517 relations: Aarhus University, Aérospatiale, Abraham Gancwajch, Abwehr, Adrian Weale, Albania, Albanian Fascist Militia, Albanians, Alfred Nossig, Alfred Rosenberg, Algirdas Klimaitis, Allied High Commission, Amin al-Husseini, Anders Fogh Rasmussen, Andrei Shkuro, Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1922, Anglo-Iraqi War, Ante Pavelić, Anti-Comintern Pact, Anti-communism, Anti-partisan operations in World War II, Antisemitism, Arajs Kommando, Armenische Legion, Associated Press, Attack on Mers-el-Kébir, Autonomy, Auxiliary police, Axis occupation of Greece, Axis powers, Azad Hind, Émile Dewoitine, Żagiew, Babi Yar, Balkans, Balli Kombëtar, Bank for International Settlements, Battaglione Azad Hindoustan, Battalion, Battle of Belgium, Battle of Berlin, Battle of Madagascar, Battle of Marseille, Battle of Murowana Oszmianka, Battle of Singapore, Battle of the Atlantic, Beijing, Belarusian Central Council, Belgian government in exile, Belgian nationalism, ..., Berlin, Blue Division, Blue Police, Bolsheviks, Bosnia (region), Bosniaks, Brest, Belarus, Brest, France, Brigadeführer, Brigadier, British Empire, British Free Corps, British Indian Army, Brown Brothers Harriman & Co., Burma National Army, Business, Byelorussian Home Defence, Cambodia, Caucasus, Célestin Lainé, Chaim Rumkowski, Cham Albanians, Channel Islands, Chetniks, Christian Gerlach, Christian Peder Kryssing, Christian X of Denmark, Christofascism, Christopher Browning, Client state, Collaboration: Japanese Agents and Local Elites in Wartime China, Collaborationism, Collaborationist Chinese Army, Collectivization in the Soviet Union, Committee of Secretaries-General, Commonwealth of Nations, Communist Law, Communist Party of Denmark, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communities, regions and language areas of Belgium, Company, Conscription, Contemporary European History, Cossacks, Courland, Crime, Crimea, Crimes against humanity, Czechoslovakia, Czechs, Dalmatia, Damascus, Damian Kratzenberg, Devlag, Die Welt, Director of Public Prosecutions, Displaced Persons Act, Dnipro, Dominion, Don Cossacks, Donetsk, Drastamat Kanayan, Dušan Simović, Dutch people, East Hebei Autonomous Council, Eastern Front (World War II), Einsatzkommando, Eliezer Gruenbaum, Empire of Japan, Empire of Vietnam, Encyclopædia Britannica, Eponym, Estonia, Estonian Auxiliary Police, Estonian Security Police and SD, Estonian Self-Administration, Ethnic hatred, Führer Directive No. 30, Flamenpolitik, Flanders, Flemish Movement, Folketing, Ford Motor Company, François Darlan, François Debeauvais, France, Franz Walter Stahlecker, Free Corps Denmark, Free France, French Indochina, Garegin Nzhdeh, Gendarmerie, General Government, General Motors, Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania, Georgian uprising on Texel, Georgios Tsolakoglou, Georgische Legion (1941–45), Gerhard Hirschfeld, German Army (Wehrmacht), German battleship Scharnhorst, German language, German occupation of Belgium during World War II, German occupation of Luxembourg during World War II, German occupation of Norway, German occupation of the Baltic states during World War II, German-occupied Europe, German-occupied Poland, German–Soviet Commercial Agreement (1940), German–Soviet military parade in Brest-Litovsk, Gestapo, Gestapo–NKVD conferences, Ghetto, Gillette, Government Army (Bohemia and Moravia), Government in exile, Great Britain, Great Purge, Greater Albania, Greek National Socialist Party, Greek Resistance, Group 13, Guernsey, Haakon VII of Norway, Habbaniyah, Halbe, Hanjian, Hannah Arendt, Hans von Tettau, Hansard, Heim ins Reich, Heinrich Himmler, Heinz Guderian, Hellenic Socialist Patriotic Organisation, Helmuth von Pannwitz, Hirden, Hirohito, History of Poland (1939–1945), History of the Jews in Estonia, History of the Jews in Guernsey, History of the Jews in Jersey, History of the Jews in Norway, Hitler's Willing Executioners, Hiwi (volunteer), Holodomor, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Police Force, Horserød camp, IBM, Ideology, IG Farben, Imperial Japanese Army, Indian Legion, Indian National Army, Indian National Congress, Indiana University Press, Indochina, Informant, Institute of National Remembrance, Insurgency, Internal passport, International Commission for the Evaluation of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupation Regimes in Lithuania, International Harvester, Internment camps in France, Invasion of Poland, Invasion of Yugoslavia, Ioannis Rallis, Israel Gutman, Italian conquest of British Somaliland, Italian governorate of Montenegro, Italian invasion of Albania, Italy, ITT Inc., Jacques Chirac, Jasenovac concentration camp, Jägala concentration camp, Jürgen Matthäus, Jersey, Jerusalem, Jewish Ghetto Police, Jewish resistance in German-occupied Europe, Johannes Heesters, José P. Laurel, Joseph Goebbels, Josip Broz Tito, Journal of Genocide Research, JPMorgan Chase, Judenjagd, Judenrat, Kalmykia, Kalmykian Cavalry Corps, Kalmyks, Kapo (concentration camp), Kaunas, Kazys Škirpa, Kenpeitai, Keroman Submarine Base, Kingdom of Hungary (1920–46), Kingdom of Iraq, Kingdom of Italy under Fascism (1922–1943), Kingdom of Laos, Kingdom of Romania, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Klooga concentration camp, Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, Kodak, Komsomol, Konstantinos Logothetopoulos, Korosten, Kosovo Albanians, Kraft Foods, Kraków, Kriegsmarine, Kuban Cossacks, Kulak, Lagedi, Latvian Legion, Law enforcement in Belgium, Law enforcement in France, Légion impériale, Léon Degrelle, Lebanon, Legal purge in Norway after World War II, Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism, List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (M), List of members of the British Free Corps, Lithuania, Lithuanian Activist Front, Lithuanian Jews, Lithuanian Security Police, Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force, Littoral zone, Lokot Autonomy, London, Lorient, Lovćen Brigade, Lublin, Luxembourg, Luxembourgers, Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive, Majdanek concentration camp, Makapili, Maladzyechna, Manchukuo, Marci Shore, Maurice Papon, Mengjiang, Milice, Military service, Military volunteer, Militia, Mobilization, Mogilev, Mohammad Hatta, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Mongols, Montenegro, Mufti, Muslim, Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko, Nachtigall Battalion, Nanjing, Nasjonal Samling, National Revolutionary Army, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, National Union of Greece, Nationalism, Nazi concentration camps, Nazi Germany, Neutral country, NKVD, Nordic race, North Africa, Norwegian resistance movement, Nuremberg trials, Nygaardsvold's Cabinet, Occupation of Poland (1939–1945), Ohrana, Olier Mordrel, Omakaitse, Operation Barbarossa, Opportunism, Ostarbeiter, Ostlegionen, Palestine (region), Paneriai, Paramythia, Paramythia executions, Paris massacre of 1961, Paul Rohrbach, Paul Touvier, Pavlo Shandruk, Pērkonkrusts, PBS, Pedagogical University of Kraków, Philippe Pétain, Philippine Commonwealth Army, Pierre Laval, Pogrom, Poland, Police, Polish resistance movement in World War II, Polish Scientific Publishers PWN, Polish Underground State, Polity, Poltava, Pomerania, Ponary massacre, Prague uprising, President of Indonesia, Prime Minister of Iraq, Prisoner of war, Protectorate, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Province of Ljubljana, Provisional Government of Lithuania, Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1937–40), Pskov Oblast, Pursuit of Nazi collaborators, Pyotr Krasnov, Quisling, Quisling regime, RAF Habbaniya, Rashid Ali al-Gaylani, Rōmusha, Red Army, Reformed Government of the Republic of China, Reich Main Security Office, Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories, Reichskommissariat Ostland, Reichstag building, René Bousquet, Republic of China (1912–1949), Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust, Resistance during World War II, Responsibility for the Holocaust, Rexist Party, Roland Battalion, Romani genocide, Romani people, Royal Italian Army, Russian Liberation Army, S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A., Saint-Nazaire, Sandžak Muslim militia, Schutzstaffel, Second Australian Imperial Force, Second Philippine Republic, Second Polish Republic, Second Sino-Japanese War, Security Battalions, Semyon Krivoshein, Serbian State Guard, Serbian Volunteer Corps (World War II), Singer Corporation, Slavic Review, Slovak Republic (1939–1945), Slovakia, Slovaks, Slovene Home Guard, Sokal, Sovereign state, Soviet invasion of Manchuria, Soviet Union, Spaniards, Special Courts, Stahlhelm, Standard Oil, Stanford, California, Stanley Hoffmann, State of Burma, Stella Kübler, Straits Settlements, Stutthof concentration camp, Subhas Chandra Bose, Sukarno, Superheater, Surrender (military), Syria, Syria–Lebanon Campaign, Szmalcownik, Tadeusz Piotrowski (sociologist), Technocracy, Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia, The Coca-Cola Company, The Holocaust, The Holocaust in Belgium, The Holocaust in Lithuania, Thesprotia, Timor, Treason, Treblinka extermination camp, Ukraine, Ukrainian National Army, Ukrainian People's Militia, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Unemployment, Unfree labour, Union Banking Corporation, United Fruit Company, United Kingdom, United States, University of Nebraska Press, Upper Carniola, Ustashe, Vagrancy, Vahan Papazian, Vaivara concentration camp, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Vel' d'Hiv Roundup, Viadrina European University, Vice President of Indonesia, Vichy, Vichy France, Vidkun Quisling, Vienna Offensive, Viktors Arājs, Vilnius, Vlaams Nationaal Verbond, Volksdeutsche, Volksdeutsche Bewegung, Vulnetari, Waffen-SS, Wallonia, Walloon Legion, Wang Jingwei, Wang Jingwei regime, Wang Kemin, War, War crime, Warsaw Ghetto, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Warsaw Uprising, Wehrmacht, Western Front (World War II), Westinghouse Electric Corporation, White movement, World War II, World War II in Albania, XV SS Cossack Cavalry Corps, Yaffa Eliach, Yann Goulet, Yehuda Bauer, Ypatingasis būrys, Yugoslav National Movement, Yugoslav Partisans, Yugoslavia, Zhytomyr, 11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division Nordland, 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian), 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Galician), 1st Cossack Cavalry Division, 2/32nd Battalion (Australia), 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg, 23rd SS Volunteer Panzer Grenadier Division Nederland, 23rd Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Kama (2nd Croatian), 25th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Hunyadi (1st Hungarian), 26th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Hungarian), 27th SS Volunteer Division Langemarck, 29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Italian), 2nd SS Infantry Brigade, 30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS, 33rd Waffen Cavalry Division of the SS (3rd Hungarian), 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French), 34th SS Volunteer Grenadier Division Landstorm Nederland, 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking, 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen. Expand index (467 more) » « Shrink index
Aarhus University (Aarhus Universitet, abbreviated AU) is a public research university located in Aarhus, Denmark.
