110 relations: Ablation, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Alkali, Anisotropy, Antibody, Artificial enzyme, Atomic force microscopy, Biocompatibility, Biosensor, Brady Haran, Caco-2, Catalysis, Cetrimonium bromide, Chloroauric acid, Chromosomal translocation, Colloid, Concentration, Cyclodextrin, Dielectric, Differential centrifugation, Dispersity, DNA, Drinking water, Drug delivery, Electroetching, Electron microscope, Electronics, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Fibroblast, Fibrosis, Food and Drug Administration, Francis Anthony, Glucose, Glycan, Gold, Gold nanoparticles in chemotherapy, Gold salts, Gustav Mie, HeLa, Heterogeneous gold catalysis, Hydrogen sulfide, In vitro, In vivo, Interface (matter), Ion, Johann von Löwenstern-Kunckel, John Herschel, K562 cells, Langmuir (journal), Langmuir–Blodgett film, ..., Lectin, Lycurgus Cup, Macrophage, Materials science, Medical uses of silver, Michael Faraday, Middle Ages, Mie scattering, Miscibility, Moiety (chemistry), Molecular encapsulation, Mononuclear phagocyte system, Nanometre, Nanoparticle, Nanorod, Nanotechnology, Nicholas Culpeper, Nuclease, Nucleic acid, Organic compound, Paclitaxel, Particle therapy, Phase-transfer catalyst, Phosphorus, Photothermal optical microscopy, Polyethylene, Polyethylene glycol, Protein, Pyrolysis, Quantum dot, Radical (chemistry), Redox, Reducing agent, Richard Adolf Zsigmondy, Room temperature, Royal Institution, Scattering, Self-assembled monolayer, Self-assembly of nanoparticles, Sense (molecular biology), Small interfering RNA, Sodium borohydride, Sodium citrate, Sol (colloid), Solubility, Solvent, Sonochemistry, Soxhlet extractor, Stained glass, Superantigen, Surface plasmon resonance, Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Tetraoctylammonium bromide, Theodor Svedberg, Thiol, Tin, Toluene, Trisodium citrate, Tyndall effect, University of Nottingham. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
An artificial enzyme is a synthetic, organic molecule or ion that recreate some function of an enzyme.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) or scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a very-high-resolution type of scanning probe microscopy (SPM), with demonstrated resolution on the order of fractions of a nanometer, more than 1000 times better than the optical diffraction limit.
Biocompatibility is related to the behavior of biomaterials in various contexts.
A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of an analyte, that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.
Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian-born British independent filmmaker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and his YouTube channels, the most notable being Periodic Videos and Numberphile.
The Caco-2 cell line is a continuous line of heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, developed by the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research through research conducted by Dr.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cetrimonium bromide Br; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide; CTAB is a quaternary ammonium surfactant.
Chloroauric acid is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula.
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.
In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
Cyclodextrins (sometimes called cycloamyloses) are a family of compounds made up of sugar molecules bound together in a ring (cyclic oligosaccharides).
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
Differential centrifugation is a common procedure in microbiology and cytology used to separate certain organelles from whole cells for further analysis of specific parts of cells.
A monodisperse, or uniform, polymer is composed of molecules of the same mass.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.
Electroetching is a metal etching process that involves the use of a solution of an electrolyte, an anode and a cathode.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
Fibrosis is the formation of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ or tissue in a reparative or reactive process.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
The terms glycan and polysaccharide are defined by IUPAC as synonyms meaning "compounds consisting of a large number of monosaccharides linked glycosidically".
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
This article is about gold nanoparticles in chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Gold salts are ionic chemical compounds of gold.
Gustav Adolf Feodor Wilhelm Ludwig Mie (29 September 1868 – 13 February 1957) was a German physicist.
HeLa (also Hela or hela) is a cell type in an immortal cell line used in scientific research.
Heterogeneous gold catalysis refers to the catalysis of chemical reactions by gold nanoparticles, typically supported on metal oxide substrates.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
In the physical sciences, an interface is the boundary between two spatial regions occupied by different matter, or by matter in different physical states.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Johann Kunckel, awarded Swedish nobility in 1693 under the Swedish name von Löwenstern-Kunckel and the German version of the name Kunckel von Löwenstern (1630 - prob. 20 March 1703), German chemist, was born in 1630 (or 1638), near Rendsburg, his father being alchemist to the court of Holstein.
