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Coins of the pound sterling

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The standard circulating coinage of the United Kingdom is denominated in pounds sterling (symbol "£"), and, since the introduction of the two-pound coin in 1994 (to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Bank of England 1694–1994), ranges in value from one penny to two pounds. [1]

259 relations: Acts of Union 1707, Acts of Union 1800, Aeneid, Alderney, Alderney pound, Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Arnold Machin, Ascension Island, £sd, Bank of England, Banknote, Banknotes of the pound sterling, Belfast, Bi-metallic coin, Big Ben, Bimetallism, Blogger (service), Britannia, Britannia (coin), Britannia silver, British Antarctic Territory, British Overseas Territories, British twenty-five pence coin, Bronze, Bruce Rushin, Bullion coin, By the Grace of God, Cardiff, Celtic cross, Charlemagne, Charles I of England, Charles II of England, Christopher Ironside, Coin, Coining (mint), Coins of the Manx pound, Commemorative coin, Common ostrich, Copper plating, Coronet, Crown (British coin), Crown dependencies, Crown of the Rose, Cupronickel, Curve of constant width, Decimal Day, Denarius, Der Spiegel, Dodecagon, Double florin, ..., Duchy of Aquitaine, Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Duit, Economic and monetary union, Edinburgh, Edward III of England, Edward VI of England, Edward VII, Edward VIII, Edward VIII abdication crisis, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Elizabeth I of England, Elizabeth II, Emperor of India, English Civil War, English claims to the French throne, European Economic Community, Ezekiel, Falkland Islands, Falkland Islands pound, Farthing (British coin), Feather, Fidei defensor, Fifty pence (British coin), Fifty pounds (British coin), Fineness, Five pence (British coin), Five pounds (British coin), Five pounds (British gold coin), Flax, Florin (British coin), Forth Bridge, Gateshead Millennium Bridge, George I of Great Britain, George II of Great Britain, George III of the United Kingdom, George IV of the United Kingdom, George V, George VI, Gibraltar, Gibraltar pound, Glossary of numismatics, Gold standard, Golden Hind, Grain (unit), Great Recoinage of 1816, Groat (coin), Guernsey, Guernsey pound, Guilder, Half crown (British coin), Half farthing, Half sovereign, Halfpenny (British decimal coin), Halfpenny (British pre-decimal coin), Hammered coinage, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, Henry II of England, Henry VII of England, Henry VIII of England, Heptagon, History of Anglo-Saxon England, History of the English penny (c. 600 – 1066), History of the threepence, HM Treasury, Holy Roman Empire, House of Stuart, House of Tudor, Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Ian Lucas, Ian Rank-Broadley, Irish elk, Iron Age, Isaac Newton, Isle of Man, James II of England, James VI and I, Jersey, Jersey pound, Jody Clark, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Scotland, Latin, Leek, Legal tender, Lion (heraldry), List of British banknotes and coins, Livre tournois, Llantrisant, London, Long s, Lordship of Ireland, MacNeill's Egyptian Arch, Manganese, Manx pound, Mark (currency), Mary Gillick, Mary I of England, Mary II of England, Master of the Mint, Matthew Dent (designer), Member of parliament, Menai Suspension Bridge, Methods of coin debasement, Middle Ages, Mint (facility), Mule (coin), Narcissus (plant), Nemo me impune lacessit, Netherlands, Nine Years' War, Normandy landings, Northern Ireland, Numismatics, Oak, Offa of Mercia, Office of Public Sector Information, Oliver Cromwell, One hundred pounds (British coin), One pound (British coin), Onopordum acanthium, Order of the Garter, Order of the Thistle, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Penny, Penny (British decimal coin), Penny (British pre-decimal coin), Pennyweight, Peter Blondeau, Philip II of Spain, Postmodernism, Pound (mass), Pound sign, Pound sterling, Prince of Wales's feathers, Prince-elector, Proclamation, Psalm 52, Psalm 68, Quarter farthing, Queen Victoria, Raphael Maklouf, Restoration (England), Roman currency, Roman Empire, Royal Arms of England, Royal Arms of Scotland, Royal badges of England, Royal Bank of Scotland, Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, Royal Maundy, Royal Mint, Royal Mint Court, Saint Helena, Saint Helena pound, Sceat, Scotland, Scottish coinage, Shamrock, Shilling, Shilling (British coin), Silver standard, Sinecure, Sixpence (British coin), Slash (punctuation), Solidus (coin), South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Sovereign (British coin), St Edward's Crown, Standing on the shoulders of giants, Sterling silver, Stuiver, Ten pence (British coin), The Protectorate, The Queen's Beasts (coin), Third farthing, Thistle, Thomas Levenson, Threepence (British coin), Tironian notes, Tower Hill, Tower of London, Treaty of Brétigny, Trial of the Pyx, Tristan da Cunha, Troy weight, Tudor rose, Twenty pence (British coin), Twenty pounds (British coin), Two pence (British decimal coin), Two pounds (British coin), Two pounds (British gold coin), Unicorn, Union Jack, United Kingdom and the euro, Virgil, Virginia Ironside, Visual impairment, Vulgate, Warden of the Mint, Welsh Dragon, Welsh language, William III of England, William IV of the United Kingdom, Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, Wren, Wrexham (UK Parliament constituency), 2002 Commonwealth Games. Expand index (209 more) »

