.
Robert Allen Bjork (Ph.D., Stanford University; B.A., Minnesota) (born 1939) is Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles.
Robert Sternberg (born December 8, 1949) is an American psychologist and psychometrician.
Roger Newland Shepard (born January 30, 1929 in Palo Alto, California) is an American cognitive scientist and author of the Universal Law of Generalization (1987).
In psychological theories of motivation, the Rubicon model, more completely the Rubicon model of action phases, makes a distinction between motivational and volitional processes.
Saul Sternberg is a Professor Emeritus of Psychology and former Paul C. Williams Term Professor (1993–1998) at the University of Pennsylvania.
In psychology and cognitive science, a schema (plural schemata or schemas) describes a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them.
Scholarpedia is an English-language online wiki-based encyclopedia with features commonly associated with open-access online academic journals, which aims to have quality content.
Semantic memory is one of the two types of declarative or explicit memory (our memory of facts or events that is explicitly stored and retrieved).
Serial-position effect is the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst.
Seymour Aubrey Papert (February 29, 1928 – July 31, 2016) was a South African-born American mathematician, computer scientist, and educator, who spent most of his career teaching and researching at MIT.
Short-term memory (or "primary" or "active memory") is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.
Similarity refers to the psychological nearness or proximity of two mental representations.
Situated cognition is a theory that posits that knowing is inseparable from doing by arguing that all knowledge is situated in activity bound to social, cultural and physical contexts.
Social cognition is "a sub-topic of social psychology that focuses on how people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations.
Social information processing theory, also known as SIP, is an interpersonal communication theory and media studies theory developed in 1992 by Joseph Walther.
Social psychology is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others.
Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
A source-monitoring error is a type of memory error where the source of a memory is incorrectly attributed to some specific recollected experience.
Spaced repetition is a learning technique that incorporates increasing intervals of time between subsequent review of previously learned material in order to exploit the psychological spacing effect.
Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.
The stimulus–response model is a characterization of a statistical unit (such as a neuron) as a black box model, predicting a quantitative response to a quantitative stimulus, for example one administered by a researcher.
Structuralism in psychology (also structural psychology) is a theory of consciousness developed by Wilhelm Wundt and his protégé Edward Bradford Titchener.
In psychology, the word subconscious is the part of consciousness that is not currently in focal awareness.
Susan E. Carey (born 1942) is an American psychologist.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
"The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information" is one of the most highly cited papers in psychology.
Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.
Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.
Time perception is a field of study within psychology, cognitive linguistics and neuroscience that refers to the subjective experience, or sense, of time, which is measured by someone's own perception of the duration of the indefinite and unfolding of events.
Ulric Gustav Neisser (December 8, 1928 – February 17, 2012) was a German-born American psychologist and member of the US National Academy of Sciences. He has been referred to as the "father of cognitive psychology." Neisser researched and wrote about perception and memory.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
Vittorio Gallese is professor of human physiology at the University of Parma, Italy, and professor in Experimental Aesthetics at the University of London, UK.
Vittorio F. Guidano A. (August 4, 1944, Rome, Italy – August 31, 1999, Buenos Aires, Argentina) was an Italian neuropsychiatrist, creator of the cognitive procedural systemic model and contributor to post-rationalist constructivist cognitive psychotherapy.
The von Restorff effect, also known as the "isolation effect", predicts that when multiple homogeneous stimuli are presented, the stimulus that differs from the rest is more likely to be remembered.
The water-level task is an experiment in developmental and cognitive psychology developed by Jean Piaget.
Willem Johannes Maria (Pim) Levelt (born 17 May 1938 in Amsterdam) is a Dutch psycholinguist.
William Kaye Estes (June 17, 1919 – August 17, 2011) was an American psychologist.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.