Sir John Frederick William Herschel, 1st Baronet (7 March 1792 – 11 May 1871) was an English polymath, mathematician, astronomer, chemist, inventor, experimental photographer who invented the blueprint, and did botanical work.
K562 cells were the first human immortalised myelogenous leukemia cell line to be established.
Langmuir is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1985 and is published by the American Chemical Society.
A Langmuir–Blodgett film contains one or more monolayers of an organic material, deposited from the surface of a liquid onto a solid by immersing (or emersing) the solid substrate into (or from) the liquid.
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific for sugar moieties of other molecules.
The Lycurgus Cup is a 4th-century Roman glass cage cup made of a dichroic glass, which shows a different colour depending on whether or not light is passing through it; red when lit from behind and green when lit from in front.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
The medical uses of silver include its use in wound dressings, creams, and as an antibiotic coating on medical devices.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Mie solution to Maxwell's equations (also known as the Lorenz–Mie solution, the Lorenz–Mie–Debye solution or Mie scattering) describes the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a homogeneous sphere.
Miscibility is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution.
In organic chemistry, a moiety is a part of a molecule.
Molecular encapsulation in supramolecular chemistry is the confinement of a guest molecule inside the cavity of a supramolecular host molecule (molecular capsule, molecular container or cage compounds).
In immunology, the mononuclear phagocyte system or mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) (also known as the reticuloendothelial system or macrophage system) is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer.
In nanotechnology, nanorods are one morphology of nanoscale objects.
Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
Nicholas Culpeper (probably born at Ockley, Surrey, 18 October 1616 – died at Spitalfields, London, 10 January 1654) was an English botanist, herbalist, physician, and astrologer.
A nuclease (also archaically known as nucleodepolymerase or polynucleotidase) is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
Particle therapy is a form of external beam radiotherapy using beams of energetic protons, neutrons, or positive ions for cancer treatment.
In chemistry, a phase-transfer catalyst or PTC is a catalyst that facilitates the migration of a reactant from one phase into another phase where reaction occurs.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photothermal optical microscopy / "photothermal single particle microscopy" is a technique that is based on detection of non-fluorescent labels.
Polyethylene or polythene (abbreviated PE; IUPAC name polyethene or poly(ethylene)) is the most common plastic.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Quantum dots (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (1 April 1865 – 23 September 1929) was an Austrian-Hungarian chemist.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
The Royal Institution of Great Britain (often abbreviated as the Royal Institution or Ri) is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) of organic molecules are molecular assemblies formed spontaneously on surfaces by adsorption and are organized into more or less large ordered domains.
Self-assembly is a phenomenon where the components of a system assemble themselves to form a larger functional unit.
In molecular biology and genetics, the sense of nucleic acid molecules (often DNA or RNA) is the nature of their roles and their complementary molecules' nucleic acid units' roles in specifying amino acids.
Small interfering RNA (siRNA), sometimes known as short interfering RNA or silencing RNA, is a class of double-stranded RNA molecules, 20-25 base pairs in length, similar to miRNA, and operating within the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway.
Sodium borohydride, also known as sodium tetrahydridoborate and sodium tetrahydroborate, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBH4.
Sodium citrate may refer to any of the sodium salts of citrate (though most commonly the third).
A sol is a colloidal solution suspension of very small solid particles in a continuous liquid medium.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
In chemistry, the study of sonochemistry is concerned with understanding the effect of ultrasound in forming acoustic cavitation in liquids, resulting in the initiation or enhancement of the chemical activity in the solution.
A Soxhlet extractor is a piece of laboratory apparatus invented in 1879 by Franz von Soxhlet.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
Superantigens (SAgs) are a class of antigens that cause non-specific activation of T-cells resulting in polyclonal T cell activation and massive cytokine release.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is the resonant oscillation of conduction electrons at the interface between negative and positive permittivity material stimulated by incident light.
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy or surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a surface-sensitive technique that enhances Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces or by nanostructures such as plasmonic-magnetic silica nanotubes.
Tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB or TOABr) is a quaternary ammonium compound with the chemical formula: 4N Br.
Theodor ("The") Svedberg (30 August 1884 – 25 February 1971) was a Swedish chemist and Nobel laureate, active at Uppsala University.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Trisodium citrate has the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7.
The Tyndall effect, also known as Willis–Tyndall scattering, is light scattering by particles in a colloids or in a very fine suspension.
The University of Nottingham is a public research university in Nottingham, United Kingdom.
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