Acts of Union 1707

The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.

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Acts of Union 1800

The Acts of Union 1800 (sometimes erroneously referred to as a single Act of Union 1801) were parallel acts of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Parliament of Ireland which united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland (previously in personal union) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Aeneid

The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.

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Alderney

Alderney (Aurigny; Auregnais: Aoeur'gny) is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands.

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Alderney pound

The island of Alderney has its own currency, which by law must be pegged to that of the United Kingdom (see pound sterling).

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Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.

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Arnold Machin

Arnold Machin O.B.E., R.A. (30 September 1911 – 9 March 1999) was a British artist, sculptor, and coin and stamp designer.

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Ascension Island

Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island, 7°56' south of the Equator in the South Atlantic Ocean.

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£sd

£sd (pronounced /ɛlɛsˈdiː/ ell-ess-dee and occasionally written Lsd) is the popular name for the pre-decimal currencies once common throughout Europe, especially in the British Isles and hence in several countries of the British Empire and subsequently the Commonwealth.

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Bank of England

The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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Banknote

A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Banknotes of the pound sterling

Sterling banknotes are the banknotes in circulation in the United Kingdom and its related territories, denominated in pounds sterling (symbol: £; ISO 4217 currency code GBP). Sterling banknotes are official currency in the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, British Antarctic Territory, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and Tristan da Cunha in St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

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Belfast

Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.

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Bi-metallic coin

Bi-metallic coins are coins consisting of two (bi-) metals or alloys, generally arranged with an outer ring around a contrasting center.

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Big Ben

Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London and is usually extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower.

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Bimetallism

Bimetallism is the economic term for a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit is defined as equivalent to certain quantities of two metals, typically gold and silver, creating a fixed rate of exchange between them.

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Blogger (service)

Blogger is a blog-publishing service that allows multi-user blogs with time-stamped entries.

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Britannia

Britannia has been used in several different senses.

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Britannia (coin)

Britannia coins are British bullion coins issued by the Royal Mint in gold since 1987 and in silver since 1997.

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Britannia silver

Britannia silver is an alloy of silver containing 11 ozt 10 dwt (i.e. 11½ troy oz.) silver in the pound troy, equivalent to, or 95.833% by weight (mass) silver, the rest usually being copper.

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British Antarctic Territory

The British Antarctic Territory (BAT) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories, of which it is by far the largest by area.

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British Overseas Territories

The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.

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British twenty-five pence coin

The commemorative British decimal twenty-five pence (25p) coin was issued in four designs between 1972 and 1981.

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Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Bruce Rushin

Bruce Rushin is an art teacher from Brundall in Norfolk, United Kingdom.

