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Colombia

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. [1]

847 relations: Aborrajado, Abstraction (art), Academia Colombiana de la Lengua, Acca sellowiana, Accordion, Administrative law, Adventism, Adversarial system, Afro-Colombians, Agnosticism, Aguapanela, Aguardiente, Ají (sauce), Ajiaco, Alejandro Obregón, Alexander von Humboldt, Alliance for Progress, Almojábana, Alonso de Ojeda, Alpine climate, Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Amazon basin, Amazon natural region, Amazon rainforest, Amazon River, Amazonas Department, América Economía, Amphibian, Andalusia, Andean Community, Andean condor, Andean natural region, Andean preceramic, Andes, Animism, Antanas Mockus, Anthropomorphism, Antioquia Department, Antonio Caballero y Góngora, Antonio Nariño, Arab Colombians, Arab culture, Arauca Department, Arauca, Arauca, Arawakan languages, Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina, Architectural conservation, Arecaceae, Arepa, Armenia, Colombia, ..., Arroz de lisa, Art Deco, Art music, Artificial cardiac pacemaker, Asiento, Association 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of 1991, Colombian Declaration of Independence, Colombian emeralds, Colombian Liberal Party, Colombian Massif, Colombian Military Junta, Colombian Naval Infantry, Colombian Navy, Colombian Olympic Committee, Colombian peace agreement referendum, 2016, Colombian peace process, Colombian peso, Colombian Sign Language, Colombian tiple, Colombians, Comics, Commander-in-chief, Commoner, Concession (contract), Concrete slab, Conga, Congress of Cúcuta, Congress of Colombia, Conquistador, Constitution, Constitutional Court of Colombia, Construction, Consumer spending, Contemporary architecture, Contradanza, Cordillera Central (Colombia), Cordillera Occidental (Colombia), Cordillera Oriental (Colombia), Corregimientos of Colombia, Costa Rica, Costeño cheese, Costumbrismo, Council of Ministers of Colombia, Council of State (Colombia), Council of the Indies, Counter-insurgency, Counter-terrorism, Credibility, Creole language, Crisis in Venezuela (2012–present), Cuatro (instrument), Cuba, Cubism, Cultural heritage, Culture of Africa, Culture of Europe, Culture of Spain, Culture of the Caribbean, Culture of the United States, Cumbia, Cundinamarca Department, Cundinamarca Department (1820), Curriculum, Currulao (music genre), Cycle sport, Daguerreotype, Dance, David Manzur, Democratic security, Dental surgery, Departments of Colombia, Desert, Design, Dignity, Districts of Colombia, Dominican Republic, Drum, Dutch Empire, Early-onset Alzheimer's disease, Earth, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eclecticism in architecture, Ecosystem, Ecuador, Eduardo Caballero Calderón, El Abra, El Carnero, El Dorado, El Dorado International Airport, El Espectador, El Tiempo (Colombia), Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias, Emberá, Emerging markets, Empanada, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endemic birds of Colombia, Endemism, English language, Enrique Grau, Ethnic groups in the Middle East, Ethnologue, Eugenia stipitata, European emigration, Evangelicalism, Existentialism, Expressionism, External debt, Extremadura, Factory (trading post), Fanzine, Federal government of the United States, Federalism, Ferdinand VII of Spain, Fernando Botero, Fernando González (writer), Fernando Vallejo, Financial inclusion, Financial services, Fish, Flamenco, Flan, Florencia, Caquetá, Flute, Folklore studies, Food, Food security, Foolish Fatherland, Fortification, Francisca Josefa de la Concepción, Francisco Antonio Zea, Francisco de Miranda, Francisco de Paula Santander, Francisco José de Caldas, Free-trade area, Free-trade zone, French colonial empire, Freshwater fish, Fruit, Fungus, Gabriel García Márquez, Gabriel París Gordillo, Galerón, Gendarmerie, Genetic diversity, Geographical feature, German Colombian, Germán Castro Caycedo, Global warming, Gonzalo Arango, Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, Gothic architecture, Government of Colombia, Gran Colombia, Granadine Confederation, Great Depression, Gross enrolment ratio, Guacharaca, Guainía Department, Guajiboan languages, Guajira Peninsula, Guava, Guava 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peoples in Colombia, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Inflation, Inline speed skating, Insular region of Colombia, Internally displaced person, International Futures, International humanitarian law, International Monetary Fund, International Society for Krishna Consciousness, International Style (architecture), Invertebrate, Islam, Islamic architecture, Italian Colombian, Iván Duque Márquez, Jamaica, Jamaicans, Japanese Colombians, Japurá River, Javier de Nicoló, Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros, Jehovah's Witnesses, Joint replacement, Jorge Eliécer Gaitán, Jorge Isaacs, Jorge Reynolds Pombo, Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Joropo, José Asunción Silva, José Celestino Mutis, José Eustasio Rivera, José Fernández Madrid, José María Vargas Vila, Juan de Castellanos, Juan José de Sámano y Uribarri, Juan Manuel Santos, Juan Pablo Montoya, Juan Rodríguez Freyle, Juanes, Judaism, Judiciary of Colombia, Judo, Juice, Jungle, Junta (Spanish American Independence), Justice, Kibbeh, Korean War, La Guajira Department, La Guajira Desert, La Violencia, Labour economics, Languages of Colombia, LASIK, Latin American Boom, Latin American culture, Laureano Gómez, League of Nations, León de Greiff, Lebanese Colombians, Lechona, Legume, Leticia Incident, Leticia, Amazonas, Library of Congress Country Studies, Life expectancy, Lima, List of airports in Colombia, List of architectural styles, List of birds of Colombia, List of butterflies of Colombia, List of Colombian Department Governors, List of conquistadors in Colombia, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by real GDP growth rate, List of ethnic groups of Africa, List of mammals of Colombia, List of pre-Columbian cultures, List of reptiles of Colombia, Los Llanos (South America), Low intensity conflict, Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita, Lulada, Magdalena Department, Magdalena River, Major League Baseball, Malaria, Mandolin, Mango, Manizales, Manjar blanco, Manuel Mejía Vallejo, Map, Mapalé, Marañón River, Maraca, Maria Luisa cake, Marimba, Market economy, Medellín, Medical diagnosis, Medical tourism, Medication, Megadiverse countries, Megalith, Mento, Mercado Integrado Latinoamericano, Mercenary, Mesoamerica, Mestizo Colombians, Meta Department, Meta River, Metropolitan areas of Colombia, Mexico City, Microkeratome, Middle power, Miguel de Cervantes Prize, Milhoja, Military career of Simón Bolívar, Military Forces of Colombia, Military robot, Ministry of Culture (Colombia), Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Colombia), Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications (Colombia), Ministry of National Defense (Colombia), Ministry of Transport (Colombia), Mitú, Mocoa, Modernismo, Mollusca, Monarchy of Spain, Monolith, Montería, Monument, Mormonism, Motorsport, Mountain papaya, Muisca, Muisca Confederation, Mulatto, Municipalities of Colombia, Music of Colombia, Mysticism, Nadaism, Napoleonic Wars, Nariño Department, National Administrative Department of Statistics (Colombia), National Anthem of Colombia, National Army of Colombia, National Front (Colombia), National Indigenous Organization of Colombia, National Infrastructure Agency (Colombia), National Intelligence Directorate (Colombia), National Liberation Army (Colombia), National Police of Colombia, National Roads Institute (Colombia), National Service of Learning (Colombia), National symbols of Colombia, National Symphony Orchestra of Colombia, National University of Colombia, NATO, Natural regions of Colombia, Navigation, Necropolis, Neiva, Huila, Neoclassical architecture, Neoclassicism, Neoplasm, Neurology, Neuron, New Kingdom of Granada, New Spain, Nicaragua, Nihilism, Nikolaus Federmann, Nobel Prize in Literature, Norte de Santander Department, OECD, Olympic weightlifting, Omar Rayo, One Hundred Years of Solitude, Ophthalmology, Orchidaceae, Organic food, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, Orinoco, Orinoquía natural region, Orlando Cabrera, Ornament (art), Oscar Murillo (artist), Otorhinolaryngology, Outline of Colombia, Pacific Alliance, Pacific coast, Pacific/Chocó natural region, Paez people, Paleo-Indians, Palestinians, Panama, Panama Canal, Pandebono, Papaya, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Paradigm, Participatory democracy, Pasillo, Passiflora edulis, Passiflora ligularis, Pasto, Colombia, Patriot (Spanish American independence), Páramo, Pedro Nel Gómez, Pedro Simón, Percussion instrument, Pereira, Colombia, Peru, Peruvian corn, Peter Claver, Physalis peruviana, Piaroa–Saliban languages, Pico Cristóbal Colón, Pipeline transport, Piracy in the Caribbean, Pitaya, Political party, Popayán, Pope Francis, Population growth, Porfirio Barba-Jacob, Porro, Portrait, Portuguese Empire, Preschool, President of Colombia, President of the Congress of Colombia, Presidential system, Princess of Asturias Awards, Production (economics), Protestantism, Provinces of the Republic of New Granada, Public expenditure, Public health, Public–private partnership, Puerto Carreño, Puerto Hormiga archaeological site, Purple mangosteen, Putumayo Department, Putumayo River, Quena, Quibdó, Quimbaya civilization, Quindío Department, Quito, Race and ethnicity in Colombia, Radio in Colombia, Rafael Pombo, Rail freight transport, Rail transport in Colombia, Rain, Rastafari, Rationalism (architecture), Rómulo Gallegos Prize, RCN Radio, RCN Televisión, Real Audiencia, Recession, Refractive error, Regional power, Reinforced concrete, Religious art, Renewable energy, Republic, Republic of New Granada, Requinto, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, Rhythm, Right-wing paramilitarism in Colombia, Ring of Fire, Riohacha, Risaralda Department, Rock (geology), Rococo, Rodolfo Llinás, Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt, Rodrigo de Bastidas, Rogelio Salmona, Romani language, Romani people, Rondador, Roscón, Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada, Royalist (Spanish American independence), Sacred, Saint-Domingue, Salesians of Don Bosco, Salsa music, Salvador Rizo, San Agustín Archaeological Park, San Agustín, Huila, San Andrés, San Andrés y Providencia, San Basilio de Palenque, San José del Guaviare, Sancocho, Sanjuanero, Santa María la Antigua del Darién, Santa Marta, Santander Department, Santiago Martínez Delgado, Sarcophagus, Savanna, School leaving qualification, School life expectancy, Schottische, Scientist, Señal Radio Colombia, Sebastián de Belalcázar, Senate of Colombia, Sense, Separation of Panama from Colombia, Separation of powers, Serranía del Baudó, Seven Years' War, Shaft tomb, Shakira, Shooting sports, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Simón Bolívar, Sincelejo, Slavery, Small press, Smallpox, Snare drum, Society of Jesus, Software, Solanum quitoense, Soursop, South America, Sovereign state, Soviet Union, Spain, Spaniards, Spanish American wars of independence, Spanish architecture, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish conquest of the Muisca, Spanish immigration to Colombia, Spanish language, Spanish reconquest of New Granada, Spatial analysis, Special Administrative Unit of Civil Aeronautics, Species, Sport of athletics, Stem-cell therapy, Steppe, Stone and Sky (movement), Stonemasonry, Subdivisions of Gran Colombia, Sucre Department, Suero, Sugarcane, Superintendency of Ports and Transport (Colombia), Superior Council of Judicature, Supreme Court of Justice of Colombia, Sustainable Development Goals, Symbolism (arts), Synthetic substance, Synthetic vaccine, Taekwondo, Tairona, Tamale, Teatro de Cristóbal Colón, Tejo (sport), Telephone numbers in Colombia, Television in Colombia, Temperature, Tequendama, Ternera a la llanera, Terrace (agriculture), Textile, Theater of Colombia, Theodore Roosevelt, Thomson–Urrutia Treaty, Thousand Days' War, Tibitó, Tierra caliente, Tierra fría, Tierra helada, Tierra templada, Tierradentro, Time in Colombia, Todelar, Tolima Department, Tomás Carrasquilla, Topology, Torta, Torta de nata, Tostones, Total fertility rate, Tourism in Colombia, Town square, Tropical rainforest, Tropics, Tuberculosis, Tucanoan languages, Tunja, UCI BMX World Championships, Unemployment, UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, Union of South American Nations, Unitary state, United Nations, United Provinces of New Granada, United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia, United States involvement in regime change in Latin America, United States of Colombia, Urban park, Urbanization, Valle del Cauca Department, Valledupar, Vallenato, Vasco Núñez de Balboa, Vaupés Department, Venezuela, Venezuelans, Vice President of Colombia, Viceroyalty, Viceroyalty of New Granada, Viceroyalty of Peru, Vichada Department, Villavicencio, Virus, Volcano, Volume, Waltz, War of Jenkins' Ear, Washtub bass, Wayuu people, West Africa, West Indies, White Colombians, William Ospina, Wind, World Bank, World Series, World Trade Organization, World War II, Wrestling, Yopal, Zarzuela, Zenú, Zoomorphism, .co, 12th parallel north, 1997 World Series, 19th of April Movement, 2001 Copa América, 2010 Colombia–Venezuela diplomatic crisis, 2010 World Series, 2016 Nobel Peace Prize, 4th parallel south, 67th meridian west, 79th meridian west. 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Aborrajado

