209 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Abbey of Saint Gall, Achaemenid coinage, Achaemenid Empire, Aegina, Alloy, Almoravid dynasty, Aluminium bronze, Alyattes of Lydia, Amasis II, American Gold Eagle, Amun, Ancient Chinese coinage, Ancient Corinth, Ancient Greek coinage, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Anyang, Apollo, Arabic numerals, Aristotle, Artemis, Aureus, Australian fifty-cent coin, Bactria, Banknote, Base metal, Bataan, Batangas, Bermuda, Bernoulli trial, Bi-metallic coin, Billon (alloy), Bracteate, Bronze Age, Bullion coin, Cambyses II, Canadian Gold Maple Leaf, Canadian Maple Leaf, Caria, Chain cent, China, Chocolate coin, Classical Athens, Coin collecting, Coin counterfeiting, Coin flipping, Coin magic, Coin orientation, Coinage Act of 1965, Coinage metals, ..., Coinage shapes, Coins of the Canadian dollar, Coins of the Hong Kong dollar, Cook Islands, Copper, Counterfeit, Cowry, Cupronickel, Currency, Currency-counting machine, Curve of constant width, Darius I, Deer, Denarius, Dice, Disk (mathematics), Dodecagon, Early modern period, East India Company, Electrum, Euler's Disk, Euro, Fiat money, Fifty pence (British coin), Five pounds (British coin), Foreign exchange market, Free market, Gandhara, Genbun, George IV of Georgia, Georgian scripts, Gold, Gold coin, Gold dinar, Greek drachma, Gresham's law, Halicarnassus, Han dynasty, Hanukkah gelt, Hermodike II, Herodotus, High-speed photography, History of coins, History of Turkey, House of Tudor, Illyrian coinage, Indo-Gangetic Plain, Indonesia, Inflation, Ingot, Ionians, Iron Age in India, Isle of Man, Jiaozi (currency), Julius Pollux, Karshapana, Kingdom of the Lombards, Knife money, Krugerrand, Kuntala country, Kuru Kingdom, Legal tender, Leyte, List of circulating currencies, List of currencies, List of mints, List of most expensive coins, List of people on coins, Loonie, Luzon, Lydia, Mahajanapada, Mandaluyong, Marinduque, Metal, Mindanao, Mint (facility), Mint mark, Mithridates I of Parthia, Money, National emblem, National Museum of Australia, National Post, Nickel, Nickel (United States coin), Obverse and reverse, One pound (British coin), Ottoman Empire, Palladium, Panchala, Parthia, Pasig River, Penny, Penny (United States coin), Persian daric, Phanes, Phanes (coin issuer), Philippines, Piloncitos, Plastic, Platinum, Poland, Porcelain, Potnia Theron, Pound sterling, Power law, Precession, Price controls, Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Privy mark, Pupienus, Quarter (United States coin), Republic of Cabinda, Rolling resistance, Roman currency, Roman Empire, Royal Canadian Mint, Samar, Sasanian Empire, Saurashtra (region), Seigniorage, Sestertius, Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, Shakya, Silver, Silver coin, Singularity (mathematics), Solidus (coin), Sovereign (British coin), Spanish dollar, Spanish Empire, Spanish real, Sterling silver, Surasena, Swaziland, Temple of Artemis, Tetradrachm, Thaler, The O2 Arena, Thomas Gresham, Token coin, Tong Bei, Toonie, Transnistria, Tremissis, Tutankhamun, Twenty pence (British coin), Two pounds (British coin), Uganda, Umayyad Caliphate, United States Department of the Treasury, United States dollar, United States Mint, Vending machine, Zeus, Zeus and the Tortoise, 1 euro coin, 2 euro coin, 500 yen coin. Expand index (159 more) » « Shrink index
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Abbey of Saint Gall (Abtei St.) is a dissolved abbey (747–1805) in a Roman Catholic religious complex in the city of St. Gallen in Switzerland.
Coins of the Achaemenid Empire were issued from 520 BCE-450 BCE to 330 BCE.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
Aluminium bronze is a type of bronze in which aluminium is the main alloying metal added to copper, in contrast to standard bronze (copper and tin) or brass (copper and zinc).
Alyattes reigned as king of Lydia from c.610 BC to 560 BC.