Aérospatiale, sometimes styled Aerospatiale, was a French state-owned aerospace manufacturer that built both civilian and military aircraft, rockets and satellites.
Abraham Gancwajch (1902–1943) was a prominent Nazi collaborator in the Warsaw Ghetto during the World War II occupation of Poland, and a Jewish kingpin of the ghetto underworld.
The Abwehr was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945.
Adrian Weale (born 9 February 1964) is a British writer, journalist, illustrator and photographer of Welsh origin.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
The Albanian Fascist Militia (Milizia fascista albanese, MFA) was an Albanian fascist paramilitary group formed in 1939 following the Italian invasion of Albania in April 1939, part of the Italian Blackshirts (MVSN).
The Albanians (Shqiptarët) are a European ethnic group that is predominantly native to Albania, Kosovo, western Macedonia, southern Serbia, southeastern Montenegro and northwestern Greece, who share a common ancestry, culture and language.
Alfred Nossig (1864–1943) was a Jewish sculptor, musician, writer, and public activist.
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
Algirdas Klimaitis (1910 in Kaunas – August 29, 1988 in Hamburg) was a Lithuanian paramilitary commander, infamous for his role in the Kaunas pogrom in June 1941.
The Allied High Commission (also known as the High Commission for Occupied Germany, HICOG; in German Alliierte Hohe Kommission, AHK) was established by the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and France after the 1948 breakdown of the Allied Control Council to regulate and supervise the development of the newly established Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).
Mohammed Amin al-Husseini (محمد أمين الحسيني; 1897 – 4 July 1974) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine.
Anders Fogh Rasmussen (born 26 January 1953) is a Danish politician who was the 24th Prime Minister of Denmark from November 2001 to April 2009 and the 12th Secretary General of NATO from August 2009 to October 2014.
Andrei Grigoriyevich Shkuro (Russian: Андрей Григорьевич Шкуро; Ukrainian: Андрій Григорович Шкуро) (19 January 1887 (O.S.: 7 January) – 17 January 1947) was a Lieutenant General (1919) of the White Army.
The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of October 1922 was an agreement signed by the government of the United Kingdom and the government of Iraq.
The Anglo–Iraqi War (2–31 May 1941) was a British military campaign against the rebel government of Rashid Ali in the Kingdom of Iraq during the Second World War.
Ante Pavelić (14 July 1889 – 28 December 1959) was a Croatian general and military dictator who founded and headed the fascist ultranationalist organization known as the Ustaše in 1929 and governed the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH), a fascist Nazi puppet state built out of Yugoslavia by the authorities of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, from 1941 to 1945.
The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Germany and Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936, and was directed against the Communist International.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Anti-partisan operations during World War II were counter-insurgency operations against the various partisan resistance movements.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
The Arajs Kommando (also: Sonderkommando Arajs), led by SS commander and collaborator Viktors Arājs, was a unit of Latvian Auxiliary Police (Lettische Hilfspolizei) subordinated to the German Sicherheitsdienst (SD).
The 812th Armenian Battalion (Armenische Legion; Հայկական լեգիոն Haykakan legion), also known as the Armenian Legion, was a military unit in the German Army during World War II.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
The Attack on Mers-el-Kébir (3 July 1940) also known as the Battle of Mers-el-Kébir, was part of Operation Catapult.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
Auxiliary police, also called special police, are usually the part-time reserves of a regular police force.
The occupation of Greece by the Axis Powers (Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation") began in April 1941 after Nazi Germany invaded Greece to assist its ally, Fascist Italy, which had been at war with Greece since October 1940.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Ārzī Hukūmat-e-Āzād Hind, the Provisional Government of Free India, or, more simply, Free India (Azad Hind), was an Indian provisional government established in occupied Singapore in 1943 and supported by the Empire of Japan, Nazi Germany, the Italian Social Republic, and their allies.
Émile Dewoitine (26 September 1892 – 5 July 1979) was a French aviation industrialist.
Żagiew ("The Torch"), also known as Żydowska Gwardia Wolności (the "Jewish Freedom Guard"), was a Nazi-collaborationist Jewish agent provocateur group in Nazi German-occupied Poland, founded and sponsored by the Germans and led by Abraham Gancwajch.
Babi Yar (Бабин Яр, Babyn Yar; Бабий Яр, Babiy Yar) is a ravine in the Ukrainian capital Kiev and a site of massacres carried out by German forces and by local Ukrainian collaborators during their campaign against the Soviet Union in World War II.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Balli Kombëtar (literally National Front), known as Balli, was an Albanian anti-communist resistance movement and a political organization established in November 1942.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
Battaglione Azad Hindoustan (in Italian: Battaglione India libera - "Free India Battalion") was a foreign legion unit formed in Fascist Italy under the Raggruppamento Centri Militari in July 1942.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Battle of Belgium or Belgian Campaign, often referred to within Belgium as the 18 Days' Campaign (Campagne des 18 jours, Achttiendaagse Veldtocht), formed part of the greater Battle of France, an offensive campaign by Germany during the Second World War.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of Madagascar was the British campaign to capture Vichy French-controlled Madagascar during World War II.
The Battle of Marseille refers to the combat and other actions from August 21–28, 1944 which led to the liberation of Marseille by French forces in World War II.
The Battle of Murowana Oszmianka of May 13–May 14, 1944 was the largest clash between the Polish resistance movement organization Home Army (Armia Krajowa, AK) and the Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force (LTDF); a Lithuanian volunteer security force subordinated to Nazi Germany occupational administration.
The Battle of Singapore, also known as the Fall of Singapore, was fought in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II when the Empire of Japan invaded the British stronghold of Singapore—nicknamed the "Gibraltar of the East".
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Belarusian Central Council or the Belarusian Central Rada (Беларуская Цэнтральная Рада, Biełaruskaja Centralnaja Rada; Weißruthenischer Zentralrat) was a Belarusian representative body with limited governmental functions during World War II in the German occupied Belarusian SSR.
The Belgian government in London (Gouvernement belge à Londres, Belgische regering in Londen), also known as the Pierlot IV Government, was the government in exile of Belgium between October 1940 and September 1944 during World War II.
Belgian nationalism or Belgicism is a nationalist ideology that favours the reversal of federalism and the creation of a unitary state in Belgium.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Blue Division (División Azul, Blaue Division), officially designated as División Española de Voluntarios by the Spanish Army and 250.
The Blue Police (more precisely, Navy-Blue Police, Granatowa policja) was the Polish police during the Second World War in German-occupied Poland (the General Government).
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Bosnia (Bosna/Босна) is the northern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, encompassing roughly 81% of the country; the other eponymous region, the southern part, is Herzegovina.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany.
Brigadeführer ("brigade leader") was a paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that was used between the years of 1932 to 1945.
Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Free Corps (Britisches Freikorps) was a unit of the Waffen SS during World War II, consisting of British and Dominion prisoners of war who had been recruited by Nazi Germany.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (BBH) is the oldest and one of the largest private banks in the United States.
The Burma National Army (also known as the Burma Independence Army) (ဗမာ့အမျိုးသားတပ်မတော်) served as the armed forces of the puppet Burmese government created by the Japanese during World War II and fought in the Burma Campaign.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
The Belarusian Home Defence, or the Byelorussian Home Guard (Беларуская краёвая абарона, Bielaruskaja Krajovaja Abarona, BKA) was a name of the collaborationist volunteer battalions formed by the Belarusian Central Council (1943-1944), a pro-Nazi Belarusian self-government within Reichskommissariat Ostland during World War II.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Célestin Lainé (1908–1983) was a Breton nationalist and collaborator during the Second World War who led the SS affiliated Bezen Perrot militia.
Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski (February 27, 1877 – August 28, 1944) was a Polish Jew and wartime businessman appointed by Nazi Germany as the head of the Council of Elders in the Łódź Ghetto during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
Cham Albanians, or Chams (Çamë, Τσάμηδες Tsámidhes), are a sub-group of Albanians who originally resided in the western part of the region of Epirus in northwestern Greece, an area known among Albanians as Chameria.
The Channel Islands (Norman: Îles d'la Manche; French: Îles Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la Manche) are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy.
The Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, also known as the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland or The Ravna Gora Movement, commonly known as the Chetniks (Četnici, Четници,; Četniki), was a World War II movement in Yugoslavia led by Draža Mihailović, an anti-Axis movement in their long-term goals which engaged in marginal resistance activities for limited periods.
Hans Christian Gerlach is professor of Modern History at the University of Bern.
Christian Peder Kryssing (July 7, 1891 – July 7, 1976), commonly known as C.P. Kryssing, was a Danish collaborator with Nazi Germany during World War II.
Christian X (Christian Carl Frederik Albert Alexander Vilhelm; 26 September 1870 – 20 April 1947) was King of Denmark from 1912 to 1947 and the only king of Iceland (where the name was officially Kristján X), between 1918 and 1944.
Christofascism is a combination of Christian and fascism coined by Dorothee Sölle in 1970.
Christopher Robert Browning (born May 22, 1944) is an American historian, known best for his works on the Holocaust.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Collaboration: Japanese Agents and Local Elites in Wartime ChinaThe pre-publication working title was Collaboration: Japanese Agents and Chinese Elites on the Yangtze Delta.
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
The term Collaborationist Chinese Army refers to the military forces of the puppet governments founded by Imperial Japan in mainland China during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization (Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 (in West - between 1948 and 1952) during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin.
The Committee of Secretaries-General (Comité des Sécretaires-généraux, Comité van de secretarissen-generaal) was a Belgian technocratic administrative panel created during World War II.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Communist Law or The Law on Prohibition Against Communist Associations and Communist Activities was a piece of Danish legislation passed on August 22, 1941 which banned the Communist Party of Denmark and other communist parties and organisations in Denmark.
The Communist Party of Denmark (Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti, DKP) is a communist political party in Denmark.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
Belgium is a federal state comprising three communities, three regions, and four language areas.
A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Contemporary European History is an international peer-reviewed academic history journal, published by Cambridge University Press quarterly since 1992 and covering the history of Europe from 1918 onwards.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Courland, or Kurzeme (in Latvian; Kurāmō; German and Kurland; Curonia/Couronia; Курляндия; Kuršas; Kurlandia), is one of the historical and cultural regions in western Latvia.
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Czechs (Češi,; singular masculine: Čech, singular feminine: Češka) or the Czech people (Český národ), are a West Slavic ethnic group and a nation native to the Czech Republic in Central Europe, who share a common ancestry, culture, history and Czech language.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
Damian Kratzenberg (November 5, 1878, Clervaux – October 11, 1946, Luxembourg City) was a highschool teacher who became head of the Volksdeutsche Bewegung (Volksdeutsche Movement), a pro-Nazi political group, in Luxembourg during World War II.
Deutsch-Vlämische Arbeitsgemeinschaft ("German-Flemish Working Group"), better known as DeVlag, was a pro-Nazi organization active in Flanders during the German occupation of Belgium.
Die Welt ("The World") is a German national daily newspaper, published as a broadsheet by Axel Springer SE.
The Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) is the office or official charged with the prosecution of criminal offences in several criminal jurisdictions around the world.
The Displaced Persons Act of 1948 authorized for a limited period of time the admission into the United States of 200,000 certain European displaced persons (DPs) for permanent residence.
Dnipro (Дніпро), until May 2016 Dnipropetrovsk (Дніпропетро́вськ) also known as Dnepropetrovsk (Днепропетро́вск), is Ukraine's fourth largest city, with about one million inhabitants.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.
Donetsk (Донецьк; Доне́цк; former names: Aleksandrovka, Hughesovka, Yuzovka, Stalino (see also: cities' alternative names)) is an industrial city in Ukraine on the Kalmius River.
Drastamat Kanayan (31 May 1884 8 March 1956), better known as Dro (Դրօ), was an Armenian military commander and politician, a member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
Dušan Simović (Душан Симовић; 28 October 1882 – 26 August 1962) was a Serbian general who served as Chief of the General Staff of the Royal Yugoslav Army and as the Prime Minister of Yugoslavia.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
The East Hebei Autonomous Council, also known as the East Ji Autonomous Council and the East Hebei Autonomous Anti-Communist Council, was a short-lived late-1930s state in northern China.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
During World War II, the Nazi German Einsatzkommandos were a sub-group of five Einsatzgruppen mobile killing squads (term used by Holocaust historians) – up to 3,000 men total – usually composed of 500–1,000 functionaries of the SS and Gestapo, whose mission was to exterminate Jews, Polish intellectuals, Romani, homosexuals, communists and the NKVD collaborators in the captured territories often far behind the advancing German front.
Eliezer Gribaum or Eliezer Gruenbaum (27 November 1908 – 22 May 1948) was a Polish Jewish communist activist.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Empire of Vietnam (Đế quốc Việt Nam; Hán tự: 越南帝國; ベトナム帝国) was a short-lived puppet state of Imperial Japan governing the whole of Vietnam between March 11 and August 23, 1945.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonian Auxiliary Police were Estonian collaborationist police units during World War II.
The Estonian Security Police and SD (Sicherheitspolizei und SD Estland, Eesti Julgeolekupolitsei ja SD), or Sipo, was a security police force created by the Germans in 1942 that integrated both Germans and Estonians within a unique structure mirroring the German Sicherheitspolizei.
Estonian Self-Administration (Eesti Omavalitsus), also known as the Directorate, was the puppet government set up in Estonia during occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany.
Ethnic hatred, inter-ethnic hatred, racial hatred, or ethnic tension refers to feelings and acts of prejudice and hostility towards an ethnic group in various degrees.
Führer Directive No.
Flamenpolitik (German; "Flemish policy") is the name for certain policies pursued by German authorities occupying Belgium during World War I and World War II.
Flanders (Vlaanderen, Flandre, Flandern) is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium, although there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language, politics and history.
The Flemish Movement (Vlaamse Beweging) is the political movement for greater autonomy of the Belgian region of Flanders, for protection of the Dutch language, for the overall protection of Flemish culture and history, and in some cases, for splitting from Belgium and forming an independent state.
The Folketing (Folketinget,; lit. the people's thing), also known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament (legislature) of the Kingdom of Denmark.
Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (7 August 1881 – 24 December 1942) was a French Admiral and political figure.
François Debeauvais (1902 in Rennes - 20 March 1944, Colmar) was a Breton nationalist and wartime collaborator with Nazi Germany.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Franz Walter Stahlecker (10 October 1900 – 23 March 1942) was commander of the SS security forces (Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) and the Sicherheitsdienst (SD)) for the Reichskommissariat Ostland in 1941–42.
Free Corps Denmark (Danish: Frikorps Danmark) was a Danish volunteer free corps created by the Danish Nazi Party (DNSAP) in cooperation with Nazi Germany, to fight the Soviet Union during the Second World War.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces, that continued to fight against the Axis powers as one of the Allies after the fall of France.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
Garegin Ter-Harutyunyan (Գարեգին Տէր-Յարութիւնեան) better known by his nom de guerre Garegin Nzhdeh (Գարեգին Նժդեհ) (1 January 1886 – 21 December 1955) was an Armenian statesman and military strategist.
Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.
The Genocide and Resistance Research Centre of Lithuania (Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras or LGGRTC) is a state-funded research institute in Lithuania dedicated to "the study of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes in Lithuania; the study of the persecution of local residents by occupying regimes; the study of armed and unarmed resistance to occupying regimes; the initiation of the legal evaluation of the activities of the organisers and implementers of genocide; and the commemoration of freedom fighters and genocide victims." The centre was founded on 25 October 1992 by the Supreme Council of the Lithuanian Republic as the "State Genocide Research Centre of Lithuania".
The Georgian Uprising on Texel (Opstand der Georgiërs) (5 April 1945 – 20 May 1945) was an insurrection by the 882nd Infantry Battalion Königin Tamara (Queen Tamar or Tamara) of the Georgian Legion of the German Army stationed on the German occupied Dutch island of Texel (pronounced Tessel).
Georgios Tsolakoglou (Γεώργιος Τσολάκογλου; April 1886 – 22 May 1948) was a Greek military officer who became the first Prime Minister of the Greek collaborationist government during the Axis occupation in 1941–1942.
The Georgian Legion (Georgische Legion, ქართული ლეგიონი, kartuli legioni) was a military formation of Nazi Germany during World War II, composed of ethnic Georgians.
Gerhard Hirschfeld (born 19 September 1946 in Plettenberg, Germany) is a German historian and author.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
Scharnhorst was a German capital ship, alternatively described as a battleship and battlecruiser, of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The German occupation of Belgium (Occupation allemande, Duitse bezetting) during World War II began on 28 May 1940 when the Belgian army surrendered to German forces and lasted until Belgium's liberation by the Western Allies between September 1944 and February 1945.
The German occupation of Luxembourg in World War II began in May 1940 after the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg was invaded by Nazi Germany.
The German occupation of Norway began on 9 April 1940 after German forces invaded the neutral Scandinavian country of Norway.
The occupation of the Baltic states by Nazi Germany occurred during Operation Barbarossa from 1941 to 1944.
German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.