Aborrajado is a dish of deep fried plantains stuffed with cheese in Colombian cuisine.

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Abstraction (art)

Typically, abstraction is used in the arts as a synonym for abstract art in general.

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Academia Colombiana de la Lengua

The Academia Colombiana de la Lengua (Spanish for Colombian Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Colombia.

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Acca sellowiana

Acca sellowiana, a species of flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, is native to the highlands of southern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, Uruguay, northern Argentina, and Colombia.

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Accordion

Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.

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Administrative law

Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government.

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Adventism

Adventism is a branch of Protestant Christianity which was started in the United States during the Second Great Awakening when Baptist preacher William Miller first publicly shared his belief that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ would occur at some point between 1843 and 1844.

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Adversarial system

The adversarial system or adversary system is a legal system used in the common law countries where two advocates represent their parties' case or position before an impartial person or group of people, usually a jury or judge, who attempt to determine the truth and pass judgment accordingly.

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Afro-Colombians

Afro-Colombians refers to Colombian citizens of African descent; this article is about the influence they have had on Colombian culture.

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Agnosticism

Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Aguapanela

Aguapanela, agua de panela or agüepanela is a drink commonly found throughout South America and a few parts of Central America and Caribbean.

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Aguardiente

Aguardiente (pattar, aiguardent, augardente, aguardente) is a generic term for alcoholic beverages that contain between 29% and 60% alcohol by volume.

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Ají (sauce)

Ají is a spicy sauce that often contains tomatoes, cilantro (coriander), ají pepper, onions, and water.

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Ajiaco

Ajiaco is a soup common to Colombia, Cuba, and Peru.

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Alejandro Obregón

Alejandro Obregón Rosės (4 June 1920 – 11 April 1992) was a Colombian painter, muralist, sculptor and engraver.

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Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 17696 May 1859) was a Prussian polymath, geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of Romantic philosophy and science.

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Alliance for Progress

The Alliance for Progress (Alianza para el Progreso), initiated by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in 1961, aimed to establish economic cooperation between the U.S. and Latin America.

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Almojábana

Almojábana is a type of bread made with cuajada cheese and corn flour.

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Alonso de Ojeda

Alonso de Ojeda (Torrejoncillo del Rey, Cuenca-1468 (some sources state 1466); Santo Domingo-1515) was a Spanish navigator, governor and conquistador.

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Alpine climate

Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.

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Altiplano Cundiboyacense

The Altiplano Cundiboyacense is a high plateau located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes covering parts of the departments of Cundinamarca and Boyacá.

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Amazon basin

The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.

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Amazon natural region

Amazonía region in southern Colombia comprises the departments of Amazonas, Caquetá, Guainía, Guaviare, Putumayo and Vaupés, and covers an area of 403,000 km², 35% of Colombia's total territory.

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Amazon rainforest

The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.

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Amazon River

The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.

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Amazonas Department

Department of Amazonas (Departamento del Amazonas) is a department of Colombia in the south of the country.

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América Economía

AméricaEconomía is a Latin American magazine founded in 1986 by Chilean Elías Selman and Swedish Nils Strandberg.

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Amphibian

Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Andalusia

Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.

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Andean Community

The Andean Community (Comunidad Andina, CAN) is a customs union comprising the South American countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

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Andean condor

The Andean condor (Vultur gryphus) is a South American bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae and is the only member of the genus Vultur.

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Andean natural region

The Andes mountains form the most populated region of Colombia and contain the majority of the country's urban centers.

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Andean preceramic

Andean preceramic refers to the early period of human occupation in the Andean area of South America that preceded the introduction of ceramics.

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Andes

The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Animism

Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.

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Antanas Mockus

Aurelijus Rūtenis Antanas Mockus Šivickas (born 25 March 1952) is a Colombian mathematician, philosopher, and politician.

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Anthropomorphism

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.

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Antioquia Department

The Department of Antioquia is one of the 32 departments of Colombia, located in the central northwestern part of Colombia with a narrow section that borders the Caribbean Sea.

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Antonio Caballero y Góngora

Antonio Caballero y Góngora (in full, Antonio Pascual de San Pedro de Alcántara Caballero y Góngora) (May 24, 1723 in Priego, Córdoba, Spain – March 24, 1796 in Córdoba) was a Spanish Roman Catholic prelate in the colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada, and from 1782 to 1789 the viceroy of New Granada (present day Colombia and Ecuador).

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Antonio Nariño

Antonio Amador José de Nariño Bernardo del Casal (Santa Fé de Bogotá, Colombia 1765 – 1824 Villa de Leyva, Colombia)Hector, M., and A. Ardila.

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Arab Colombians

Arab Colombians refers to Arab immigrants and their descendants in the Republic of Colombia.

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Arab culture

Arab culture is the culture of the Arabs, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea.

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Arauca Department

Arauca Department (Departamento de Arauca) is a department of Colombia located in the extreme north of the Orinoco Basin of Colombia (the Llanos Orientales), bordering Venezuela.

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Arauca, Arauca

Arauca is a municipality and capital city of the Arauca Department of Colombia.

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Arawakan languages

Arawakan (Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper), also known as Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre), is a language family that developed among ancient indigenous peoples in South America.

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Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina

Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina (Archipiélago de San Andrés, Providencia y Santa Catalina), or, in everyday language, San Andrés y Providencia, is one of the departments of Colombia.