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Bullion coin

A bullion coin is a coin struck from precious metal and kept as a store of value or an investment, rather than used in day-to-day commerce.

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By the Grace of God

By the Grace of God (Latin Dei Gratia, abbreviated D.G.) is an introductory part of the full styles of a monarch historically considered to be ruling by divine right, not a title in its own right.

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Cardiff

Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital of, and largest city in, Wales, and the eleventh-largest city in the United Kingdom.

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Celtic cross

The Celtic cross is a form of Christian cross featuring a nimbus or ring that emerged in Ireland and Britain in the Early Middle Ages.

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Charlemagne

Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.

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Charles I of England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

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Charles II of England

Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.

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Christopher Ironside

Christopher Ironside FSIA 1970, OBE 1971, FRBS 1977 (11 July 1913 London – 13 July 1992 Winchester, Hampshire) was an English painter and coin designer, particularly known for the reverse sides of the new British coins issued on decimalisation in 1971.

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Coin

A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.

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Coining (mint)

In minting, coining or coinage is the process of manufacturing coins using a kind of stamping which is now generically known in metalworking as "coining".

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Coins of the Manx pound

The official coinage of the Isle of Man are denominated in Manx pounds.

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Commemorative coin

Commemorative coins are coins that were issued to commemorate some particular event or issue.

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Common ostrich

The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either of two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.

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Copper plating

Copper plating is the process of plating a layer of copper electrolytically on the surface of an item.

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Coronet

In English, a coronet is a small crown consisting of ornaments fixed on a metal ring.

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Crown (British coin)

The British crown, the successor to the English crown and the Scottish dollar, came into being with the Union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1707.

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Crown dependencies

Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.

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Crown of the Rose

A Crown of the Rose is an extremely rare gold coin of the Kingdom of England introduced in 1526 during the reign of Henry VIII, in an attempt to compete with the French écu au soleil.

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Cupronickel

Cupronickel (also known as copper-nickel) is an alloy of copper that contains nickel and strengthening elements, such as iron and manganese.

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Curve of constant width

In geometry, a curve of constant width is a convex planar shape whose width (defined as the perpendicular distance between two distinct parallel lines each having at least one point in common with the shape's boundary but none with the shape's interior) is the same regardless of the orientation of the curve.

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Decimal Day

On 15 February 1971, known as Decimal Day, the United Kingdom and Ireland decimalised their currencies.

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Denarius

The denarius (dēnāriī) was the standard Roman silver coin from its introduction in the Second Punic War c. 211 BC to the reign of Gordian III (AD 238-244), when it was gradually replaced by the Antoninianus.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Dodecagon

In geometry, a dodecagon or 12-gon is any twelve-sided polygon.

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Double florin

The double florin (4/-) was one of the shortest-lived British coin denominations ever, only being produced during four mint years, between 1887 and 1890.

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Duchy of Aquitaine

The Duchy of Aquitaine (Ducat d'Aquitània,, Duché d'Aquitaine) was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.

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Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg

The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire.

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Duit

The duit was a copper Dutch coin worth 2 penning, with 8 duit pieces equal to one stuiver and 160 duit pieces equal to one gulden.

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Economic and monetary union

An economic and monetary union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of an economic union (common market and customs union) with a monetary union.

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Edinburgh

Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

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Edward III of England

Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II.

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Edward VI of England

Edward VI (12 October 1537 – 6 July 1553) was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death.

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Edward VII

Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.

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Edward VIII

Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year, after which he became the Duke of Windsor.

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Edward VIII abdication crisis

In 1936, a constitutional crisis in the British Empire arose when King-Emperor Edward VIII proposed to marry Wallis Simpson, an American socialite who was divorced from her first husband and was pursuing the divorce of her second.

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Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg

The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.

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Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.

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Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

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Emperor of India

Emperor (or Empress) of India The Indian form of the title was Kaisar-i-Hind.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.

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English claims to the French throne

From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England (and, later, of Great Britain) also claimed the throne of France.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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Ezekiel

Ezekiel (יְחֶזְקֵאל Y'ḥezqēl) is the central protagonist of the Book of Ezekiel in the Hebrew Bible.