Amasis II (Ἄμασις) or Ahmose II was a pharaoh (reigned 570 BCE526 BCE) of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt, the successor of Apries at Sais.
The American Gold Eagle is an official gold bullion coin of the United States.
Amun (also Amon, Ammon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmōn, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major ancient Egyptian deity who appears as a member of the Hermopolitan ogdoad.
Ancient Chinese coinage includes some of the earliest known coins.
Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.
The history of ancient Greek coinage can be divided (along with most other Greek art forms) into four periods, the Archaic, the Classical, the Hellenistic and the Roman.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (Ἀντίοχος ὁ Ἐπιφανής, Antíochos ho Epiphanḗs, "God Manifest"; c. 215 BC – 164 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king of the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC.
Anyang is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, China.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
The aureus (aurei — "golden") was a gold coin of ancient Rome originally valued at 25 pure silver denarii.
The twelve-sided Australian fifty-cent piece is the third-largest denomination coin of the Australian dollar and the largest under a dollar in circulation.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
A base metal is a common and inexpensive metal, as opposed to a precious metal such as gold or silver.
Bataan (Lalawigan ng Bataan; Lalawigan ning Bataan) is a province situated in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines.
Batangas, officially known as the Province of Batangas (Lalawigan ng Batangas) is a province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon.
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean.
In the theory of probability and statistics, a Bernoulli trial (or binomial trial) is a random experiment with exactly two possible outcomes, "success" and "failure", in which the probability of success is the same every time the experiment is conducted.
Bi-metallic coins are coins consisting of two (bi-) metals or alloys, generally arranged with an outer ring around a contrasting center.
Billon is an alloy of a precious metal (most commonly silver, but also mercury) with a majority base metal content (such as copper).
A bracteate (from the Latin bractea, a thin piece of metal) is a flat, thin, single-sided gold medal worn as jewelry that was produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age (including the Vendel era in Sweden).
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
A bullion coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment, rather than used in day-to-day commerce.
Cambyses II (𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambūjiya כנבוזי Kanbūzī; Καμβύσης Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew, Kambisha) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559–530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire.
The Canadian Gold Maple Leaf (GML) is a gold bullion coin that is issued annually by the Government of Canada.
The Canadian Maple Leaf coins are bullion coins of gold, silver, platinum, or palladium.
Caria (from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia.
The Chain cent was America's first large cent and the first circulating coin officially produced by the United States Mint.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chocolate coins, or chocolate money, are gold foil covered chocolates in the shape of coins.
The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
Coin collecting is the collecting of coins or other forms of minted legal tender.
Coin counterfeiting of valuable antique coins is common; modern high-value coins are also counterfeited and circulated.
Coin flipping, coin tossing, or heads or tails is the practice of throwing a coin in the air and checking which side is showing when it lands to choose between two alternatives, sometimes to resolve a dispute between two parties.
Coin magic is the manipulating of coins to entertain audiences.
The Coinage Act of 1965,, eliminated silver from the circulating United States dime (ten-cent piece) and quarter dollar coins.
The coinage metals comprise, at a minimum, those metallic chemical elements which have historically been used as components in alloys used to mint coins.
Although the vast majority of coins are round, coins are made in a variety of other shapes, including, squares, diamonds, hexagons, heptagons, octagons, decagons, and dodecagons.
Canadian coinage is the coinage of Canada, produced by the Royal Canadian Mint and denominated in Canadian dollars ($) and the subunit of dollars, cents (¢).
The Hong Kong coinage, including 10¢, 20¢, 50¢, $1, $2, $5 & $10, is issued by Hong Kong Monetary Authority on behalf of the Government of Hong Kong.
The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Māori: Kūki 'Āirani) is a self-governing island country in the South Pacific Ocean in free association with New Zealand.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
The counterfeit means to imitate something.
Cowry or cowrie, plural cowries, is the common name for a group of small to large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries.
Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
A currency-counting machine is a machine that counts money—either stacks of banknotes or loose collections of coins.
In geometry, a curve of constant width is a convex planar shape whose width (defined as the perpendicular distance between two distinct parallel lines each having at least one point in common with the shape's boundary but none with the shape's interior) is the same regardless of the orientation of the curve.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.