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Architectural conservation

Architectural conservation describes the process through which the material, historical, and design integrity of any built heritage are prolonged through carefully planned interventions.

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Arecaceae

The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).

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Arepa

Arepa is a type of food made of ground maize dough or cooked flour prominent in the cuisine of Colombia and Venezuela.

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Armenia, Colombia

Armenia is the capital of Quindio Department.

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Arroz de lisa

Arroz de lisa (mullet rice) is a traditional Colombian cuisine dish from the Atlantic (Caribbean Sea) coast.

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Art Deco

Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.

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Art music

Art music (alternately called classical music, cultivated music, serious music, and canonic music) is music that implies advanced structural and theoretical considerationsJacques Siron, "Musique Savante (Serious music)", Dictionnaire des mots de la musique (Paris: Outre Mesure): 242.

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Artificial cardiac pacemaker

A pacemaker (or artificial pacemaker, so as not to be confused with the heart's natural pacemaker) is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to contract the heart muscles and regulate the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Asiento

The asiento was the license issued by the Spanish crown, they were included in some peace treaties, by which a set of merchants received the monopoly on a trade route or product, an example of it was the payment of a fee, granting legal permission to sell a fixed number of African slaves in the Spanish colonies.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Asymmetric warfare

Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.

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Atheism

Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Atlantic slave trade

The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.

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Atlántico Department

Atlántico (Atlantic) is a department of Colombia, located in northern Colombia with the Caribbean Sea to its north, the Bolívar Department to its west and south separated by the Canal del Dique, and the Magdalena Department to its east separated by the Magdalena River.

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Atrato River

The Atrato River is a river of northwestern Colombia.

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Avena (drink)

Avena is a beverage prepared with stewed oatmeal, milk, water, cinnamon, clove and sugar consumed in South America.

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Avenue (landscape)

In landscaping, an avenue, or allée, is traditionally a straight path or road with a line of trees or large shrubs running along each side, which is used, as its Latin source venire ("to come") indicates, to emphasize the "coming to," or arrival at a landscape or architectural feature.

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Álvaro Mutis

Álvaro Mutis Jaramillo (August 25, 1923 – September 22, 2013) was a Colombian poet, novelist, and essayist and author of the compendium The Adventures and Misadventures of Maqroll.

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Álvaro Uribe

Álvaro Uribe Vélez (born 4 July 1952) is a Colombian politician who served as the 31st President of Colombia from 7 August 2002 to 7 August 2010.

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Édgar Negret

Édgar Negret (October 11, 1920 – October 11, 2012) was a Colombian abstract sculptor.

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Édgar Rentería

Édgar Enrique Rentería Herazo (born August 7, 1975), nicknamed "The Barranquilla Baby," is a Colombian former professional baseball shortstop.

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Óscar Iván Zuluaga

Óscar Iván Zuluaga Escobar (born 3 February 1959) is a Colombian economist and politician who was the Democratic Center's nominee for President of Colombia in the 2014 election.

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Óscar Naranjo

Óscar Adolfo Naranjo Trujillo (born 22 December 1956) is a Colombian politician and former National Police of Colombia general, currently serving as Vice President of Colombia.

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Bacatá

Bacatá is the name given to the main settlement of the Muisca Confederation on the Bogotá savanna.

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Bambuco

Bambuco is a traditional music genre originated from Colombia.

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Banana passionfruit

Banana passionfruit is the fruit of several plants in the genus Passiflora, and is therefore related to the passion fruit.

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Bandeja paisa

Bandeja paisa, (Paisa refers to a person from the Paisa Region and bandeja is Spanish for platter) with variations known as bandeja de arriero, bandeja montañera, or bandeja antioqueña, is a typical meal popular in Colombian cuisine, especially of the Antioquia department and the Paisa Region, as well as with the Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis, (Caldas Department, Quindío, Risaralda) and part of Valle del Cauca.

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Bandola

The bandola is one of many varieties of small pear-shape chordophones found in Venezuela and Colombia.

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Bank of the Republic (Colombia)

The Banco de la República (Banco de la República) is the state-run central bank of the Republic of Colombia.

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Baptism

Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.

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Barbacoan languages

Barbacoan (also Barbakóan, Barbacoano, Barbacoana) is a language family spoken in Colombia and Ecuador.

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Baroque

The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.

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Baroque architecture

Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church.

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Barranquilla

Barranquilla is a city and municipality located in northern Colombia.

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Baseball World Cup

The Baseball World Cup was an international tournament in which national baseball teams from around the world competed.

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Bass drum

A bass drum, or kick drum, is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch.

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Battle of Cartagena de Indias

The Battle of Cartagena de Indias was an amphibious military engagement between the forces of Britain under Vice-Admiral Edward Vernon and those of Spain under the Viceroy Sebastián de Eslava. It took place at the city of Cartagena de Indias in March 1741, in present-day Colombia. The battle was a significant episode of the War of Jenkins' Ear and a large-scale naval campaign. The conflict later subsumed into the greater conflict of the War of the Austrian Succession. The battle resulted in a major defeat for the British Navy and Army. The defeat caused heavy losses for the British. Disease (especially yellow fever), rather than deaths from combat, took the greatest toll on both the Spanish and British forces.

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Battle of Old Baldy

The Battle of Old Baldy refers to a series of five engagements for Hill 266 in west-central Korea.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Beetle

Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.

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Bell

A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument.

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Benkos Biohó

Benkos Biohó (late 16th century — 1621), also known as Domingo Biohó, was born into a royal family that ruled islands off the coast of what is today Guinea-Bissau.

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Biodiversity

Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Biodiversity of Colombia

Colombia is the country with the second-highest biodiversity in the world, behind Brazil.

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Biome

A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.

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Biscuit roll

The biscuit roll, crispy biscuit roll, egg roll, crisp biscuit roll, cookie roll or love letter is a type of biscuit snack commonly found in many parts of Asia, South America, and Spain.

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Blackberry

The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus Rubus in the family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus Rubus, and hybrids between the subgenera Rubus and Idaeobatus.

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Bogotazo

El Bogotazo (from "Bogotá" and the ''-azo'' suffix of violent augmentation) refers to the massive riots that followed the assassination in Bogotá, Colombia, of Liberal leader and presidential candidate Jorge Eliécer Gaitán on 9 April 1948 during the government of President Mariano Ospina Pérez.

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Bogotá

Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.

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Bogotá Film Festival

The Bogotá Film Festival (Festival de Cine de Bogotá) is an annual international film festival held in Bogotá, Colombia.

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Bogotá Philharmonic

The Bogotá Philharmonic Orchestra, or Orquesta Filarmónica de Bogotá, is the most important Symphony Orchestra in Colombia.

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Boiled egg

Boiled eggs are eggs (typically chicken eggs) cooked with their shells unbroken, usually by immersion in boiling water.

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Bolívar Department

Bolívar is a department of Colombia.

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Bomb

A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.

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Bond credit rating

In investment, the bond credit rating represents the credit worthiness of corporate or government bonds.

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Bora–Witoto languages

Bora–Witóto (also Bora–Huitoto, Bora–Uitoto, or, ambiguously, Witotoan) is a proposal to unite the Boran and Witotoan language families of southwestern Colombia (Amazonas Department) and neighboring regions of Peru and Brazil.

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Bowling

Bowling is a sport or leisure activity in which a player rolls or throws a bowling ball towards a target.

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Boxing

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.

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Boyacá Department

Boyacá is one of the thirty-two departments of Colombia, and the remnant of Boyacá State, one of the original nine states of the "United States of Colombia".

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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British people

The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.

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Buñuelo

A buñuelo (alternatively called bimuelo, birmuelo, bermuelo, burmuelo, or bonuelo; bunyol) is a fried dough ball.

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Bucaramanga

Bucaramanga is the capital and largest city of the department of Santander, Colombia.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Buenaventura, Valle del Cauca

Buenaventura is a coastal seaport city on the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia (South America).

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Building material

Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes.

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Cacicazgo

Cacicazgo is a phonetic Spanish transliteration (or a derivative) of the Taíno word for the lands ruled by a cacique.

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Cacique Nutibara Bloc

The Cacique Nutivara Bloc (in Spanish, Bloque Cacique Nutibara, or BCN) was a Colombian paramilitary bloc founded by Diego Murillo Bejarano, affiliated with the United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) paramilitary umbrella group.

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Cadena Súper

Cadena Super was a Colombian radio network, founded in the 1970s by Conservative politician Jaime Pava Navarro.

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Caldas Department

Caldas is a department of Colombia named after Colombian patriotic figure Francisco José de Caldas.

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Cali

Santiago de Cali, usually known by its short name "Cali", is the capital of the Valle del Cauca department, and the most populous city in southwest Colombia, with an estimated 2,319,655 residents according to 2005-2020/DANE population projections.

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Calypso music

Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid-19th century and eventually spread to the rest of the Caribbean Antilles and Venezuela by the mid-20th century.

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Camilo Torres Tenorio

Camilo Torres Tenorio (November 22, 1766 – October 5, 1816) was a Colombian politician.

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Cancer research

Cancer research is research into cancer to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and cure.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Capitolio Nacional

Capitolio Nacional (or National Capitol) is a building on Bolivar Square in central Bogotá, the construction of which began in 1876, by order of president Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera.

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Caquetá Department

Caquetá Department is a department of Colombia.