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Falkland Islands

The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.

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Falkland Islands pound

The Pound is the currency of the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory in the South Atlantic Ocean.

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Farthing (British coin)

The British farthing (d) coin, from "fourthing", was a unit of currency of one quarter of a penny, or of a pound sterling.

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Feather

Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs.

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Fidei defensor

Fidei defensor (feminine: Fidei defensatrix) is a Latin title which translates to Defender of the Faith in English and Défenseur de la Foi in French.

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Fifty pence (British coin)

The British decimal fifty pence (50p) coin – often pronounced fifty pee – is a unit of currency equaling one half of a pound sterling.

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Fifty pounds (British coin)

The fifty pound coin (£50) is a commemorative coin of the pound sterling.

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Fineness

The fineness of a precious metal object (coin, bar, jewelry, etc.) represents the weight of fine metal therein, in proportion to the total weight which includes alloying base metals and any impurities.

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Five pence (British coin)

The British decimal five pence (5p) coin – often pronounced five pee – is a unit of currency equaling five one-hundredths of a pound sterling.

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Five pounds (British coin)

The British five pound (£5) coin is a commemorative denomination of the pound sterling.

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Five pounds (British gold coin)

The five guineas gold coin started out life as a five-pound coin before the fluctuating value of the guinea eventually settled at twenty-one shillings; therefore it is arguable that the five pounds piece issued after the Great Recoinage of 1816 is merely a continuation of the earlier value.

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Flax

Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.

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Florin (British coin)

The British florin, or two shilling coin, was issued from 1849 until 1967, with a final issue for collectors dated 1970.

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Forth Bridge

The Forth Bridge is a cantilever railway bridge across the Firth of Forth in the east of Scotland, west of Edinburgh City Centre.

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Gateshead Millennium Bridge

The Gateshead Millennium Bridge is a pedestrian and cyclist tilt bridge spanning the River Tyne in England between Gateshead's Quays arts quarter on the south bank, and the Quayside of Newcastle upon Tyne on the north bank.

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George I of Great Britain

George I (George Louis; Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698 until his death.

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George II of Great Britain

George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.

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George III of the United Kingdom

George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.

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George IV of the United Kingdom

George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later.

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George V

George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936.

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George VI

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.

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Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Gibraltar pound

The Gibraltar pound (currency sign: £; banking code: GIP) is the currency of Gibraltar.

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Glossary of numismatics

This article is a collection of Numismatic and coin collecting terms with concise explanation for the beginner or professional.

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Gold standard

A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.

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Golden Hind

Golden Hind was an English galleon best known for her privateering circumnavigation of the globe between 1577 and 1580, captained by Sir Francis Drake.

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Grain (unit)

A grain is a unit of measurement of mass, and in the troy weight, avoirdupois, and Apothecaries' system, equal to exactly.

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Great Recoinage of 1816

The Great Recoinage of 1816 was an attempt by the British Government to re-stabilise the currency of Great Britain following economic difficulties precipitated by the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars.

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Groat (coin)

The groat is the traditional name of a long-defunct English and Irish silver coin worth four pence, and also a Scottish coin originally worth fourpence, with later issues being valued at eightpence and one shilling.

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Guernsey

Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.

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Guernsey pound

The pound is the currency of Guernsey.

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Guilder

Guilder is the English translation of the Dutch and German gulden, originally shortened from Middle High German guldin pfenninc "gold penny".

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Half crown (British coin)

The half crown was a denomination of British money, equivalent to two shillings and sixpence, or one-eighth of a pound.

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Half farthing

The British half farthing (d) coin, usually simply known as a half farthing, was a unit of currency equaling of a pound sterling, or one eighth of a penny.

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Half sovereign

The half sovereign is an English and British gold coin with a face value half that of a sovereign: equivalent to half a pound sterling, ten shillings, or 120 old pence.