German-occupied Poland during World War II consisted of two major parts with different type of administration.
The 1940 German-Soviet Commercial Agreement (also known as Economic Agreement of February 11, 1940, Between the German Reich and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was an economic arrangement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed on February 11, 1940 by which the Soviet Union agreed in period from February 11, 1940 to February 11, 1941, in addition to the deliveries under German–Soviet Commercial Agreement, signed on August 19, 1939 deliver the commodities (oil, raw materials and grain) to the value of 420 to 430 million Reichsmarks.
German–Soviet military parade in Brest-Litovsk (Deutsch-sowjetische Siegesparade in Brest-Litowsk, Совместный парад вермахта и РККА в Бресте) refers to an official ceremony held by the troops of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union on September 22, 1939, during the invasion of Poland in the city of Brest-Litovsk (Brześć nad Bugiem or Brześć Litewski, then in the Second Polish Republic, now Brest in Belarus).
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
The Gestapo–NKVD conferences were a series of security police meetings organized in late 1939 and early 1940 by Germany and the Soviet Union, following their joint invasion of Poland in accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact.
A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, typically as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Gillette is a brand of men's and women's safety razors and other personal care products including shaving supplies, owned by the multi-national corporation Procter & Gamble (P&G).
The Government Army (Czech: Vládní vojsko; German: Regierungstruppen) was the military force of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia during the time period of the German occupation of the Czech lands.
A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign state's legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
Greater Albania is an irredentist concept of lands that are considered to form the national homeland by many Albanians, based on claims on the present-day or historical presence of Albanian populations in those areas.
The Greek National Socialist Party (Ελληνικό Εθνικό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα, Elliniko Ethniko Sosialistiko Komma) was a National Socialist party founded in Greece in 1932 by George S. Mercouris, a former Cabinet minister.
The Greek Resistance (italic, i.e., "National Resistance") is the blanket term for a number of armed and unarmed groups from across the political spectrum that resisted the Axis occupation of Greece in the period 1941–1944, during World War II.
The Group Thirteen network (Trzynastka, Yiddish: דאָס דרײַצענטל) was a Jewish collaborationist organisation in the Warsaw Ghetto during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
Haakon VII (born Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel; 3 August 187221 September 1957), known as Prince Carl of Denmark until 1905, was a Danish prince who became the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the union with Sweden.
Al Habbaniyah or Habbaniya (الحبانية) is a city in Al-Anbar Province, in central Iraq.
Halbe (Lower Sorbian Łobje) is a municipality in the Dahme-Spreewald district of Brandenburg, Germany.
In Chinese culture, a hanjian is a derogatory and pejorative term for a national traitor to the Han Chinese state and, to a lesser extent, Han ethnicity.
Johanna "Hannah" Arendt (14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American philosopher and political theorist.
Hans von Tettau (30 November 1888 – 30 January 1956) was a German general (General of the Infantry) in the Wehrmacht during World War II who held commands at the divisional and corps level.
Hansard is the traditional name of the transcripts of Parliamentary Debates in Britain and many Commonwealth countries.
The Heim ins Reich (meaning "back home to the Reich") was a foreign policy pursued by Adolf Hitler during World War II, beginning in 1938.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a German general during the Nazi era.
The ESPO (translation) was a collaborationist, pro-Nazi organization created in the summer of 1941 in German-occupied Greece, under the leadership of Dr.
Helmuth von Pannwitz (14 October 1898 – 16 January 1947) was a German general who was a cavalry officer during the First and the Second World Wars.
Hirden (the hird) was a uniformed paramilitary organisation during the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany, modelled the same way as the German Sturmabteilungen.
was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989.
The history of Poland from 1939 to 1945 encompasses primarily the period from the Invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany to the end of World War II.
The history of the Jews in Estonia starts with individual reports of Jews in what is now Estonia from as early as the 14th century.
The history of the Jews in Guernsey dates back to well before the events of 1940-5.
The history of the Jews in Jersey dates back to at least the 1790s.
The Jews in Norway are one of the country's smallest ethnic and religious minorities.
Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust is a 1996 book by American writer Daniel Goldhagen, in which he argues that the vast majority of ordinary Germans were "willing executioners" in the Holocaust because of a unique and virulent "eliminationist antisemitism" in the German political culture, which had developed in the preceding centuries.
The term Hiwi is a German abbreviation of the word Hilfswilliger, meaning "voluntary assistant", or more literally, "willing helper".
The Holodomor (Голодомо́р); (derived from морити голодом, "to kill by starvation"), also known as the Terror-Famine and Famine-Genocide in Ukraine, and—before the widespread use of the term "Holodomor", and sometimes currently—also referred to as the Great Famine, and The Ukrainian Genocide of 1932–33—was a man-made famine in Soviet Ukraine in 1932 and 1933 that killed millions of Ukrainians that was part of the wider Soviet famine of 1932–33, which affected the major grain-producing areas of the country.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Hong Kong Police Force (HKPF) is the largest disciplined service under the Security Bureau of Hong Kong.
Horserød Camp (also Horserød State Prison, Danish: Horserødlejren or Horserød Statsfængsel) is an open state prison at Horserød, Denmark located in North Zealand, approximately seven kilometers from Helsingør.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
IG Farben was a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
The Indian Legion (Indische Legion), officially the Free India Legion (Legion Freies Indien) or Infantry Regiment 950 (Indian) (Infanterie-Regiment 950 (indisches), I.R. 950) and later the Indian Volunteer Legion of the Waffen-SS (Indische Freiwilligen Legion der Waffen-SS), was a military unit raised during the Second World War in Nazi Germany.
The Indian National Army (INA; Azad Hind Fauj; lit.: Free Indian Army) was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
An informant (also called an informer) is a person who provides privileged information about a person or organization to an agency.
The Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation (Instytut Pamięci Narodowej – Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu; IPN) is a Polish government-affiliated research institute with lustration prerogatives, as well as prosecution powers.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
An internal passport is an identity document.
International Commission for the Evaluation of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupation Regimes in Lithuania
The International Commission for the Evaluation of the Crimes of the Nazi and Soviet Occupation Regimes in Lithuania is a commission appointed by the President of Lithuania, Valdas Adamkus, by presidential decree on 7 September 1998.
The International Harvester Company (abbreviated first IHC and later IH) was a United States manufacturer of agricultural machinery, construction equipment, trucks, and household and commercial products.
There were internment camps and concentration camps in France before, during and after World War II.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
Ioannis Rallis (Ιωάννης Δ. Ράλλης; 1878 – 26 October 1946) was the third and last collaborationist prime minister of Greece during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II, holding office from 7 April 1943 to 12 October 1944, succeeding Konstantinos Logothetopoulos in the Nazi-controlled Greek puppet government in Athens.
Israel Gutman (ישראל גוטמן; 20 May 1923 – 1 October 2013) was a Polish-born Israeli historian and a survivor of the Holocaust.
The Italian governorate of Montenegro (Governatorato del Montenegro) existed from October 1941 to September 1943 as an occupied territory under military government of Fascist Italy during World War II.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
ITT Inc., formerly ITT Corporation, is an American worldwide manufacturing company based in White Plains, New York.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
The Jasenovac concentration camp (Logor Jasenovac/Логор Јасеновац,; יאסענאוואץ) was an extermination camp established in Slavonia by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II.
Jägala concentration camp was a labour camp of the Estonian Security Police and SD during the German occupation of Estonia during World War II.
Jürgen Matthäus (born 1959) is a German historian and head of the research department of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish Ghetto Police or Jewish Police Service (Jüdische Ghetto-Polizei or Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst), also called the Jewish Police by Jews, were auxiliary police units organized within the Jewish ghettos of German-occupied Poland by local Judenrat (Jewish council) collaborating with the German Nazis.
Jewish resistance under the Nazi rule took various forms of organized underground activities conducted against German occupation regimes in Europe by Jews during World War II.
Johan Marius Nicolaas "Johannes" Heesters (5 December 1903 – 24 December 2011) was a Dutch-born actor of stage, television and film as well as a vocalist of numerous recordings and performer on the concert stage, with a career dating back to 1921.
José P. Laurel, PLH (born José Paciano Laurel y García; March 9, 1891 – November 6, 1959) was a Filipino politician and judge.
Paul Joseph Goebbels (29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
The Journal of Genocide Research is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering studies of genocide.
JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
Judenjagd (German, lit. “Hunt for Jews”) refers to searches of Jews in hiding organized by German administration in occupied Poland from 1942 onwards.
A Judenrat ("Jewish council") was a World War II Jewish-German-collaborative administrative agency imposed by Germany, principally within the ghettos of occupied Europe, including those of German-occupied Poland.
The Republic of Kalmykia (p; Хальмг Таңһч, Xaľmg Tañhç) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
The Kalmykian Cavalry Corps (Kalmücken-Kavallerie-Korps) was a unit of about 5,000 Kalmyk volunteers who chose to join the German Army in 1942 rather than remain in Kalmykia as German forces retreated before the Red Army.
The Kalmyks (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Xaľmgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Halimag) are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.
A kapo or prisoner functionary (Funktionshäftling, see) was a prisoner in a Nazi concentration camp who was assigned by the SS guards to supervise forced labor or carry out administrative tasks.
Kaunas (also see other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
Kazys Škirpa (born February 18, 1895, Namajūnai, Kovno Governorate, Lithuania – August 18, 1979, Washington, D.C.) was a Lithuanian military officer and diplomat.
The was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945.