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Caracol Radio

Caracol Radio (Cadena Radial Colombiana, "Colombian Radio Network") is one of the main radio networks in Colombia.

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Caracol Televisión

Caracol Televisión is a Colombian private national television network, owned by the Santo Domingo Group.

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Cardiology

Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Cariban languages

The Cariban languages are an indigenous language family of South America.

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Caribbean

The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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Caribbean natural region

The Caribbean region is mostly lowland plains extending from the northern reaches of the Colombian Andes to the Caribbean Sea that are characterized by a variety of ecosystems including: humid forests, dry forests, savannas, wetlands and desert.

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Caribbean region of Colombia

The Caribbean region of Colombia or Caribbean coast region is in the north of Colombia and is mainly composed of eight Departments located contiguous to the Caribbean.

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Carimañola

Carimañola is a Panamanian cuisine meat-pie in a torpedo-shaped yuca fritter, stuffed with cheese, seasoned ground meat or shredded chicken and fried.

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Carlos Vives

Carlos Alberto Vives Restrepo (born 7 August 1961) is a Colombian singer, songwriter and actor.

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Cartagena Film Festival

The Cartagena Film Festival (Festival Internacional de Cine de Cartagena de Indias), or FICCI, is a film festival held in Cartagena, Colombia, which focuses mainly on the promotion of Colombian television series, Latin American films and short films.

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Cartagena, Colombia

The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena de Indias), is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region.

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Cartoonist

A cartoonist (also comic strip creator) is a visual artist who specializes in drawing cartoons.

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Casa de Contratación

The Casa de Contratación ("House of Trade") or Casa de la Contratación de las Indias ("House of Trade of the Indies") was established by the Crown of Castile, in 1503 in the port of Seville as a crown agency for the Spanish Empire.

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Casanare Department

Casanare Department (Departamento de Casanare) is a department in the central eastern region of Colombia.

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Cassava

Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic Church in Spain

The Catholic Church in Spain is part of the Catholic Church under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome, and the Spanish Episcopal Conference.

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Catholic religious order

Catholic religious order is a religious order of the Catholic Church.

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Cauca Department

Cauca Department (Departamento del Cauca) is a Department of Colombia.

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Cauca River

The Cauca River is a river in Colombia that lies between the Occidental and Central cordilleras.

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Córdoba Department

Córdoba Department (Departamento de Córdoba) is a Department of the Republic of Colombia located to the north of this country in the Colombian Caribbean Region.

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Cúcuta

Cúcuta, officially San José de Cúcuta, is a Colombian city, capital of Norte de Santander department.

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Ceramic

A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Ceremony

A ceremony is an event of ritual significance, performed on a special occasion.

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Cesar Department

Cesar Department (Departamento del Cesar) or simply Cesar is a department of Colombia located in the north of the country in the Caribbean region, bordering to the north with the Department of La Guajira, to the west with the Department of Magdalena and Department of Bolivar, to the south with Department of Santander, to the west with the Department of North Santander, and to the east with the country of Venezuela (Zulia State).

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Champús

Champús is a drink popular in Peru, Ecuador and southwest Colombia (Departments of Valle del Cauca, Cauca and Nariño), made with maize, fruits such as lulo (also known as naranjilla), pineapple, quince or guanábana, sweetened with panela and seasoned with cinnamon, cloves and orange tree leaves.

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Chemical industry

The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.

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Chibchan languages

The Chibchan languages (also Chibchan, Chibchano) make up a language family indigenous to the Isthmo-Colombian Area, which extends from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia and includes populations of these countries as well as Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.

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Chiefdom

A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese people

Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.

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Chiquita Brands International

Chiquita Brands International Sàrl, formerly known as Chiquita Brands International Inc., is a Swiss producer and distributor of bananas and other produce.

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Chocó Department

Chocó Department (Departamento del Chocó) is a department of Colombia known for its large Afro-Colombian population.

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Cholado

Cholado or Raspao is an icy beverage with fresh fruit and sweetened condensed milk traditional from Jamundí, in the region of Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christopher Columbus

Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.

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Cinema of Colombia

Cinema of Colombia refers to the film industry based in Colombia.

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Ciudad Perdida

Ciudad Perdida (Spanish for "Lost City") is the archaeological site of an ancient city in Colombia's Sierra Nevada.

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CIVETS

The CIVETS are six favored emerging markets countries – Colombia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey and South Africa.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Cocada

Cocadas are a traditional coconut candy or confectionery found in many parts of Latin America.

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Coconut rice

Coconut rice is a dish prepared by soaking white rice in coconut milk or cooking it with coconut flakes.

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Coffee production in Colombia

Coffee production in Colombia has a reputation as producing mild, well balanced coffee beans.

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Colombia national football team

The Colombia national football team (Selección de fútbol de Colombia) represents Colombia in international football competitions and is overseen by the Colombian Football Federation.

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Colombia Stock Exchange

The Colombia Stock Exchange (Bolsa de Valores de Colombia, BVC) was created as a result of merging three independent stock exchanges: Bogotá (Bolsa de Bogotá, 1928), Medellín (Bolsa de Medellín, 1961) and Occidente (Bolsa de Occidente, Cali, 1983).

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Colombian Air Force

The Colombian Air Force or FAC (Fuerza Aérea Colombiana) is the Air Force of the Republic of Colombia.

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Colombian Civil War (1860–1862)

The Colombian Civil War began on May 8, 1860, and lasted until November 1862.

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Colombian conflict

The Colombian conflict began in the mid-1960s and is a low-intensity asymmetric war between Colombian governments, paramilitary groups, crime syndicates, and far-left guerrillas such as the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), and the National Liberation Army (ELN), fighting each other to increase their influence in Colombian territory.

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Colombian Conservative Party

The Colombian Conservative Party (Partido Conservador Colombiano) is a conservative political party in Colombia.

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Colombian Constitution of 1821

The Constitution of Cúcuta, also known as Constitution of the Gran Colombia and Constitution of 1821, was the founding document and constitution of the country of Gran Colombia, unifying the territories of the Viceroyalty of New Granada as part of a federation.

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Colombian Constitution of 1991

The Constitution of Colombia (Constitución Política de Colombia), better known as the Constitution of 1991, is the current governing document of the Republic of Colombia.

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Colombian Declaration of Independence

The Colombian Declaration of Independence refers to the events of July 20, 1810, in Santa Fe de Bogota, in the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada.

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Colombian emeralds

Emeralds are green precious gemstones that are mined in various geological settings.

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Colombian Liberal Party

The Colombian Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Colombiano; PLC) is a centrist and social liberal political party in Colombia.

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Colombian Massif

The Colombian Massif (from the Spanish Macizo Colombiano), also known colloquially as Nudo de Almaguer, refers to a group of mountains within the Andes of south central Colombia.

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Colombian Military Junta

The Colombian Military Junta was a Colombian transitional government established between 1957 and 1958, replacing President Gustavo Rojas Pinilla.

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Colombian Naval Infantry

The Colombian Naval Infantry and also referred to as Colombian Marines (Infantería de Marina Colombiana) is the marine force of the Colombian National Armada.

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Colombian Navy

The Colombian Navy, officially the Colombian National Navy (Armada Nacional de la República de Colombia), also known as the "Armada Nacional" or just the "Armada" in Spanish, is the naval branch of the military forces of Colombia.

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Colombian Olympic Committee

The Colombia Olympic Committee was created 3 July 1936.

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Colombian peace agreement referendum, 2016

The Colombian peace plebiscite to ratify the final agreement on the termination of the Colombian conflict between the Colombian government and the FARC guerillas was held on October 2, 2016.

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Colombian peace process

The Colombian peace process refers to the peace process between the Colombian government of President Juan Manuel Santos and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC–EP) to bring an end to the Colombian conflict.

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Colombian peso

The peso is the currency of Colombia.

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Colombian Sign Language

Colombian Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Colombiana (LSC)) is the deaf sign language of Colombia.

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Colombian tiple

The Colombian tiple (pronounced:tee-pleh) is a plucked string instrument of the guitar family typical of Colombia where it is usually played as a main instrument or as an accompanying instrument to the guitar.

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Colombians

Colombians (colombianos in Spanish), are citizens of Colombia.

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Comics

a medium used to express ideas by images, often combined with text or other visual information.

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Commander-in-chief

A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.

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Commoner

The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy.

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Concession (contract)

A concession or concession agreement is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, corporation, individual or other legal entity.

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Concrete slab

A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings.

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Conga

The conga, also known as tumbadora, is a tall, narrow, single-headed drum from Cuba.

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Congress of Cúcuta

The Congress of Cúcuta was a constituent assembly where Gran Colombia was created.

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Congress of Colombia

The Congress of the Republic of Colombia (Congreso de la República de Colombia) is the name given to Colombia's bicameral national legislature.

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Conquistador

Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.

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Constitution

A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.

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Constitutional Court of Colombia

The Constitutional Court of Colombia (Corte Constitucional de Colombia) is the supreme constitutional court of Colombia.

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Construction

Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure.

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Consumer spending

Consumer spending, consumption, or consumption expenditure is the acquisition of goods and services by individuals or families.

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Contemporary architecture

Contemporary architecture is the architecture of the 21st century.

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Contradanza

Contradanza (also called contradanza criolla, danza, danza criolla, or habanera) is the Spanish and Spanish-American version of the contradanse, which was an internationally popular style of music and dance in the 18th century, derived from the English country dance and adopted at the court of France.