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Halfpenny (British decimal coin)

The British decimal halfpenny (p) coin was introduced in February 1971, at the time of decimalisation, and was worth one two-hundredth of a pound sterling.

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Halfpenny (British pre-decimal coin)

The British pre-decimal halfpenny (d) coin, usually simply known as a halfpenny (pronounced), historically occasionally also as the obol, was a unit of currency that equalled half of a penny or of a pound sterling.

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Hammered coinage

Hammered coinage is the most common form of coins produced since the invention of coins in the first millennium BC until the early modern period of c. the 15th–17th centuries, contrasting to the cast coinage and the later developed milled coinage.

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Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau

"Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" is the national anthem of Wales.

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Henry II of England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.

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Henry VII of England

Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.

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Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.

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Heptagon

In geometry, a heptagon is a seven-sided polygon or 7-gon.

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History of Anglo-Saxon England

Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.

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History of the English penny (c. 600 – 1066)

The history of the English penny can be traced back to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the 7th century: to the small, thick silver coins known to contemporaries as pæningas or denarii, though now often referred to as sceattas by numismatists.

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History of the threepence

The threepence or threepenny bit was a denomination of currency used by various jurisdictions in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, valued at 1/80 of a pound or ¼ of a shilling until decimalisation of the pound sterling and Irish pound in 1971.

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HM Treasury

Her Majesty's Treasury (HM Treasury), sometimes referred to as the Exchequer, or more informally the Treasury, is the British government department responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy and economic policy.

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Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.

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House of Stuart

The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.

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House of Tudor

The House of Tudor was an English royal house of Welsh origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.

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Hyacinthoides non-scripta

Hyacinthoides non-scripta (formerly Endymion non-scriptus or Scilla non-scripta) is a bulbous perennial plant, found in Atlantic areas from north-western Spain to the British Isles, and also frequently used as a garden plant.

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Ian Lucas

Ian Colin Lucas (born 18 September 1960) is a British Labour Party politician, who has been the Member of Parliament for (MP) Wrexham since 2001.

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Ian Rank-Broadley

Ian Rank-Broadley FRBS (born 1952) is a British sculptor who has produced many acclaimed works, among which are several designs for British coinage.

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Irish elk

The Irish elk (Megaloceros giganteus) also called the giant deer or Irish giant deer, is an extinct species of deer in the genus Megaloceros and is one of the largest deer that ever lived.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Isle of Man

The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

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James II of England

James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

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James VI and I

James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.

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Jersey

Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.

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Jersey pound

The pound is the currency of Jersey.

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Jody Clark

Jody Clark (born 1 March 1981) is an English engraver employed by the Royal Mint, notable for designing the fifth and latest portrait of Queen Elizabeth II to feature on coins of the pound sterling.

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Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Kingdom of Great Britain

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.

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Kingdom of Scotland

The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leek

The leek is a vegetable, a cultivar of Allium ampeloprasum, the broadleaf wild leek.

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Legal tender

Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.

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Lion (heraldry)

The lion is a common charge in heraldry.

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List of British banknotes and coins

List of British banknotes and coins, with commonly used terms.

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Livre tournois

The livre tournois (Tours pound) was.

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Llantrisant

Llantrisant ("Parish of the Three Saints") is a town in the county borough of Rhondda Cynon Taf, within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan, Wales, lying on the River Ely and the Afon Clun.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Long s

The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").

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Lordship of Ireland

The Lordship of Ireland (Tiarnas na hÉireann), sometimes referred to retroactively as Norman Ireland, was a period of feudal rule in Ireland between 1177 and 1542 under the King of England, styled as Lord of Ireland.

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MacNeill's Egyptian Arch

Macneill's Egyptian Arch is a railway bridge in Newry, Northern Ireland.

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Manganese

Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Manx pound

The Manx pound is the currency of the Isle of Man, in parity with the pound sterling.

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Mark (currency)

The mark was a currency or unit of account in many nations.

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Mary Gillick

Mary Gaskell Gillick (1881 Nottingham – 27 January 1965 London, England) was a sculptor best known for her effigy of Elizabeth II used on coinage in the United Kingdom and elsewhere from 1953 to 1970.