Dice (singular die or dice; from Old French dé; from Latin datum "something which is given or played") are small throwable objects with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers.
In geometry, a disk (also spelled disc).
In geometry, a dodecagon or 12-gon is any twelve-sided polygon.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals.
Euler's Disk is a scientific educational toy, used to illustrate and study the dynamic system of a spinning disk on a flat surface (such as a spinning coin), and has been the subject of a number of scientific papers.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
Fiat money is a currency without intrinsic value that has been established as money, often by government regulation.
The British decimal fifty pence (50p) coin – often pronounced fifty pee – is a unit of currency equaling one half of a pound sterling.
The British five pound (£5) coin is a commemorative denomination of the pound sterling.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
was a after Kyōhō and before Kanpō. This period spanned the years from April 1736 through February 1741.
George IV, also known as Lasha Giorgi (ლაშა გიორგი) (1191–1223), of the Bagrationi Dynasty, was a king of Georgia from 1213 to 1223.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A gold coin is a coin that is made mostly or entirely of gold.
The gold dinar (ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ذهبي) is an Islamic medieval gold coin first issued in AH 77 (696–697 CE) by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.
Drachma (δραχμή,; pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.
In economics, Gresham's law is a monetary principle stating that "bad money drives out good".
Halicarnassus (Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός, Halikarnāssós or Ἀλικαρνασσός, Alikarnāssós, Halikarnas) was an ancient Greek city which stood on the site of modern Bodrum in Turkey.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hanukkah gelt (חנוכה געלט; דמי חנוכה, both meaning literally "Hanukkah money") refers to money as well as chocolate coins given to Jewish children on the festival of Hanukkah.
Hermodike II has been attributed with inventing Greek coinage, i.e. the transfer of earlier technical knowledge from Lydia into ancient Greek society through Aeolis by AristotleAristotle, fr.611,37 ed.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
High-speed photography is the science of taking pictures of very fast phenomena.
The history of coins extends from ancient times to the present, and is related to economic history, the history of minting technologies, the history shown by the images on coins, and the history of coin collecting.
The history of Turkey, understood as the history of the region now forming the territory of the Republic of Turkey, includes the history of both Anatolia (the Asian part of Turkey) and Eastern Thrace (the European part of Turkey).
The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.
Illyrian coinage which began in the 6th century BC continued up to the 1st century of Roman rule.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as the Indus-Ganga Plain and the North Indian River Plain, is a 255 million-hectare (630 million-acre) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the eastern parts of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.
The Ionians (Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves to be divided into during the ancient period; the other three being the Dorians, Aeolians, and Achaeans.
In the prehistory of the Indian subcontinent, an "Iron Age" is recognized as succeeding the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
Jiaozi was a form of promissory banknote which appeared around the 11th century in the Sichuan capital of Chengdu, China.
Julius Pollux (Ἰούλιος Πολυδεύκης, Ioulios Polydeukes; fl. 2nd century) was a Greek grammarian and sophist, scholar and rhetorician, 2nd century AD, from Naukratis, Egypt.
Kārshāpaṇa (कार्षापण), according to the Ashtadhyayi of Panini, refers to ancient Indian coins current during the 7th and the 6th century BCE onwards, which were unstamped and stamped (āhata) metallic pieces whose validity depended on the integrity of the person authenticating them.
The Kingdom of the Lombards (Regnum Langobardorum) also known as the Lombard Kingdom; later the Kingdom of (all) Italy (Regnum totius Italiae), was an early medieval state established by the Lombards, a Germanic people, on the Italian Peninsula in the latter part of the 6th century.
Knife money is the name of large, cast, bronze, knife-shaped commodity money produced by various governments and kingdoms in what is now China, approximately 2500 years ago.
For the Ian McNabb album, see Krugerrands. The Krugerrand is a South African gold coin, first minted in 1967 to help market South African gold and produced by the South African Mint.
The Kuntala country is an ancient Indian political region that probably included the western Deccan and some parts of southern Karnataka (erstwhile north Mysore).
Kuru (कुरु) was the name of a Vedic Indo-Aryan tribal union in northern Iron Age India, encompassing the modern-day states of Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Uttarakhand and the western part of Uttar Pradesh (the region of Doab, till Prayag), which appeared in the Middle Vedic period (c. 1200 – c. 900 BCE) and developed into the first recorded state-level society in the Indian subcontinent.
Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.
Leyte is an island in the Visayas group of the Philippines.
This list contains the 180 currencies recognized as legal tender in United Nations (UN) member states, UN observer states, partially recognized or unrecognized states, and their dependencies.
For a list of current national currencies, see List of circulating currencies.
Mints designed for the manufacture of coins have been commonplace since coined currency was first development around 600 BC by the Lydian people of modern-day Turkey.
The following list is a chart of the most expensive coins.
This is a list of people depicted on circulating coins throughout the world.
The Canadian one dollar coin, commonly called the loonie (huard), is a gold-coloured one-dollar coin introduced in 1987.
Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Mahājanapada (lit, from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe, country") was one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.
Mandaluyong City (Lungsod ng Mandaluyong) is a city in the Philippines located directly east of Manila.
Marinduque is an island province in the Philippines located in Southwestern Tagalog Region or MIMAROPA, formerly designated as Region IV-B. Its capital is the municipality of Boac.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.
A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.
A mint mark is a letter, symbol or an inscription on a coin indicating the mint where the coin was produced.
Mithridates or Mithradates I (Parthian: Mihrdat, مهرداد, Mehrdād), (ca. 195 BC – 132 BC) was king of the Parthian Empire from 165 BC to 132 BC, succeeding his brother Phraates I. His father was King Phriapatius of Parthia, who died ca.
Money is any item or verifiable record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a particular country or socio-economic context.
A national emblem is an emblem or seal that is reserved for use by a nation state or multi-national state as a symbol of that nation.
The National Museum of Australia preserves and interprets Australia's social history, exploring the key issues, people and events that have shaped the nation.
The National Post is a conservative Canadian English-language newspaper.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
A nickel, in American usage, is a five-cent coin struck by the United States Mint.
Obverse and its opposite, reverse, refer to the two flat faces of coins and some other two-sided objects, including paper money, flags, seals, medals, drawings, old master prints and other works of art, and printed fabrics.
The British one pound (£1) coin is a denomination of the pound sterling.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
Panchala (पञ्चाल) was an ancient kingdom of northern India, located in the Ganges-Yamuna Doab of the upper Gangetic plain.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Pasig River (Ilog Pasig and Río Pásig) is a river in the Philippines that connects Laguna de Bay to Manila Bay.
A penny is a coin (. pennies) or a unit of currency (pl. pence) in various countries.
The United States one-cent coin, often called a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one-hundredth of a United States dollar.
The Persian daric was a gold coin which, along with a similar silver coin, the siglos, represented the bimetallic monetary standard of the Achaemenid Persian Empire.
Phanes (Φάνης, genitive Φάνητος) or Protogonos (Greek: Πρωτογόνος, "First-born"), was the mystic primeval deity of procreation and the generation of new life, who was introduced into Greek mythology by the Orphic tradition; other names for this Classical Greek Orphic concept included Ericapaeus (Ἠρικαπαῖος or Ἠρικεπαῖος "power"), Erikepaios (Ancient Greek: Ἠρικεπαῖος; Latin: Ericepaeus), and Metis ("thought").
Phanes name is attested on a series of early electrum coins, the most ancient inscribed coin series at present known, of Caria, Asia Minor.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Piloncitos (also known as Bulawan) are tiny engraved gold coins found in the Philippines from the Archaic period (pre-Hispanic era).
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Potnia Theron (Ἡ Πότνια Θηρῶν, "The Mistress of the Animals") is a term first used (once) by Homer (Iliad 21. 470) and often used to describe female divinities associated with animals.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
In statistics, a power law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another.
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (Fürstentum Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications.
A privy mark was originally a small mark or differentiation in the design of a coin for the purpose of identifying the mint, moneyer, some other aspect of the coin's origin, or to prevent counterfeiting.
Pupienus (Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus Augustus; born c. 165/170 – 29 July 238), also known as Pupienus Maximus, was Roman Emperor with Balbinus for three months in 238, during the Year of the Six Emperors.
The quarter, short for quarter dollar, is a United States coin worth 25 cents, one-fourth of a dollar.