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Cordillera Central (Colombia)

The Cordillera Central (Central Andes) is the highest of the three branches of the Colombian Andes.

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Cordillera Occidental (Colombia)

The Cordillera Occidental (West Andes) is the lowest in elevation of the three branches of the Colombian Andes.

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Cordillera Oriental (Colombia)

The Cordillera Oriental (Eastern Ranges) is the widest of the three branches of the Colombian Andes.

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Corregimientos of Colombia

Corregimiento is a term used in Colombia to define a subdivision of Colombian municipalities.

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Costa Rica

Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.

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Costeño cheese

Costeño cheese is a dairy product from the Colombian Caribbean Region.

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Costumbrismo

Costumbrismo (sometimes anglicized as Costumbrism) is the literary or pictorial interpretation of local everyday life, mannerisms, and customs, primarily in the Hispanic scene, and particularly in the 19th century.

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Council of Ministers of Colombia

The Council of Ministers of the Republic of Colombia is composed of the most senior appointed politicians of the executive branch of the Government of Colombia.

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Council of State (Colombia)

The Council of State of Colombia (Consejo de Estado de Colombia) is the supreme tribunal with jurisdiction over administrative issues in Colombia.

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Council of the Indies

The Council of the Indies; officially, the Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies (Real y Supremo Consejo de las Indias), was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire for the Americas and the Philippines.

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Counter-insurgency

A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".

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Counter-terrorism

Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism.

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Credibility

Credibility comprises the objective and subjective components of the believability of a source or message.

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Creole language

A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.

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Crisis in Venezuela (2012–present)

The crisis in Venezuela is the socioeconomic and political crisis that Venezuela has been experiencing since 2012 under the presidency of Hugo Chávez and which has continued into the current presidency of Nicolás Maduro.

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Cuatro (instrument)

The cuatro is the name of a family of Latin American instruments found in South America, and in Puerto Rico and other parts of the West Indies.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cubism

Cubism is an early-20th-century art movement which brought European painting and sculpture historically forward toward 20th century Modern art.

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Cultural heritage

Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.

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Culture of Africa

The culture of Africa is varied and manifold, consisting of a mixture of countries with various tribes that each have their own unique characteristics from the continent of Africa.

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Culture of Europe

The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.

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Culture of Spain

The cultures of Spain are European cultures based on a variety of historical influences, primarily based on pre-Roman Celtic and Iberian culture.

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Culture of the Caribbean

The term Caribbean culture summarises the artistic, musical, literary, culinary, political and social elements that are representative of the Caribbean people all over the world.

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Culture of the United States

The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western culture (European) origin and form, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American people and their cultures.

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Cumbia

Cumbia folkloric rhythm and dance from Colombia.

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Cundinamarca Department

Department of Cundinamarca (Departamento de Cundinamarca) is one of the departments of Colombia.

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Cundinamarca Department (1820)

Cundinamarca was one of the three departments of Gran Colombia until 1824.

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Curriculum

In education, a curriculum (plural: curricula or curriculums) is broadly defined as the totality of student experiences that occur in the educational process.

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Currulao (music genre)

Currulao is a musical genre, though strictly speaking, it also references to the folkloric dance from the Pacific region of Colombia, whose variations can also be observed in regions of Ecuador.

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Cycle sport

Cycle sport is competitive physical activity using bicycles.

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Daguerreotype

The Daguerreotype (daguerréotype) process, or daguerreotypy, was the first publicly available photographic process, and for nearly twenty years it was the one most commonly used.

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Dance

Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.

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David Manzur

David Manzur Londoño (born December 14, 1929) is a Colombian painter.

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Democratic security

Democratic security or Democratic security policy refers to a Colombian security policy implemented during the administration of the Former President Álvaro Uribe (2002-2010).

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Dental surgery

Dental surgery is any of a number of medical procedures that involve artificially modifying dentition; in other words, surgery of the teeth and jaw bones.

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Departments of Colombia

Colombia is a unitary republic made up of thirty-two departments (Spanish: departamentos, sing. departamento) and a Capital District (Distrito Capital).

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Desert

A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Design

Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).

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Dignity

Dignity is the right of a person to be valued and respected for their own sake, and to be treated ethically.

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Districts of Colombia

The Districts in Colombia are cities that have a feature that highlights them, such as its location and trade, history or tourism.

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Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

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Drum

The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments.

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Dutch Empire

The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.

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Early-onset Alzheimer's disease

Early-onset Alzheimer's disease, also called early-onset Alzheimer's, or early-onset AD, is Alzheimer's disease diagnosed before the age of 65.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Eclecticism in architecture

Eclecticism is a nineteenth and twentieth-century architectural style in which a single piece of work incorporates a mixture of elements from previous historical styles to create something that is new and original.

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Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.

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Ecuador

Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Eduardo Caballero Calderón

Eduardo Caballero Calderón (6 March 1910 – 3 April 1993) was a Colombian journalist and writer.

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El Abra

El Abra is the name given to an extensive archeological site, located in the valley of the same name.

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El Carnero

El Carnero (The Sheep) is the colloquial name of a Spanish language colonial chronicle whose title was Conquista i descubrimiento del nuevo reino de Granada de las Indias Occidentales del mar oceano, i fundacion de la ciudad de Santa Fe de Bogotá,... (English: Conquest and discovery of the New Kingdom of Granada of the West Indies sea, and foundation of the city of Holy Faith of Bogota).

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El Dorado

El Dorado (Spanish for "the golden one"), originally El Hombre Dorado ("The Golden Man") or El Rey Dorado ("The Golden King"), was the term used by the Spanish Empire to describe a mythical tribal chief (zipa) of the Muisca native people of Colombia, who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and submerged in Lake Guatavita.

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El Dorado International Airport

El Dorado International Airport is an international airport serving Bogotá, Colombia and its surrounding areas.

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El Espectador

El Espectador (meaning "The Spectator") is a newspaper with national circulation within Colombia, founded by Fidel Cano Gutiérrez on 22 March 1887 in Medellín and published since 1915 in Bogotá.

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El Tiempo (Colombia)

El Tiempo (The Time) is a nationally distributed, broadsheet daily newspaper in Colombia.

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Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias

Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias is an epic poem written in the late sixteenth century by Juan de Castellanos.

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Emberá

The Emberá, also known in the historical literature as the Chocó or Katío Indians are an indigenous people of Panama and Colombia.

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Emerging markets

An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.

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Empanada

An empanada is a type of pasty baked or fried in many countries of the Americas and in Spain.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endemic birds of Colombia

The following is a list of the 73 known endemic bird species in Colombia with notes about their general distribution.

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Endemism

Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Enrique Grau

Enrique Grau (December 18, 1920 – April 1, 2004) was a Colombian artist, renowned for his depictions of Amerindian and Afro-Colombian figures.

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Ethnic groups in the Middle East

The ethnic groups in the Middle East refers to the various peoples that reside in West Asia and Egypt in North Africa.

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Ethnologue

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.

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Eugenia stipitata

Eugenia stipitata (Araza, Portuguese common names araçá, araçá-boi, Spanish common name arazá) is a fruit tree native to Amazon Rainforest vegetation in Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador.

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European emigration

European emigration can be defined as subsequent emigration waves from the European continent to other continents.

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Evangelicalism

Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.

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Existentialism

Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.

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Expressionism

Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century.

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External debt

External loan (or foreign debt) is the total debt a country owes to foreign creditors, complemented by internal debt owed to domestic lenders.

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Extremadura

Extremadura (is an autonomous community of western Iberian Peninsula whose capital city is Mérida, recognised by the State of Autonomy of Extremadura. It is made up of the two largest provinces of Spain: Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by the provinces of Salamanca and Ávila (Castile and León) to the north; by provinces of Toledo and Ciudad Real (Castile–La Mancha) to the east, and by the provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Córdoba (Andalusia) to the south; and by Portugal to the west. Its official language is Spanish. It is an important area for wildlife, particularly with the major reserve at Monfragüe, which was designated a National Park in 2007, and the International Tagus River Natural Park (Parque Natural Tajo Internacional). The government of Extremadura is called. The Day of Extremadura is celebrated on 8 September. It coincides with the Catholic festivity of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

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Factory (trading post)

"Factory" (from Latin facere, meaning "to do"; feitoria, factorij, factorerie, comptoir) was the common name during the medieval and early modern eras for an entrepôt – which was essentially an early form of free-trade zone or transshipment point.

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Fanzine

A fanzine (blend of fan and magazine or -zine) is a non-professional and non-official publication produced by enthusiasts of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre) for the pleasure of others who share their interest.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Federalism

Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.

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Ferdinand VII of Spain

Ferdinand VII (Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.

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Fernando Botero

Fernando Botero Angulo (born 19 April 1932) is a Colombian figurative artist and sculptor.

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Fernando González (writer)

Fernando González Ochoa (April 24, 1895 – February 16, 1964), was a Colombian writer and existentialist philosopher known as "el filósofo de Otraparte" (The Philosopher from somewhere else). He wrote about sociology, history, art, morality, economics, epistemology and theology in a magisterial and creative way, using different genres of literature. González is considered one of the most original writers of Colombia during the 20th century. His ideas were controversial and had a great influence in the Colombian society at his time and today. The González work was the inspiration of Nadaism, a literary movement founded by one of his disciples, Gonzalo Arango. The Otraparte Villa, his house in Envigado, is today a museum and the headquarters of the cultural foundation to preserve and promote his legacy. The place was declared a National Patrimony of Colombia in 2006.