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Mary I of England

Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558) was the Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 until her death.

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Mary II of England

Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.

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Master of the Mint

Master of the Mint was an important office in the governments of Scotland and England, and later Great Britain, between the 16th and 19th centuries.

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Matthew Dent (designer)

Matthew Dent (born in 1981 in Bangor, Wales) is a British graphic designer.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Menai Suspension Bridge

The Menai Suspension Bridge (Pont Grog y Borth) is a suspension bridge to carry road traffic between the island of Anglesey and the mainland of Wales.

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Methods of coin debasement

Coin debasement is the act of decreasing the amount of precious metal in a coin, while continuing to circulate it at face value.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mint (facility)

A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.

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Mule (coin)

In numismatics, a mule is a coin or medal minted with obverse and reverse designs not normally seen on the same piece.

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Narcissus (plant)

Narcissus is a genus of predominantly spring perennial plants of the Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) family.

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Nemo me impune lacessit

Nemo me impune lacessit was the Latin motto of the Royal Stuart dynasty of Scotland from at least the reign of James VI when it appeared on the reverse side of merk coins minted in 1578 and 1580.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Nine Years' War

The Nine Years' War (1688–97) – often called the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg – was a conflict between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy.

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Normandy landings

The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Numismatics

Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects.

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Oak

An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.

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Offa of Mercia

Offa was King of Mercia, a kingdom of Anglo-Saxon England, from 757 until his death in July 796.

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Office of Public Sector Information

The Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI) is the body responsible for the operation of Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO) and of other public information services of the United Kingdom.

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Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.

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One hundred pounds (British coin)

The one hundred pound coin (£100) is a commemorative coin of the pound sterling.

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One pound (British coin)

The British one pound (£1) coin is a denomination of the pound sterling.

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Onopordum acanthium

Onopordum acanthium (cotton thistle, Scotch thistle) is a flowering plant in the family Asteraceae.

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Order of the Garter

The Order of the Garter (formally the Most Noble Order of the Garter) is an order of chivalry founded by Edward III in 1348 and regarded as the most prestigious British order of chivalry (though in precedence inferior to the military Victoria Cross and George Cross) in England and the United Kingdom.

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Order of the Thistle

The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an order of chivalry associated with Scotland.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Penny

A penny is a coin (. pennies) or a unit of currency (pl. pence) in various countries.

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Penny (British decimal coin)

The British decimal one penny (1p) coin, usually simply known as a penny, is a unit of currency equaling one one-hundredth of a pound sterling.

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Penny (British pre-decimal coin)

The pre-decimal penny (1d) was a coin worth of a pound sterling.

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Pennyweight

A pennyweight (abbreviated dwt, from denarius weight) is a unit of mass that is equal to 24 grains, of a troy ounce, of a troy pound, approximately 0.054857 avoirdupois ounce and exactly 1.55517384 grams.

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Peter Blondeau

Peter Blondeau (Pierre Blondeau; d. 1672) was a French moneyer and engineer who was appointed Engineer to the Mint and was responsible for reintroducing milled coinage to England.

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Philip II of Spain

Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).

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Postmodernism

Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.

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Pound (mass)

The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.

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Pound sign

The pound sign (£) is the symbol for the pound sterling—the currency of the United Kingdom and previously of Great Britain and the Kingdom of England.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Prince of Wales's feathers

The Prince of Wales's feathers is the heraldic badge of the Prince of Wales.

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Prince-elector

The prince-electors (or simply electors) of the Holy Roman Empire (Kurfürst, pl. Kurfürsten, Kurfiřt, Princeps Elector) were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire.

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Proclamation

A proclamation (Lat. proclamare, to make public by announcement) is an official declaration issued by a person of authority to make certain announcements known.

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Psalm 52

Psalm 52 (51 in the Septuagint and Vulgate) is the 52nd psalm from the Book of Psalms.

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Psalm 68

Psalm 68 is the 68th psalm of the Book of Psalms.