The Republic of Cabinda (Ibinda: Kilansi kia cabinda; República de Cabinda) http://www.cabinda.net/ was an unrecognized state in southern Africa.
Rolling resistance, sometimes called rolling friction or rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body (such as a ball, tire, or wheel) rolls on a surface.
Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The Royal Canadian Mint (Monnaie royale canadienne) is a Crown corporation of Canada, operating under the Royal Canadian Mint Act.
Samar is the third largest island in the Philippines.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Saurashtra, also known as Sorath or Kathiawar, is a peninsular region of Gujarat, India, located on the Arabian Sea coast.
Seigniorage, also spelled seignorage or seigneurage (from Old French seigneuriage "right of the lord (seigneur) to mint money"), is the difference between the value of money and the cost to produce and distribute it.
The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin.
The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of remarkable constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists.
The Shakya (Sanskrit:, Devanagari: शाक्य; Pali:,, or) were a clan of the late Vedic India (c. 1000 – c. 500 BCE) and during the so-called second urbanisation period (c. 600 – c. 200 BCE) in the Indian subcontinent (present-day nations of India and Nepal).
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver coins are possibly the oldest mass-produced form of coinage.
In mathematics, a singularity is in general a point at which a given mathematical object is not defined, or a point of an exceptional set where it fails to be well-behaved in some particular way, such as differentiability.
The solidus (Latin for "solid"; solidi), nomisma (νόμισμα, nómisma, "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire.
The sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling.
The Spanish dollar, also known as the piece of eight (peso de ocho or real de a ocho), is a silver coin, of approximately 38 mm diameter, worth eight Spanish reales, that was minted in the Spanish Empire after 1598.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The real (meaning: "royal", plural: reales) was a unit of currency in Spain for several centuries after the mid-14th century, but changed in value relative to other units introduced.
Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper.
Kingdom of Surasena (or Sourasena) was an ancient Indian region corresponding to the present-day Braj region in Uttar Pradesh, with Mathura as its capital city.
Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.
The Temple of Artemis or Artemision (Ἀρτεμίσιον; Artemis Tapınağı), also known less precisely as the Temple of Diana, was a Greek temple dedicated to an ancient, local form of the goddess Artemis.
The tetradrachm (τετράδραχμον, tetrádrakhmon) was an Ancient Greek silver coin equivalent to four drachmae.
The thaler was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years.
The O2 Arena (temporarily the sponsor-neutral "North Greenwich Arena", during the 2012 Summer Olympics and 2012 Summer Paralympics) is a multi-purpose indoor arena located in the centre of The O2 entertainment complex on the Greenwich Peninsula in south east London.
Sir Thomas Gresham the Elder (c. 1519 – 21 November 1579), was an English merchant and financier who acted on behalf of King Edward VI (1547–1553) and Edward's half-sisters, queens Mary I (1553–1558) and Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
In the study of numismatics, token coins or trade tokens are coin-like objects used instead of coins.
Tong Bei literally translated as "Bronze Cowry" or "Bronze Shell", is an ancient coin found in China.
The Canadian two-dollar coin, commonly called the toonie, is the highest monetary value among Canadian coins.
Transnistria, the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR; Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР; Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, RMN; Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ; Придністровська Молдавська Республіка), and also called Transdniester, Trans-Dniestr, Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, is a non-recognized state which controls part of the geographical region Transnistria (the area between the Dniester river and Ukraine) and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank.
The tremissis or tremis (Greek: τριμίσιον, trimision) was a small solid gold coin of Late Antiquity.
Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled c. 1332–1323 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period.
The British decimal twenty pence (20p) coin – often pronounced "twenty pee" – is a unit of currency equal to 20/100 of a pound sterling.
The British two pound (£2) coin is a denomination of the pound sterling.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The United States Mint is the agency that produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce, as well as controlling the movement of bullion.
A vending machine is an automated machine that provides items such as snacks, beverages, cigarettes and lottery tickets to consumers after money, a credit card, or specially designed card is inserted into the machine.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Zeus and the Tortoise appears among Aesop’s Fables and explains how the tortoise got her shell.
The 1-euro coin is a euro coin with a value of one euro (€1).
The 2 euro coin (€2) is the highest value euro coin and has been used since the introduction of the euro (in its cash form) in 2002.