Keroman Submarine Base was a German U-boat base located in Lorient during World War II.
The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság), also known as the Regency, existed from 1920 to 1946 as a de facto country under Regent Miklós Horthy.
The Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq (المملكة العراقية الهاشمية) was founded on 23 August 1921 under British administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the Mesopotamian campaign of World War I. Although a League of Nations mandate was awarded to the UK in 1920, the 1920 Iraqi revolt resulted in the scrapping of the original mandate plan in favor of a British administered semi-independent kingdom, under the Hashemite allies of Britain, via the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty.
Fascist Italy is the era of National Fascist Party government from 1922 to 1943 with Benito Mussolini as head of government.
The Kingdom of Laos was a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
Klooga concentration camp was a Nazi forced labor subcamp of the Vaivara concentration camp complex established in September 1943 in Harju County, during World War II, in German-occupied Estonia near the village of Klooga.
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes), or simply the Knight's Cross (Ritterkreuz), and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology company that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography.
The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесою́зный ле́нинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation of the Russian kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.
Konstantinos Logothetopoulos (Κωνσταντίνος Ι. Λογοθετόπουλος; 1 August 1878 – 6 July 1961) was a distinguished Greek medical doctor who became Prime Minister of Greece, directing the Greek collaborationist government during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II.
Korosten (Ко́ростень, historically also Iskorosten') is a historic city and a large railway node in the Zhytomyr Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine.
Albanians are the largest ethnic group in Kosovo, commonly called Kosovar Albanians, Kosovan Albanians or Kosovo Albanians and simply Kosovars.
Kraft Foods Group, Inc. is an American grocery manufacturing and processing conglomerate headquartered in the Chicago suburb of Northfield, Illinois, part of the Kraft Heinz Company.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
Kuban Cossacks (Кубанские кaзаки, Kubanskiye Kаzaki; Кубанські козаки, Kubans'ki Kozaky) or Kubanians (кубанцы, кубанці) are Cossacks who live in the Kuban region of Russia.
The kulaks (a, plural кулаки́, p, "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuli in Ukraine, but also used in Russian texts in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of affluent peasants in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and the early Soviet Union.
Lagedi is a small borough (alevik) in Rae Parish, Harju County, northern Estonia.
The Latvian Legion (Latviešu leģions) was a formation of the German Waffen-SS during World War II.
Law enforcement in Belgium is conducted by an integrated police service structured on the federal and local levels, made up of the Federal Police and the Local Police.
Law enforcement in France has a long history dating back to AD 570, when night watch systems were commonplace.
The Legion Imperiale was created by the Vichy French government in November 1942 to oppose the Allies, who had invaded North Africa in order to drive the Axis out.
Léon Joseph Marie Ignace Degrelle (15 June 1906 – 31 March 1994) was a Belgian politician and Nazi collaborator.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
The legal purge in Norway after World War II took place between May 1945 and August 1948 against anyone who was deemed to have collaborated with the German occupation of the country.
The Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism (Légion des volontaires français contre le bolchévisme, or simply Légion des volontaires français, LVF) was a collaborationist militia of Vichy France founded on 8 July 1941.
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military of Nazi Germany during World War II.
This is a list of members of the British Free Corps.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lithuanian Activist Front or LAF was a short-lived resistance organization established in 1940 after Lithuania was occupied by the Soviet Union.
Lithuanian Jews or Litvaks are Jews with roots in the present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Latvia, northeastern Suwałki and Białystok region of Poland and some border areas of Russia and Ukraine.
The Lithuanian Security Police (LSP), also known as Saugumas (Saugumo policija), was a local police force that operated in German-occupied Lithuania from 1941 to 1944, in collaboration with the occupational authorities.
The Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force or LTDF (Lietuvos vietinė rinktinė, LVR, Litauische Sonderverbände) was a short-lived, Lithuanian, volunteer armed force created and disbanded in 1944 during the German occupation of Lithuania.
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.
The Lokot Autonomy (Локотскoe самоуправление) was a semi-autonomous region in Nazi German-occupied Central Russia led by Bronislav Kaminski's administration from July 1942 to August 1943.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lorient is a town (French "commune") and seaport in the Morbihan "department" of Brittany in North-Western France.
The Lovćen Brigade was an armed force in World War II-Montenegro led by Krsto Zrnov Popović and the Greens.
Lublin (Lublinum) is the ninth largest city in Poland and the second largest city of Lesser Poland.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Luxembourgers are a Germanic ethnic group native to Luxembourg who share the culture of Luxembourg, speak Luxembourgish and are of Luxembourgish descent.
The Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive or Lvov-Sandomierz Strategic Offensive Operation (Львовско-Сандомирская стратегическая наступательная операция) was a major Red Army operation to force the German troops from Ukraine and Eastern Poland.
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
The Makabayang Katipunan ng mga Pilipino (Patriotic Association of Filipinos), better known as the Makapili, was a militant group formed in the Philippines in 1944 during World War II to give military aid to the Imperial Japanese Army.
Maladzyechna (Маладзе́чна/Maladziečna,; Молоде́чно) is a city in the Minsk Voblast of Belarus, an administrative centre of the Maladzyechna district (and formerly of the Maladzyechna Voblast).
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Marci Shore (b. 1972) is an American associate professor of intellectual history at Yale University.
Maurice Papon (3 September 1910 – 17 February 2007) was a French civil servant from the 1930s.
Mengjiang (Mengkiang;; Hepburn: Mōkyō), also known in English as Mongol Border Land or the Mongol United Autonomous Government, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, existing initially as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan before being under nominal Chinese sovereignty of the Nanjing Nationalist Government from 1940 (which itself was a puppet state).
The Milice française (French Militia), generally called the Milice, was a political paramilitary organization created on 30 January 1943 by the Vichy regime (with German aid) to help fight against the French Resistance during World War II.
Military service is service by an individual or group in an army or other militia, whether as a chosen job or as a result of an involuntary draft (conscription).
A military volunteer is a person who enlists in military service by free will, and is not a mercenary or a foreign legionnaire.
A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).
Mobilization, in military terminology, is the act of assembling and readying troops and supplies for war.
Mogilev (or Mahilyow; Магілёў,; Łacinka: Mahiloŭ; Могилёв,; מאָליעוו, Molyev) is a city in eastern Belarus, about from the border with Russia's Smolensk Oblast and from the border with Russia's Bryansk Oblast.
Mohammad Hatta (12 August 1902 – 14 March 1980) was Indonesia's first vice president, later also serving as the country's prime minister.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
A mufti (مفتي) is an Islamic scholar who interprets and expounds Islamic law (Sharia and fiqh).
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko (Михайло Омелянович Павленко; 8 December 1878 – 29 May 1952) was the Supreme Commander of the Ukrainian Galician Army (UHA) and of the Army of the Ukrainian National Republic.
The Nachtigall Battalion (Nightingale Battalion), also known as the Ukrainian Nightingale Battalion Group (Bataillon Ukrainische Gruppe Nachtigall), or officially as Special Group Nachtigall,Abbot, Peter.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
Nasjonal Samling (NS; literally "National Union") was a Norwegian far-right party active from 1933 to 1945.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.
The National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Arbejderparti; DNSAP) was the largest Nazi Party in Denmark before and during the Second World War.
The National Union of Greece (Εθνική Ένωσις Ελλάδος, Ethniki Enosis Ellados or EEE) was an anti-Semitic nationalist party established in Thessaloniki, Greece, in 1927.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The Nordic race was one of the putative sub-races into which some late-19th to mid-20th-century anthropologists divided the Caucasian race.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The Norwegian resistance to the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany began after Operation Weserübung in 1940 and ended in 1945.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Nygaardsvold's Cabinet (later becoming the Norwegian government-in-exile) was appointed on 20 March 1935, the second Labour cabinet in Norway.
The occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during the Second World War (1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany by the Allies in May 1945.
Ohrana (Охрана with meaning: "Protection"); were armed collaborationist detachments organized by the former Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) structures, composed of Bulgarians (i.e. pro-Bulgarian oriented parts of the Slavophone population) in Nazi-occupied Greek Macedonia during World War II and led by officers of the Bulgarian Army.
Olier Mordrel (29 April 1901 – 25 October 1985) is the Breton language version of Olivier Mordrelle, a Breton nationalist and wartime collaborator with the Third Reich who founded the separatist Breton National Party.
The Omakaitse ('home guard') was a militia organisation in Estonia.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Opportunism is the conscious policy and practice of taking advantage of circumstances – with little regard for principles, or with what the consequences are for others.
Ostarbeiter ("Eastern worker") was a Nazi German designation for foreign slave workers gathered from occupied Central and Eastern Europe to perform forced labor in Germany during World War II.
Ostlegionen ("eastern legions"), Ost-Bataillone ("eastern battalions"), Osttruppen ("eastern troops"), Osteinheiten ("eastern units") were military units in the Heer (army) of Nazi Germany, during World War II that were made up of personnel from countries comprising the Soviet Union.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Paneriai (Ponary, פאנאר/Ponar) is a neighborhood of Vilnius, situated about 10 kilometres away from the city center.
Paramythia (Παραμυθιά, Paramythiá) is a town and a former municipality in Thesprotia, Epirus, Greece.
The Paramythia executions, also known as the Paramythia massacre (19–29 September 1943) was a combined Nazi and Cham Albanian war crime perpetrated by members of the 1st Mountain Division and the Muslim Cham militia in the town of Paramythia and its surrounding region, during the Axis occupation of Greece, in World War II.