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Quarter farthing

The British quarter farthing (d) coin was a unit of currency equaling one sixteenth of a penny (of a pound sterling).

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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Raphael Maklouf

Raphael David Maklouf (born 10 December 1937) is a sculptor, best known for designing an effigy of Queen Elizabeth II used on the coins of many Commonwealth nations.

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Restoration (England)

The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period.

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Roman currency

Roman currency for most of Roman history consisted of gold, silver, bronze, orichalcum and copper coinage.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Royal Arms of England

The Royal Arms of England are the arms first adopted in a fixed form at the start of the age of heraldry (circa 1200) as personal arms by the Plantagenet kings who ruled England from 1154.

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Royal Arms of Scotland

The royal arms of Scotland is the official coat of arms of the King of Scots first adopted in the 12th century.

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Royal badges of England

In heraldry, the royal badges of England comprise the heraldic badges that were used by the monarchs of the Kingdom of England.

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Royal Bank of Scotland

The Royal Bank of Scotland (Banca Rìoghail na h-Alba, Ryal Bank o Scotland, Banc Brenhinol yr Alban), commonly abbreviated as RBS, is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, together with NatWest and Ulster Bank.

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Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom

The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.

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Royal Maundy

Royal Maundy is a religious service in the Church of England held on Maundy Thursday, the day before Good Friday.

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Royal Mint

The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint that produces coins for the United Kingdom.

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Royal Mint Court

Royal Mint Court is a property on Little Tower Hill in London's East End, close to the City of London financial district.

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Saint Helena

Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.

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Saint Helena pound

The Saint Helena pound is the currency of the Atlantic islands of Saint Helena and Ascension, which are constituent parts of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha.

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Sceat

A sceat (sceattas) was a small, thick silver coin minted in England, Frisia and Jutland during the Anglo-Saxon period.

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scottish coinage

From 1124 until 1709 the coinage of Scotland was unique, and minted locally.

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Shamrock

A shamrock is a young sprig, used as a symbol of Ireland.

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Shilling

The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.

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Shilling (British coin)

The shilling (1/-) was a coin worth one twentieth of a pound sterling, or twelve pence.

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Silver standard

The silver standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of silver.

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Sinecure

A sinecure (from Latin sine.

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Sixpence (British coin)

The sixpence (6d), sometimes known as a tanner or sixpenny bit, is a coin that was worth one-fortieth of a pound sterling, or six pence. It was first minted in the reign of Edward VI and circulated until 1980. Following decimalisation in 1971 it had a value of new pence. The coin was made from silver from its introduction in 1551 to 1947, and thereafter in cupronickel. Prior to Decimal Day in 1971 there were 240 pence in one pound sterling. Twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound. Values less than a pound were usually written in shillings and pence, e.g. 42 old pence (p) would be three shillings and sixpence (3/6), often pronounced "three and six". Values of less than a shilling were simply written in terms of pence, e.g. eight pence would be 8d ('d' for denarius).

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Slash (punctuation)

The slash is an oblique slanting line punctuation mark.

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Solidus (coin)

The solidus (Latin for "solid"; solidi), nomisma (νόμισμα, nómisma, "coin"), or bezant was originally a relatively pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire.

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South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.

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Sovereign (British coin)

The sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of one pound sterling.

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St Edward's Crown

St Edward's Crown is the centrepiece of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom.

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Standing on the shoulders of giants

The metaphor of dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants (nanos gigantum humeris insidentes) expresses the meaning of "discovering truth by building on previous discoveries".

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Sterling silver

Sterling silver is an alloy of silver containing 92.5% by weight of silver and 7.5% by weight of other metals, usually copper.

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Stuiver

The stuiver was a pre-decimal coin used in the Netherlands.

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Ten pence (British coin)

The British decimal ten pence (10p) coin – often pronounced ten pee – is a unit of currency equalling ten one-hundredths of a pound sterling.

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The Protectorate

The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum) when England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland were governed by a Lord Protector as a republic.