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Fernando Vallejo

Fernando Vallejo Rendón (born 1942 in Medellín, Colombia) is a novelist, filmmaker and essayist, born in Colombia.

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Financial inclusion

Financial inclusion is where individuals and businesses have access to useful and affordable financial products and services that meet their needs that are delivered in a responsible and sustainable way.

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Financial services

Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.

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Fish

Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Flamenco

Flamenco, in its strictest sense, is a professionalized art-form based on the various folkloric music traditions of Southern Spain in the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Extremadura and Murcia.

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Flan

A flan, in English and other cuisines, is a dish with an open, rimmed pastry or sponge base containing a sweet or savoury filling.

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Florencia, Caquetá

Florencia (Florence) is a municipality and capital city of the Department of Caquetá, Colombia.

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Flute

The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group.

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Folklore studies

Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in Britain, is the formal academic discipline devoted to the study of folklore.

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Food

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.

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Food security

Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.

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Foolish Fatherland

The period between 1810 and 1816 in the Viceroyalty of New Granada (which included present-day Colombia) was marked by such intense conflicts over the nature of the new government or governments that it became known as la Patria Boba (the Foolish Fatherland).

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Fortification

A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.

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Francisca Josefa de la Concepción

Mother Francisca Josefa de la Concepción, O.S.C., was a Criolla nun and mystic in the region of New Spain which later became Colombia.

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Francisco Antonio Zea

Juan Francisco Antonio Hilarión Zea Díaz (born 23 November 1766 – 28 November 1822) was a Colombian journalist, botanist, diplomat, politician, and statesman who served as Vice President of Colombia under then President Simón Bolívar.

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Francisco de Miranda

Sebastián Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez de Espinoza (March 28, 1750 – July 14, 1816), commonly known as Francisco de Miranda, was a Venezuelan military leader and revolutionary.

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Francisco de Paula Santander

Francisco José de Paula Santander y Omaña (Villa del Rosario de Cúcuta, Colombia, April 2, 1792 – Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, May 6, 1840), was a Colombian military and political leader during the 1810–1819 independence war of the United Provinces of New Granada (present-day Colombia).

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Francisco José de Caldas

Francisco José de Caldas (October 4, 1768 – October 28, 1816) was a Colombian lawyer, military engineer, self-taught naturalist, mathematician, geographer and inventor (he created the first hypsometer), who was executed by orders of Pablo Morillo during the Spanish American Reconquista for being a forerunner of the fight for the independence of New Granada (modern day Colombia).

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Free-trade area

A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free-trade agreement (FTA).

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Free-trade zone

A free-trade zone (FTZ) is a specific class of special economic zone.

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French colonial empire

The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.

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Freshwater fish

Freshwater fish are those that spend some or all of their lives in fresh water, such as rivers and lakes, with a salinity of less than 0.05%.

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Fruit

In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gabriel García Márquez

Gabriel José de la Concordia García Márquez (6 March 1927 – 17 April 2014) was a Colombian novelist, short-story writer, screenwriter and journalist, known affectionately as Gabo or Gabito throughout Latin America.

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Gabriel París Gordillo

Gabriel París Gordillo (March 8, 1910 – March 21, 2008) was President of Colombia from May 1957 to August 1958 as Chairman of the Colombian Military Junta Government following the 1957 Coup d'état.

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Galerón

The galerón is a genre of Venezuelan typical song.

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Gendarmerie

Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.

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Genetic diversity

Genetic diversity is the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.

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Geographical feature

Geographical features are man-made or naturally-created features of the Earth.

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German Colombian

German Colombians (Deutschkolumbianer, Germano-colombianos) are Colombian citizens of German ancestry.

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Germán Castro Caycedo

Germán Castro Caycedo (born March 3, 1940) is a Colombian journalist and writer.

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Global warming

Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.

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Gonzalo Arango

Gonzalo Arango Arias (born in Andes, Antioquia 1931 – Tocancipá, Cundinamarca 1976) was a Colombian poet, journalist and philosopher.

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Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada

Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada y Rivera, also spelled as De Quezada and Ximénez, (1496 – other sources state 1506 or 1509Graham (1922) Suesca, 16 February 1579) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador in northern South America, territories currently known as Colombia. He explored the northern part of South America. As a well-educated lawyer he was one of the intellectuals of the Spanish conquest. He was an effective organizer and leader, designed the first legislation for the government of the area, and was its historian. After 1569 he undertook explorations toward the east, searching for the elusive El Dorado, but returned to New Granada in 1573. He has been suggested as a possible model for Cervantes' Don Quixote.

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Gothic architecture

Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.

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Government of Colombia

The Government of Colombia is a republic with separation of powers into executive, judicial and legislative branches.

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Gran Colombia

Gran Colombia ("Great Colombia") is a name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.

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Granadine Confederation

The Granadine Confederation (Confederación Granadina) was a short-lived federal republic established in 1858 as a result of a constitutional change replacing the Republic of New Granada.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Gross enrolment ratio

Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) or Gross Enrollment Index (GEI) is a statistical measure used in the education sector, and formerly by the UN in its Education Index, to determine the number of students enrolled in school at several different grade levels (like elementary, middle school and high school), and use it to show the ratio of the number of students who live in that country to those who qualify for the particular grade level.

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Guacharaca

Guacharaca is a percussion instrument usually made out of the cane-like trunk of a small palm tree.

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Guainía Department

Guainía (Yuri language: "Land of many waters") is a department of Colombia.

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Guajiboan languages

Guajiboan (also Guahiban, Wahívoan, Guahiboan) is a language family spoken in the Orinoco River region in eastern Colombia and southwestern Venezuela, which is a savannah-like area known in Colombia as the Llanos.

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Guajira Peninsula

Guajira Peninsula (Peninsula de La Guajira, also spelled Goajira, mainly in colonial period texts), is a peninsula in northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela in the Caribbean.

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Guava

Guavas (singular guava) are common tropical fruits cultivated and enjoyed in many tropical and subtropical regions.

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Guava jelly

Guava jelly (Spanish: bocadillo (de guayaba), ("guava snack"), is a Colombian confectionery made with guava pulp and panela, which is consumed abundantly throughout Colombia, one of the largest guava producers in the world. The town of Vélez, Santander Department, is a major centre of production for the sweet and gives it the alternative name "bocadillo Veleño". In Venezuela, the form of consumption is similar to that of Colombia, where the product is called "conserva". In Venezuela it can be of guava, coco, banana etc. Bocadillo is commonly accompanied by cheese, spread upon bread, or simply eaten on its own. It most often takes the form of a small rectangular block, with a firm consistency and a deep red colour, giving it a similar appearance to the related Spanish dessert dulce de membrillo. Another dessert closely related to bocadillo is the Brazilian goiabada, also made from guava. In 2006, the bocadillo veleño was nominated for the cultural symbol for Colombia in the contest organized by a magazine, Semana.

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Guaviare Department

Guaviare is a department of Colombia.

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Guaviare River

The Guaviare is a tributary of the Orinoco in Colombia.

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Guerrilla movements in Colombia

Guerrilla movements in Colombia refers to the origins, development and actions of guerrilla movements in the Republic of Colombia.

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Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.

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Guillermo Uribe Holguín

Guillermo Uribe Holguín (sometimes spelled Uribe-Holguín) (17 March 1880 – 26 June 1971) was a Colombian composer and violinist and one of the most important Colombian cultural figures of his generation.

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Guitar

The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that usually has six strings.

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Gulf of Urabá

The Gulf of Urabá is a gulf on the northern coast of Colombia.

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Gustavo Petro

Gustavo Francisco Petro Urrego (Local; born April 19, 1960) is a Colombian politician, economist, and presidential candidate who previously served as mayor of Bogotá.

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Gustavo Rojas Pinilla

Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (12 March 1900 – 17 January 1975) was the 19th President of Colombia from June 1953 to May 1957.

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Haiti

Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.

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Halite

Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).

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Happy Planet Index

The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is an index of human well-being and environmental impact that was introduced by the New Economics Foundation (NEF) in July 2006.

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Harp

The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.

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Héctor Abad Gómez

Héctor Abad Gómez (1921 – August 25, 1987) was a prominent medical doctor, university professor, and human rights leader whose holistic vision of healthcare led him to found the Colombian National School of Public Health.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Health equity

Health equity refers to the study and causes of differences in the quality of health and healthcare across different populations.

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Health facility

A health facility is, in general, any location where healthcare is provided.

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Health professional

A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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High diving

High diving is the act of diving into water from relatively great heights.

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Highways in Colombia

Colombian geography presents formidable challenges to roadbuilders, needing to communicate its largest production centers deep inside the Andes with major ports in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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History of architecture

The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, regions, overarching stylistic trends, and dates.

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History of the Jews in Colombia

The History of the Jews in Colombia begins in the Spanish colonial period with the arrival of the first Jews during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

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Hogao

Hogao is a variant of Spanish sofrito and is typically used in Central American cuisine and Colombian cuisine.

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Honduras

Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.

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Hot chocolate

Hot chocolate, also known as Chocolate tea, drinking chocolate or just cocoa is a heated beverage consisting of shaved chocolate, melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk or water, and usually a sweetener.