The Paris massacre of 1961 occurred on 17 October 1961, during the Algerian War (1954–62).
Paul Rohrbach (29 June 1869 – 19 July 1956) was a German writer, concerned with "world politics." He was born at Irgen manor, Raņķi parish, Skrunda Municipality, Courland, Latvia.
Paul Touvier (April 3, 1915 – July 17, 1996) was a French Nazi collaborator during World War II in Occupied France.
Pavlo Shandruk (Павло Шандрук, Pawło Szandruk, February 28, 1889 in Volhynia – February 15, 1979 in Trenton, New Jersey) was a general in the army of the Ukrainian National Republic, a colonel of the Polish Army, and a prominent general of the Ukrainian National Army, a military force that fought against the Soviets under German command at the close of World War II.
Pērkonkrusts ("Thunder Cross"), was a Latvian ultra-nationalist, anti-German and antisemitic political party founded in 1933 by Gustavs Celmiņš, borrowing elements of German nationalism—but being unsympathetic to German National Socialism at the time—and Italian fascism.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Pedagogical University of Kraków (Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im., often shortened to Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny), was named after the Commission of National Education created by King Stanisław August Poniatowski.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
The Philippine Army was established in December 1935.
Pierre Jean-Marie Laval (28 June 1883 – 15 October 1945) was a French politician.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
The Polish resistance movement in World War II, with the Polish Home Army at its forefront, was the largest underground resistance movement in all of occupied Europe, covering both German and Soviet zones of occupation.
Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN (Polish Scientific Publishers PWN; until 1991 Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe - National Scientific Publishers PWN, PWN) is a Polish book publisher, founded in 1951.
The Polish Underground State (Polskie Państwo Podziemne, also known as the Polish Secret State) is a collective term for the underground resistance organizations in Poland during World War II, both military and civilian, that were loyal to the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile in London.
A polity is any kind of political entity.
Poltava (Полтава; Полтава) is a city located on the Vorskla River in central Ukraine.
Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.
The Ponary or the Paneriai massacre (zbrodnia w Ponarach) was the mass murder of up to 100,000 people by German SD, SS, and the Lithuanian Nazi collaborators, including killing squads of Ypatingasis būrys, during World War II and the Holocaust in Reichskommissariat Ostland.
The Prague uprising (Pražské povstání) was an attempt by the Czech resistance to liberate the city of Prague from German occupation during World War II.
The President of the Republic of Indonesia (Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the head of state and also head of government of the Republic of Indonesia.
The Prime Minister of Iraq is Iraq's head of government.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.
The Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia (Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren; Protektorát Čechy a Morava) was a protectorate of Nazi Germany established on 16 March 1939 following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939.
The Province of Ljubljana (Provincia di Lubiana, Ljubljanska pokrajina, Provinz Laibach) was the central-southern area of Slovenia.
The Provisional Government of Lithuania (Laikinoji Vyriausybė) was a temporary government aiming for independent Lithuania during the last days of the Soviet occupation and the first weeks of German Nazi occupation in 1941.
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (or Chūka Minkoku Rinji Seifu) was a Chinese puppet state of the Empire of Japan that existed from 1937 to 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Pskov Oblast (Пско́вская о́бласть) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the west of the country.
The pursuit of Nazi collaborators refers to the post-World War II pursuit and apprehension of individuals who were not citizens of the Third Reich at the outbreak of World War II and collaborated with the Nazi regime during the war.
Pyotr Nikolayevich Krasnov (Пётр Николаевич Краснов; September 22 (September 10 old style), 1869 – January 17, 1947), sometimes referred to in English as Peter Krasnov, was a Don Cossack historian and officer, promoted to Lieutenant General of the Russian army when the revolution broke out in 1917, and one of the leaders of the counter-revolutionary White movement afterwards.
Quisling is a term originating in Norway, which is used in Scandinavian languages and in English for a person who collaborates with an enemy occupying force – or more generally as a synonym for traitor.
The Quisling regime or Quisling government are common names used to refer to the fascist collaborationist government led by Vidkun Quisling in German-occupied Norway during the Second World War.
Royal Air Force Station Habbaniya, more commonly known as RAF Habbaniya, (originally RAF Dhibban) was a Royal Air Force station at Habbaniyah, about west of Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, on the banks of the Euphrates near Lake Habbaniyah.
Rashid Ali al-Gaylaniin Arab standard pronunciation Rashid Aali al-Kaylani; also transliterated as Sayyad Rashid Aali al-Gillani, Sayyad Rashid Ali al-Gailani or sometimes Sayyad Rashid Ali el Keilany ("Sayyad" serves to address higher standing male persons) (رشيد عالي الكيلاني) (1892 – August 28, 1965) was an Iraqi politician who served as Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Iraq on three occasions: from March to November 1933, from March 1940 to February 1941 and from April to May 1941.
is a Japanese language word for "laborer", but has come to specifically denote forced laborers during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia in World War II.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reformed Government of the Republic of China (Zhōnghuá Mínguó Wéixīn Zhèngfǔ or 中華民国政府改革) was a Chinese puppet state created by Japan that existed from 1938 to 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Reich Main Security OfficeReichssicherheitshauptamt is variously translated as "Reich Main Security Office", "Reich Security Main Office", "Reich Central Security Main Office", "Reich Security Central Office", "Reich Head Security Office", or "Reich Security Head Office".
The Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories (Reichsministerium für die besetzten Ostgebiete or RMfdbO) was created by Adolf Hitler in July 1941 and headed by the Nazi theoretical expert and Baltic German, Alfred Rosenberg.
Nazi Germany established the Reichskommissariat Ostland (RKO) in 1941 as the civilian occupation regime in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), the northeastern part of Poland and the west part of the Belarusian SSR during World War II.
The Reichstag (Reichstagsgebäude; officially: Deutscher Bundestag - Plenarbereich Reichstagsgebäude) is a historic edifice in Berlin, Germany, constructed to house the Imperial Diet (German: Reichstag) of the German Empire.
René Bousquet (11 May 1909 – 8 June 1993) was a high-ranking French political appointee who served as secretary general to the Vichy regime police from May 1942 to 31 December 1943.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Polish Jews were the primary victims of the German-organized Holocaust. Throughout the German occupation of Poland, some Poles risked their lives – and the lives of their families – to rescue Jews from the Germans. Poles were, by nationality, the most numerous persons who rescued Jews during the Holocaust. To date, ethnic Poles have been recognized by the State of Israel as Righteous among the Nations – more, by far, than the citizens of any other country. The Home Army (the Polish Resistance) alerted the world to the Holocaust through the reports of Polish Army officer Witold Pilecki, conveyed by Polish Government-in-Exile courier Jan Karski. The Polish Government-in-Exile and the Polish Secret State pleaded, to no avail, for American and British help to stop the Holocaust. Some estimates put the number of Polish rescuers of Jews as high as 3 million, and credit Poles with saving up to some 450,000 Jews, temporarily, from certain death. The rescue efforts were aided by one of the largest resistance movements in Europe, the Polish Underground State and its military arm, the Home Army. Supported by the Government Delegation for Poland, these organizations operated special units dedicated to helping Jews; of those units, the most notable was the Żegota Council, based in Warsaw, with branches in Kraków, Wilno, and Lwów. Polish rescuers of Jews were hampered by the most stringent conditions in all of German-occupied Europe. Occupied Poland was the only country where the Germans decreed that any kind of help to Jews was punishable by death for the rescuer and the rescuer's entire family. Of the estimated 3 million non-Jewish Poles killed in World War II, thousands – perhaps as many as 50,000 – were executed by the Germans solely for saving Jews.
Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda, to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns.
Responsibility for the Holocaust is the subject of an ongoing historical debate that has spanned several decades.
The Rexist Party (Parti Rexiste), or simply Rex, was a far-right Catholic, nationalist, authoritarian and corporatist political party active in Belgium from 1935 until 1945.
The 'Roland Battalion (Battalion Ukrainische Gruppe Roland), officially known as Special Group Roland,Abbot, Peter.
The Romani genocide or the Romani Holocaust—also known as the Porajmos (Romani pronunciation), the Pharrajimos ("Cutting up", "Fragmentation", "Destruction"), and the Samudaripen ("Mass killing")—was the effort by Nazi Germany and its World War II allies to commit genocide against Europe's Romani people.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
The Royal Italian Army (Italian: Regio Esercito Italiano) was the army of the Kingdom of Italy from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946.
The Russian Liberation Army (Русская освободительная армия, Russkaya osvoboditel'naya armiya, abbreviated as РОА, ROA, also known as the Vlasov army (Власовская армия, Vlasovskaya armiya)) was collaborationist armed forces, primarily Russian, that fought under German command during World War II.
S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A. (also known as the Kaminski Brigade) was a collaborationist military formation composed of Soviet nationals from the territory of Lokot Autonomy during World War II, the German-occupied areas of Russia.
Saint-Nazaire (Gallo: Saint-Nazère/Saint-Nazaer) is a commune in the Loire-Atlantique department in western France, in traditional Brittany.
The Sandžak Muslim militia was established in Sandžak and eastern Herzegovina in Axis occupied Yugoslavia between April or June and August 1941 during World War II.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Second Australian Imperial Force (Second, or 2nd, AIF) was the name given to the volunteer personnel of the Australian Army in World War II.
The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas; きょうわこく|Firipin kyōwakoku; Spanish: República de Filipinas), or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Security Battalions (Τάγματα Ασφαλείας, Tagmata Asfaleias, derisively known as Germanotsoliades (Γερμανοτσολιάδες) or Tagmatasfalites (Ταγματασφαλίτες) were Greek collaborationist military groups, formed during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II in order to support the German occupation troops.