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The Queen's Beasts (coin)

The Queen's Beasts coins are British coins issued by the Royal Mint in gold and silver since 2016.

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Third farthing

The third farthing was a British coin (of a penny, of a pound) which was produced in various years between 1827 and 1913.

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Thistle

Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae.

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Thomas Levenson

Thomas Levenson is a US academic, science writer and documentary film-maker.

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Threepence (British coin)

The British threepence (3d) coin, usually simply known as a threepence or threepenny bit, was a unit of currency equaling one eightieth of a pound sterling, or three old pence sterling.

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Tironian notes

Tironian notes (notae Tironianae; or Tironian shorthand) is a system of shorthand invented by Tiro (94 4 BC), Marcus Tullius Cicero's slave and personal secretary, and later his freedman.

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Tower Hill

Tower Hill is a complex city or garden square northwest of the Tower of London, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets just outside the City of London boundary yet inside what remains of the London Wall — a large fragment of which survives toward its east.

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Tower of London

The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London.

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Treaty of Brétigny

The Treaty of Brétigny was a treaty, drafted on 8 May 1360 and ratified on 24 October 1360, between King Edward III of England and King John II of France (the Good).

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Trial of the Pyx

The Trial of the Pyx is the procedure in the United Kingdom for ensuring that newly minted coins conform to the required standards.

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Tristan da Cunha

Tristan da Cunha, colloquially Tristan, is both a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean and the main island of that group.

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Troy weight

Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.

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Tudor rose

The Tudor rose (sometimes called the Union rose) is the traditional floral heraldic emblem of England and takes its name and origins from the House of Tudor, which united the House of York and House of Lancaster.

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Twenty pence (British coin)

The British decimal twenty pence (20p) coin – often pronounced "twenty pee" – is a unit of currency equal to 20/100 of a pound sterling.

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Twenty pounds (British coin)

The British twenty pound (£20) coin is a commemorative coin, first issued by the Royal Mint in 2013.

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Two pence (British decimal coin)

The British decimal two pence (2p) coin – often pronounced two pee – is a unit of currency equaling two one-hundredths of a pound sterling.

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Two pounds (British coin)

The British two pound (£2) coin is a denomination of the pound sterling.

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Two pounds (British gold coin)

A Two Pound coin was an occasional feature of the British currency from 1823 until 1996, and being minted each year since 1997.

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Unicorn

The unicorn is a legendary creature that has been described since antiquity as a beast with a single large, pointed, spiraling horn projecting from its forehead.

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Union Jack

The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.

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United Kingdom and the euro

The United Kingdom has never sought to adopt the euro as its official currency for the duration of its membership of the EU, and secured an opt-out at the euro's creation via the Maastricht Treaty in 1992.

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Virgil

Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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Virginia Ironside

Virginia Ironside (born 1945) is a British journalist, agony aunt and author.

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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Vulgate

The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.

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Warden of the Mint

Warden of the Mint was a high-ranking position at the Royal Mint in England from 1216–1829.

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Welsh Dragon

The Welsh Dragon (Y Ddraig Goch, meaning the red dragon) appears on the national flag of Wales.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.

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William III of England

William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.

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William IV of the United Kingdom

William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover from 26 June 1830 until his death in 1837.

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Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths

The Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths is one of the Great Twelve Livery Companies of the City of London.

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Wren

The wrens are mostly small, brownish passerine birds in the mainly New World family Troglodytidae.

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Wrexham (UK Parliament constituency)

Wrexham (Welsh: Wrecsam) is a parliamentary constituency centred on the scenic town of Wrexham in Wales created in 1918 represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2001 by Ian Lucas of the Labour Party.

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2002 Commonwealth Games

The 2002 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XVII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Manchester 2002 were held in Manchester, England, from 25 July to 4 August 2002.

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British coinage, British coins, Coins of the GBP, Coins of the United Kingdom, English coinage, English coins, Northern Irish coinage, Pre-decimal British Coinage, UK coinage, Uk coins, United Kingdom/Coins, Welsh coinage.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coins_of_the_pound_sterling

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