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House of Representatives (Colombia)

The House of Representatives (Spanish: Cámara de Representantes) is the lower house of the Congress of Colombia.

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Huila Department

Huila is one of the departments of Colombia.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Human rights activists

Human rights defenders or human rights activists are people who, individually or with others, act to promote or protect human rights.

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Humanitarian aid

Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help.

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Humidity

Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.

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Hunter-gatherer

A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.

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Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.

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Hypogeum

Hypogeum or hypogaeum (plural hypogea or hypogaea which is commonly seen) literally means "underground", from Greek hypo (under) and gaia (mother earth or goddess of earth).

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Ibagué

Ibagué is the capital of Tolima, one of the 32 departments that make up the Republic of Colombia.

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Iberian ship development, 1400–1600

Iberian kingdoms made major contributions to maritime innovation in the Age of Discovery.

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ICFES Examination

The ICFES exam, currently Saber 11, is a standardized test similar to the SAT in the United States.

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Ignacio Gómez Jaramillo

Ignacio Gomez Jaramillo (Medellín, 30 December 1910 - Coveñas, 12 July 1970) was a Colombian painter, drawer, and muralist.

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Inírida, Guainía

Inírida, formerly Puerto Inírida, is the capital city, and a municipality, of the department of Guainía in Colombia.

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Inca Empire

The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.

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Inca road system

The Inca road system was the most extensive and advanced transportation system in pre-Columbian South America.

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Index of Colombia-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Republic of Colombia.

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Indian auxiliaries

Indian auxiliaries or indios auxiliares is the term used in old Spanish chronicles and historical texts for the indigenous peoples who were integrated into the armies of the Spanish conquistadors with the purpose of supporting their advance and combat operations during the Conquest of America.

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Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989

The Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 is an International Labour Organization Convention, also known as ILO-convention 169, or C169.

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Indigenous architecture

The recent field of Indigenous Architecture refers to the study and practice of architecture of, for and by Indigenous people.

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Indigenous languages of the Americas

Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.

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Indigenous peoples in Colombia

Indigenous peoples of Colombia, or Native Colombians, are the ethnic groups who have been in Colombia prior to the Europeans in the early 16th century.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Inflation

In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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Inline speed skating

Inline speed skating is the roller sport of racing on inline skates, or as they are commonly called, rollerblades.

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Insular region of Colombia

The insular region of Colombia includes the oceanic islands outside the continental territories.

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Internally displaced person

An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International humanitarian law

International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International Society for Krishna Consciousness

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu religious organisation.

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International Style (architecture)

The International Style is the name of a major architectural style that developed in the 1920s and 1930s and strongly related to Modernism and Modern architecture.

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Invertebrate

Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islamic architecture

Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.

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Italian Colombian

Italian Colombians (Italo-colombiano, Italo-colombiano) are Colombian citizens of Italian descent.

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Iván Duque Márquez

Iván Duque Márquez (born August 1, 1976) is a lawyer and politician who is the President-elect of the Republic of Colombia, having formerly served as a senator.

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Jamaica

Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.

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Jamaicans

Jamaicans are the citizens of Jamaica and their descendants in the Jamaican diaspora.

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Japanese Colombians

Japanese Colombians (Japonés Colombiano, 日系コロンビア人 Nikkei Koronbiajin) are Colombians of Japanese ancestry which includes Japanese immigrants and descendants born in Colombia.

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Japurá River

The Japurá River or Caquetá River is a river about long in the Amazon basin.

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Javier de Nicoló

Javier de Nicoló, (29 April 1928 – 22 March 2016) or Saverio (Javier) de Nicolò was an Italian-born Colombian salesian priest who developed a program that has offered more than 40,000 young people the education and moral support they needed to become productive citizens.

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Jean-Baptiste Louis Gros

Jean-Baptiste-Louis Gros (1793–1870), also known as Baron Gros, was a French diplomat and later senator, as well as a notable pioneer of photography.

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Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.

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Joint replacement

Replacement arthroplasty (from Greek arthron, joint, limb, articulate, + plassein, to form, mould, forge, feign, make an image of), or joint replacement surgery, is a procedure of orthopedic surgery in which an arthritic or dysfunctional joint surface is replaced with an orthopedic prosthesis.

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Jorge Eliécer Gaitán

Jorge Eliécer Gaitán Ayala (January 23, 1903 – April 9, 1948) was a politician, a leader of a populist movement in Colombia, a former Education Minister (1940) and Labor Minister (1943–1944), mayor of Bogotá (1936) and one of the most charismatic leaders of the Liberal Party.

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Jorge Isaacs

Jorge Isaacs Ferrer (April 1, 1837 – April 17, 1895) was a Colombian writer, politician and soldier.

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Jorge Reynolds Pombo

Jorge Reynolds Pombo is an electrical and bio- engineer born in Colombia (June 22, 1936, Bogota), self-styled as the inventor in 1958 of the first external artificial pacemaker with internal electrodes.

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Jorge Tadeo Lozano

Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Viscount of Pastrana (January 30, 1771 – July 6, 1816) was a Neogranadine (now Colombian) scientist, journalist, and politician who presided over the Constituent College of Cundinamarca and was elected President of Cundinamarca in 1811.

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Joropo

The Joropo or Música llanera is a musical style resembling the fandango, and an accompanying dance.

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José Asunción Silva

José Asunción Silva (27 November 1865 in Bogotá – 23 May 1896 in Bogotá) was a Colombian poet.

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José Celestino Mutis

José Celestino Mutis (6 April 1732 – 11 September 1808) was a Spanish priest, botanist and mathematician.

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José Eustasio Rivera

José Eustasio Rivera Salas (February 19, 1888 - December 1, 1928) was a Colombian lawyer and poet primarily known for his national epic The Vortex.

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José Fernández Madrid

José Luis Álvaro Alvino Fernández Madrid (February 19, 1789 – June 28, 1830) was a Neogranadine statesman, physician, scientist and writer, who was President of the interim triumvirate of the United Provinces of New Granada in 1814, and President of the United Provinces of the New Granada in 1816.

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José María Vargas Vila

José María de la Concepción Apolinar Vargas Vila Bonilla (June 23, 1860 – May 23, 1933), commonly referred to as José María Vargas Vila, was a Colombian writer and public intellectual.

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Juan de Castellanos

Juan de Castellanos (Alanís, Sevilla, Spain, March 9, 1522 - Tunja, Boyacá, New Kingdom of Granada, November 1606) - Boyacá Cultural was a Criollo poet, soldier and Catholic priest.

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Juan José de Sámano y Uribarri

Juan José Francisco de Sámano y Uribarri de Rebollar y Mazorra (1753 in Selaya, Cantabria – July 1821 in Panama), was a Spanish military officer and viceroy of New Granada from 1818 to 1819, during the war of independence.

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Juan Manuel Santos

Juan Manuel Santos Calderón (born 10 August 1951) is a Colombian politician and the President of Colombia, in office since 2010.

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Juan Pablo Montoya

Juan Pablo Montoya Roldán (born September 20, 1975) is a Colombian racing driver.

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Juan Rodríguez Freyle

Juan Rodríguez Freyle, also written as Freile, (Bogotá, New Kingdom of Granada, 25 April 1566 - Bogotá, 1642) was an early writer in the New Kingdom of Granada, the Spanish colonial territory of what today is Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Venezuela.

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Juanes

Juanes at the Zelt Musik Festival 2015 in Freiburg, Germany Juanes at the Zelt Musik Festival 2015 in Freiburg, Germany Juan Esteban Aristizábal Vásquez (born August 9, 1972), known professionally as Juanes, is a Colombian musician who was a member of the rock band Ekhymosis and is now a solo artist.

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Judaism

Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Judiciary of Colombia

The judiciary of Colombia (Rama Judicial de Colombia) is a branch of the State of Colombia that interprets and applies the laws of Colombia, to ensure equal justice under law, and to provide a mechanism for dispute resolution.

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Judo

was created as a physical, mental and moral pedagogy in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano (嘉納治五郎).

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Juice

Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables.

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Jungle

A jungle is land covered with dense vegetation dominated by trees.

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Junta (Spanish American Independence)

Junta during Spanish American independence was the type of government formed as a patriotic alternative to the Spanish colonial government during the first phase of Spanish American wars of independence (1808–1810).

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Justice

Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered.

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Kibbeh

Kibbeh (كبة.), (also spelled and pronounced kibbe, kebbah, kubbeh, kubbah or kubbi depending on region, and known in Egypt as kobeiba and in Turkey as içli köfte) is a Levantine dish made of bulgur, minced onions, and finely ground lean beef, lamb, goat, or camel meat with Middle Eastern spices (cinnamon, nutmeg, clove, allspice).

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Korean War

The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).

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La Guajira Department

La Guajira is a department of Colombia.

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La Guajira Desert

La Guajira Desert is located in the northernmost part of Colombia, north of Bogota, in the La Guajira Department, covering most of La Guajira Peninsula including Venezuelan territory.

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La Violencia

La Violencia (The Violence) was a ten-year civil war in Colombia from 1948 to 1958, between the Colombian Conservative Party and the Colombian Liberal Party, fought mainly in the countryside.

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Labour economics

Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.

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Languages of Colombia

More than 99.2% of Colombians speak the Colombian language; also 65 Amerindian languages, 2 Creole languages and the Romani language are spoken in the country.