Semyon Moiseevich Krivoshein (Семён Моисе́евич Кривоше́ин; November 28, 1899 in Voronezh, Russian Empire – September 16, 1978 in Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Soviet tank commander, who played a vital part in the World War II reform of the Red Army tank forces and in the momentous clash between German and Soviet tanks in the Battle of Kursk.
The Serbian State Guard or SDS (Српска државна стража / Srpska državna straža; Serbische Staatsgarde) was a collaborationist paramilitary force used to impose law and order within the German occupied territory of Serbia during World War II.
The Serbian Volunteer Corps or SDK (Српски добровољачки корпус / Srpski dobrovoljački korpus; Serbisches Freiwilligenkorps), also known as Ljotićevci (Љотићевци) after their ideological leader Dimitrije Ljotić, was the party army of Zbor and collaborationist anti-Partisan military formation that was raised in the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia during World War II.
Singer Corporation is an American manufacturer of sewing machines, first established as I. M. Singer & Co. in 1851 by Isaac Merritt Singer with New York lawyer Edward Clark.
The Slavic Review is a major peer-reviewed academic journal publishing scholarly studies, book and film reviews, and review essays in all disciplines concerned with Russia, Central Eurasia, and Eastern and Central Europe.
The (First) Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), otherwise known as the Slovak State (Slovenský štát), was a client state of Nazi Germany which existed between 14 March 1939 and 4 April 1945.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
The Slovaks or Slovak people (Slováci, singular Slovák, feminine Slovenka, plural Slovenky) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture, history and speak the Slovak language.
The Slovene Home Guard (Slovensko domobranstvo; Slowenische Landeswehr) was a Slovene military anti-Partisan organization during the 1943-1945 German occupation of the formerly Italian-occupied Province of Ljubljana.
Sokal (Сокаль, translit. Sokal’) is a town located on the Bug River in Lviv Oblast of western Ukraine.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
Special Courts (Polish Sądy Specjalne) were World War II underground courts in occupied Poland, organized by the Polish Government-in-Exile.
Stahlhelm (plural Stahlhelme) is German for "steel helmet".
Standard Oil Co.
Stanford is a census-designated place (CDP) in Santa Clara County, California, United States and is the home of Stanford University.
Stanley Hoffmann (27 November 1928 – 13 September 2015) was the Paul and Catherine Buttenwieser University Professor, emeritus at Harvard University.
The State of Burma (ဗမာ) was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, created in 1943 during the Japanese occupation of Burma in World War II.
Stella Kübler-Isaacksohn (née Goldschlag, 10 July 1922 – 1994) was a German Jewish woman who collaborated with the Gestapo during World War II, exposing and denouncing Berlin's underground Jews.
The Straits Settlements (Negeri-negeri Selat, نݢري٢ سلت) were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.
Stutthof was a Nazi German concentration camp established in a secluded, wet, and wooded area near the small town of Sztutowo (Stutthof) 34 km (21 mi) east of the city of Gdańsk in the former territory of the Free City of Danzig.
Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945) was an Indian nationalist whose defiant patriotism made him a hero in India, but whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan left a troubled legacy.
Sukarno (born Kusno Sosrodihardjo; 6 June 1901 – 21 June 1970) was the first President of Indonesia, serving in office from 1945 to 1967.
A superheater is a device used to convert saturated steam or wet steam into superheated steam or dry steam.
Surrender, in military terms, is the relinquishment of control over territory, combatants, fortifications, ships or armament to another power.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syria–Lebanon campaign, also known as Operation Exporter, was the British invasion of Vichy French Syria and Lebanon from June–July 1941, during the Second World War.
Szmalcownik, in English also spelt shmaltsovnik, is pejorative Polish slang used during World War II for a person who blackmailed Jews who were hiding, or who blackmailed Poles who protected Jews during the German occupation.
Tadeusz Piotrowski or Thaddeus Piotrowski (born 1940) is a Polish-American sociologist.
Technocracy is a proposed system of governance where decision-makers are selected on the basis of their expertise in their areas of responsibility, particularly scientific knowledge.
The Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia (Gebiet des Militärbefehlshabers in Serbien) was the area of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that was placed under a military government of occupation by the Wehrmacht following the invasion, occupation and dismantling of Yugoslavia in April 1941.
The Coca-Cola Company is an American corporation, and manufacturer, retailer, and marketer of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Holocaust in German-occupied Belgium refers to the persecution and attempted extermination of Jews and Roma between 1940 and 1944 during World War II.
The Holocaust in German occupied Lithuania resulted in the near total destruction of Lithuanian (Litvaks) and Polish Jews, living in Generalbezirk Litauen of Reichskommissariat Ostland within the Nazi-controlled Lithuanian SSR.
Thesprotia (Θεσπρωτία) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, north of the Timor Sea.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Ukrainian National Army (UNA) was a World War II Ukrainian military group, created on March 17, 1945 in Weimar, Germany, and subordinate to Ukrainian National Committee.
Ukrainian People's Militia or the Ukrainian National Militia (Українська Народна Міліція), was a paramilitary formation created by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in the General Government territory of occupied Poland and later in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine during World War II.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The Union Banking Corporation (UBC) was a banking corporation in the US whose assets were seized by the United States government on October 20, 1942 during World War II under the U.S. Trading with the Enemy Act and Executive Order No.
The United Fruit Company was an American corporation that traded in tropical fruit (primarily bananas), grown on Central and South American plantations, and sold in the United States and Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Nebraska Press, also known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books.
Upper Carniola (Gorenjska; Alta Carniola; Oberkrain) is a traditional region of Slovenia, the northern mountainous part of the larger Carniola region.
The Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustashe (Ustaše), was a Croatian fascist, racist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization, active, in its original form, between 1929 and 1945.
Vagrancy is the condition of a person who wanders from place to place homeless with no regular employment nor income, referred to as a vagrant, vagabond, rogue, tramp or drifter.
Vahan Papazian (Վահան Փափազյան; 1876-1973), also known by his pseudonym Goms (Կոմս) was an Armenian political activist and a community leader in Van, a member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.
Vaivara concentration camp was the largest of the 22 concentration and labor camps established in Estonia by the Nazi regime during World War II.
Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (born 2 February 1926), also known as Giscard or VGE, is a French author and elder statesman who served as President of France from 1974 to 1981 and is now a member of the Constitutional Council.
The Vel' d'Hiv Roundup (French: Rafle du Vélodrome d'Hiver, commonly called the Rafle du Vel' d'Hiv: "Vel' d'Hiv Police Roundup / Raid") was a Nazi-directed raid and mass arrest of Jews in Paris by the French police, code named Opération Vent printanier ("Operation Spring Breeze"), on 16 and 17 July 1942.
Viadrina European University (Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), hence its frequent appearance as European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder) in English) is a university located at Frankfurt (Oder) in Brandenburg, Germany.
The Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia (Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the first in the line of succession in the Republic of Indonesia.
Vichy (Vichèi in Occitan) is a city in the Allier department of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France, in the historic province of Bourbonnais.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling (18 July 1887 – 24 October 1945) was a Norwegian military officer and politician who nominally headed the government of Norway during the occupation of the country by Nazi Germany during World War II.
The Vienna Offensive was launched by the Soviet 2nd and 3rd Ukrainian Fronts in order to capture Vienna, Austria during World War II.
Viktors Arājs (13 January 1910 – 13 January 1988) was a Latvian collaborator and Nazi SS officer, who took part in the Holocaust during the German occupation of Latvia and Belarus (then called White Russia or White Ruthenia) as the leader of the Arajs Kommando.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
The Vlaams Nationaal Verbond (VNV; Dutch for "Flemish National Union" or "Flemish National League") was a nationalist Flemish political party in Belgium, active between 1933 and 1944.
In Nazi German terminology, Volksdeutsche were "Germans in regard to people or race" (Ethnic Germans), regardless of citizenship.
Volksdeutsche Bewegung (German; literally "Ethnic German Movement") was a Nazi movement in Luxembourg that flourished under the German-occupied Luxembourg during World War II.
The Vulnetari ("volunteers") were a volunteer militia of Albanians from Kosovo set up in 1941 by Italian forces after the successful invasion of Yugoslavia.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Wallonië, Walonreye, Wallounien) is a region of Belgium.
The Walloon Legion (28. was a collaborationist volunteer unit recruited from Belgium's French-speaking population in Wallonia and Brussels during the German occupation of World War II. The Walloon Legion served in the Wehrmacht, later in the Waffen-SS, on the Eastern Front on both front line and reserve duties.
Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944); born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician.
The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China (p), a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, located in eastern China.
Wang Kemin (Wade-Giles: Wang K'o-min, May 4, 1879 – December 25, 1945) was a leading official in the Chinese republican movement and early Beiyang government, later noted for his role as in the collaborationist Provisional Government of the Republic of China and Nanjing Nationalist Government during World War II.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The Warsaw Ghetto (Warschauer Ghetto, officially Jüdischer Wohnbezirk in Warschau Jewish Residential District in Warsaw; getto warszawskie) was the largest of all the Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Europe during World War II.
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (אױפֿשטאַנד אין װאַרשעװער געטאָ; powstanie w getcie warszawskim; Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka.
The Warsaw Uprising (powstanie warszawskie; Warschauer Aufstand) was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish underground resistance, led by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa), to liberate Warsaw from German occupation.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Western Front was a military theatre of World War II encompassing Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany. World War II military engagements in Southern Europe and elsewhere are generally considered under separate headings. The Western Front was marked by two phases of large-scale combat operations. The first phase saw the capitulation of the Netherlands, Belgium, and France during May and June 1940 after their defeat in the Low Countries and the northern half of France, and continued into an air war between Germany and Britain that climaxed with the Battle of Britain. The second phase consisted of large-scale ground combat (supported by a massive air war considered to be an additional front), which began in June 1944 with the Allied landings in Normandy and continued until the defeat of Germany in May 1945.
The Westinghouse Electric Corporation was an American manufacturing company.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
In Albania, World War II began with the Italian invasion in 1939.
The XV SS Cossack Cavalry Corps was a cavalry corps in the armed forces of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Yaffa Eliach (May 31, 1935 – November 8, 2016) was a Polish-born American historian, author, and scholar of Judaic Studies and the Holocaust.
Yann Goulet (or Yann Renard-Goulet; 20 August 1914 – 22 August 1999) was a sculptor, Breton nationalist and war-time collaborationist with Nazi Germany who headed the Breton Bagadou Stourm militia.
Yehuda Bauer (Hebrew: יהודה באואר; born April 6, 1926) is an Israeli historian and scholar of the Holocaust.
Ypatingasis būrys (Special Squad) or Special SD and German Security Police Squad (Vokiečių Saugumo policijos ir SD ypatingasis būrys, Specjalny Oddział SD i Niemieckiej Policji Bezpieczeństwa, also colloquially strzelcy ponarscy ("Ponary riflemen" in Polish) on Diapositive. (1941–1944) was a Lithuanian killing squad also called the "Lithuanian equivalent of Sonderkommando", operating in the Vilnius Region. The unit, primarily composed of Lithuanian volunteers,Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999, Yale University Press, was formed by the German occupational government and was subordinate to Einsatzkommando 9 and later to Sicherheitsdienst (SD) and Sicherheitspolizei (Sipo). There are different estimates regarding the size of the unit. Polish historian Czesław Michalski estimates that it grew from base of 50Konspekt Ponary – Golgota Wileńszczyzny Czesław Michalski Pedagogical University of Cracow 2001 while Tadeusz Piotrowski asserts about that there were 100 volunteers at its onset. According to Michalski, after its initial creation, at various times hundreds of people were members. Arūnas Bubnys states that it never exceeded a core of forty or fifty men. 118 names are known; 20 of the members have been prosecuted and punished. Together with German police, the squad participated in the Ponary massacre, where some 70,000 Jews were murdered, Jews of Vilna and Lithuania in general had their own complex identity, and labels of Polish Jews, Lithuanian Jews or Russian Jews are all applicable only in part. See also: Ezra Mendelsohn, On Modern Jewish Politics, Oxford University Press, 1993,, and Mark Abley, Spoken Here: Travels Among Threatened Languages, Houghton Mifflin Books, 2003,, along with estimated 20,000 Poles and 8,000 Russian POWs, many from nearby Vilnius.
The Yugoslav National Movement (Jugoslavenski narodni pokret / Југословенски народни покрет), also known as the United Militant Labour Organization (Združena borbena organizacija rada / Здружена борбена организација рада, or Zbor / Збор) was a Yugoslav fascist movement led by politician Dimitrije Ljotić.
The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was the Communist-led resistance to the Axis powers (chiefly Germany) in occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zhytomyr (Žytomyr; Žitomir; Żytomierz; Žitomir) is a city in the north of the western half of Ukraine.
The 11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division Nordland (11.) was a Waffen-SS division recruited from foreign volunteers and conscripts.
The 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS "Handschar" (1st Croatian) was a mountain infantry division of the Waffen-SS, an armed branch of the German Nazi Party that served alongside but was never formally part of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The 14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Galician) (14., 14а Гренадерська Дивізія СС (1а галицька)), prior to 1944 titled the 14th SS-Volunteer Division "Galicia" (14., 14а Добровільна Дивізія СС "Галичина") was a World War II German military formation made up predominantly of volunteers with a Ukrainian ethnic background from the area of Galicia,Williamson Gordon, SS Hitler's Instrument of Terror, Amber books 1994, pp.123–4 later also with some Slovaks and Czechs.
The 1st Cossack Cavalry Division (1.) was a Russian Cossack division of the German Army that served during World War II.
The 2/32nd Battalion was an infantry battalion of the Australian Army, which served during the Second World War.
The 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS "Skanderbeg" (1st Albanian) was a German mountain infantry division of the Waffen-SS, the armed wing of the German Nazi Party that served alongside, but was never formally part of, the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The 23rd SS Volunteer Panzer Grenadier Division Nederland (23. was a German Waffen-SS division comprising volunteers from the Netherlands. It saw action on the Eastern Front during World War II from November 1941. In February 1945, the 4th SS Brigade Nederland was merged into the SS Division Nordland, but after protests from the Dutch Nazi party, the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, it was formed into its own SS Panzergrenadier Division, although its strength never reached more than a brigade.
The 23rd Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Kama (2nd Croatian) was a German mountain infantry division of the Waffen-SS, the armed wing of the German Nazi Party that served alongside but was never formally part of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The 25th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS "Hunyadi" (1st Hungarian) was a short-lived infantry division of the Waffen-SS, an armed branch of the German Nazi Party that served alongside but was never formally part of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The 26th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (2nd Hungarian) was a short-lived infantry division of the Waffen-SS, an armed branch of the German Nazi Party that served alongside but was never formally part of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The 27th SS Volunteer Division "Langemarck" (27. was a German Waffen-SS division comprising volunteers of Flemish background. It saw action on the Eastern Front during World War II. The formation started as the 6th SS Volunteer Sturmbrigade Langemarck and in September 1944 the Sturmbrigade was raised in status to a division, but its strength never reached more than a brigade.
The 29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Italian) also Legione SS Italiana (29. was created on 10 February 1945 as the second SS-Division numbered 29. The first, the 29th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Russian), was disbanded. The new unit created in November 1943, was based on the Waffen-Grenadier-Brigade der SS (italienische Nr. 1). The division is also called "Italia".
The 2nd SS Infantry Brigade (mot.) was formed on the 15 May 1941, under the command of Karl Fischer von Treuenfeld with the 4th and 5th SS Infantry (formerly Totenkopf) Regiments and began its operational service in September in the rear area of Army Group North, under which command it would spend its entire existence.
The 30th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (30.) was a German Waffen SS infantry division formed largely from Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian personnel of the Schutzmannschaft-Brigade Siegling in August 1944 at Warsaw, Poland.
33rd Waffen Cavalry Division of the SS (3rd Hungarian) was formed from Hungarian volunteers, in December 1944.
The 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French) (33. and Charlemagne Regiment are collective names used for units of French volunteers in the Wehrmacht and later Waffen-SS during World War II. From estimates of 7,340 to 11,000 at its peak in 1944, the strength of the division fell to just sixty men in May 1945. They were one of the last Axis units to see action during World War II, when they participated in the defence of central Berlin and in the area of the Führerbunker. They were among the last to surrender during the final days of the Battle in Berlin.
The 34th SS Volunteer Grenadier Division "Landstorm Nederland" (34. was a division in the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II. It was formed by the converting the SS Volunteer Brigade Landstorm Nederland into a division. It comprised volunteers of Dutch background and saw action on the Western Front, but its strength never reached more than a brigade.
The 5th SS Panzer Division "Wiking" (5. SS-Panzerdivision "Wiking".) was a Panzer division among the thirty eight Waffen-SS divisions of Nazi Germany.
The 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division "Prinz Eugen" (7. SS-Freiwilligen Gebirgs-Division "Prinz Eugen") was a German mountain infantry division of the Waffen-SS, the armed wing of the German Nazi Party that served alongside but was never formally part of the Wehrmacht during World War II in Yugoslavia.
Armenian-Nazi Collaboration, Armenian-Nazi collaboration, Axis Collaborator, Axis collaboration, Axis collaboration during World War II, Axis collaborations, Axis collaborations during World War II, Axis collaborator during World War II, Axis collaborators, Axis collaborators during World War II, Baltic collaborators, Collaboration with Axis Powers, Collaboration with Axis Powers during World War II, Collaboration with Nazi Germany, Collaboration with Nazi Germany during World War II, Collaboration with Nazis, Collaboration with Nazis during World War II, Collaboration with Nazism, Collaboration with Nazism during World War II, Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II, Collaboration with the Nazis, Collaboration with the axis powers during world war ii, Collaborationists, Collaborations with Nazi Germany, Collaborations with Nazi Germany during World War II, Collaborations with Nazis, Collaborations with Nazis during World War II, Collaborations with Nazism during World War II, Lithuanian collaboration during World War II, Lithuanian collaboration with Nazi Germany, Lithuanian-German collaboration during World War II, Nazi collaboration, Nazi collaboration during World War II, Nazi collaborations, Nazi collaborations during World War II, Nazi collaborator, Nazi collaborator during World War II, Nazi collaborators, Nazi collaborators during World War II, Nazism collaborator, Nazism collaborators, Non-German cooperation with Nazis duing World War 2, Non-German cooperation with Nazis during World War 2, Non-German cooperation with Nazis during World War II, Non-German cooperation with nazis during World War 2, Polish-German collaboration during World War II, Russian collaboration during World War II, Russian-German collaboration during World War II, WWII collaborationism, World War 2 nazi collaborators in the Baltic States.