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LASIK

LASIK or Lasik (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis), commonly referred to as laser eye surgery or laser vision correction, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.

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Latin American Boom

The Latin American Boom (Boom Latinoamericano) was a literary movement of the 1960s and 1970s when the work of a group of relatively young Latin American novelists became widely circulated in Europe and throughout the world.

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Latin American culture

Latin American culture is the formal or informal expression of the people of Latin America and includes both high culture (literature and high art) and popular culture (music, folk art, and dance) as well as religion and other customary practices.

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Laureano Gómez

Laureano Eleuterio Gómez Castro (20 February 1889 – 13 July 1965) was the 18th President of Colombia from 1950 to 1953.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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León de Greiff

Francisco de Asís León Bogislao de Greiff Haeusler (July 22, 1895 – July 11, 1976), was a Colombian poet known for his stylistic innovations and deliberately eclectic use of obscure lexicon.

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Lebanese Colombians

Lebanese Colombians are Colombians of Lebanese descent.

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Lechona

Lechona and/or also known as lechon asado is a popular Colombian dish.

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Legume

A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).

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Leticia Incident

The Leticia Incident, also called the Leticia War or the Colombia–Peru War (1 September 1932 – 24 May 1933), was a short-lived armed conflict between Colombia and Peru over territory in the Amazon rainforest.

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Leticia, Amazonas

Leticia is the southernmost city in the Republic of Colombia, capital of the department of Amazonas, Colombia's southernmost town (4.09° south 69.57° west) and one of the major ports on the Amazon river.

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Library of Congress Country Studies

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Lima

Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.

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List of airports in Colombia

This is a list of airports in Colombia, grouped by type and sorted by location.

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List of architectural styles

An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable and historically identifiable.

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List of birds of Colombia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Colombia.

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List of butterflies of Colombia

This is a list of butterflies of Colombia.

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List of Colombian Department Governors

This is a list of Governors of Departments of Colombia.

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List of conquistadors in Colombia

This is a list of conquistadors who were active in the conquest of terrains that presently belong to Colombia.

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List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.

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List of countries by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).

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List of countries by real GDP growth rate

This article includes a list of countries and dependent territories sorted by their real gross domestic product growth rate; the rate of growth of the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.

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List of ethnic groups of Africa

The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.

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List of mammals of Colombia

This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Colombia.

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List of pre-Columbian cultures

This list of pre-Columbian cultures includes those civilizations and cultures of the Americas which flourished prior to the European colonization of the Americas.

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List of reptiles of Colombia

Colombia is the sixth richest country in the world for reptiles, and third richest in the Western Hemisphere.

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Los Llanos (South America)

Los Llanos ("The Plains") is a vast tropical grassland plain situated to the east of the Andes in Colombia and Venezuela, in northwestern South America.

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Low intensity conflict

A low-intensity conflict (LIC) is a military conflict, usually localised, between two or more state or non-state groups which is below the intensity of conventional war.

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Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita

Lucas Fernández de Piedrahita (1624, Bogotá – March 29, 1688) was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as the Bishop of Panamá (1676–1688) and the Bishop of Santa Marta (1668–1676).

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Lulada

Lulada is a traditional beverage from the Valle del Cauca Department of Colombia.

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Magdalena Department

Magdalena is a department of Colombia, located to the north of the country by the Caribbean Sea.

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Magdalena River

The Magdalena River (Río Magdalena,; Less commonly Rio Grande de la Magdalena) is the principal river of Colombia, flowing northward about through the western half of the country.

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Major League Baseball

Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.

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Malaria

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.

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Mandolin

A mandolin (mandolino; literally "small mandola") is a stringed musical instrument in the lute family and is usually plucked with a plectrum or "pick".

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Mango

Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.

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Manizales

Manizales is a city and municipality in central Colombia.

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Manjar blanco

Manjar blanco, also known as manjar de leche or simply manjar, is a term used to refer to a variety of related delicacies in the Spanish-speaking world all milk-based.

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Manuel Mejía Vallejo

Manuel Mejía Vallejo (23 April 1923 – 23 July 1998) was a Colombian writer and journalist.

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Map

A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes.

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Mapalé

The Mapalé is an Afro-Colombian style of dance that was brought over by the slaves, and representing the fishermen after a long day of work.

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Marañón River

The Marañón River (Río Marañón) is the principal or mainstem source of the Amazon River, arising about 160 km to the northeast of Lima, Peru, and flowing through a deeply eroded Andean valley in a northwesterly direction, along the eastern base of the Cordillera of the Andes, as far as 5° 36′ southern latitude; from where it makes a great bend to the northeast, and cuts through the jungle Andes, until at the Pongo de Manseriche it flows into the flat Amazon basin.

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Maraca

Maraca, sometimes called rumba shaker, shac-shac, and various other names, is a rattle which appears in many genres of Caribbean and Latin music.

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Maria Luisa cake

Torta Maria Luisa is a dessert in Colombian and Salvadoran cuisine.

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Marimba

The marimba is a percussion instrument consisting of a set of wooden bars struck with mallets called knobs to produce musical tones.

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Market economy

A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.

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Medellín

Medellín, officially the Municipality of Medellín (Municipio de Medellín), is the second-largest city in Colombia and the capital of the department of Antioquia.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Medical tourism

Medical tourism refers to people traveling to a country other than their own to obtain medical treatment.

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Medication

A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Megadiverse countries

The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbour the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species.

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Megalith

A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.

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Mento

Mento is a style of Jamaican folk music that predates and has greatly influenced ska and reggae music.

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Mercado Integrado Latinoamericano

The Mercado Integrado Latinoamericano, more commonly known as MILA, is a program that integrates the stock exchange markets of Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru.

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Mercenary

A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.

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Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Mestizo Colombians

Mestizo Colombians technically refers to Colombians who are of mixed white (mostly Spanish) and American-Indian ancestry.

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Meta Department

Meta is a department of Colombia.

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Meta River

The Meta River is a major left tributary of the Orinoco River in eastern Colombia and southern Venezuela, South America.

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Metropolitan areas of Colombia

Metropolitan Areas in Colombia are officially designated administrative and census areas, composed of an urban center and its associated Municipalities.

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Mexico City

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

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Microkeratome

A microkeratome is a precision surgical instrument with an oscillating blade designed for creating the corneal flap in LASIK or ALK surgery.

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Middle power

In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.

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Miguel de Cervantes Prize

The Miguel de Cervantes Prize (Premio de Literatura en Lengua Castellana Miguel de Cervantes) is awarded annually to honour the lifetime achievement of an outstanding writer in the Spanish language.

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Milhoja

Milhojas ("thousand leaves") are a dessert made with stacked layers of puff pastry.

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Military career of Simón Bolívar

The military and political career of Simón Bolívar, (July 24, 1783 – December 17, 1830), which included both formal service in the armies of various revolutionary regimes and actions organized by himself or in collaboration with other exiled patriot leaders during the years from 1811 to 1830, was an important element in the success of the independence wars in South America.

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Military Forces of Colombia

The Military Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Militares de Colombia) are the unified armed forces of the Republic of Colombia.

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Military robot

Military robots are autonomous robots or remote-controlled mobile robots designed for military applications, from transport to search & rescue and attack.

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Ministry of Culture (Colombia)

The Ministry of Culture (Ministerio de Cultura; short name MinCultura) is the national executive ministry of the Government of Colombia charged with preserving, promoting, and encouraging the growth, free expression and understanding of the culture of Colombia in all its multi-ethnic forms.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Colombia)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores) also known as the Chancellery, is the Cabinet position of the Government of Colombia responsible for the international relations of Colombia through its diplomatic missions abroad by formulating foreign policy relevant to the matters of the State.

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Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications (Colombia)

Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications (Ministerio de Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones), is the national executive ministry of the Government of Colombia responsible for overseeing the information and communication technologies, telecommunications and broadcasting industries in Colombia.

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Ministry of National Defense (Colombia)

The Ministry of National Defence (Ministerio de Defensa Nacional) is the national executive ministry of the Government of Colombia charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the armed forces of Colombia, similar to the defense ministries in other countries.

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Ministry of Transport (Colombia)

The Ministry of Transport (Ministerio de Transporte) is the national executive ministry of the Government of Colombia responsible for regulating transportation in Colombia.

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Mitú

Mitú is the capital city of the department of Vaupés in Colombia.

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Mocoa

Mocoa is a municipality and capital city of the department of Putumayo in Colombia.

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Modernismo

Modernismo is a literary movement that primarily took place during the end of Nineteenth- and early Twentieth-century in Spanish-America, best exemplified by Rubén Darío.

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Mollusca

Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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Monarchy of Spain

The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.

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Monolith

A monolith is a geological feature consisting of a single massive stone or rock, such as some mountains, or a single large piece of rock placed as, or within, a monument or building.

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Montería

Montería is a municipality and city located in northern Colombia and is the capital of the Department of Córdoba.

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Monument

A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance.

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Mormonism

Mormonism is the predominant religious tradition of the Latter Day Saint movement of Restorationist Christianity started by Joseph Smith in Western New York in the 1820s and 30s.

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Motorsport

Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which primarily involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition.

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Mountain papaya

The mountain papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) also known as mountain pawpaw, papayuelo, chamburo, or simply "papaya" is a species of the genus Vasconcellea, native to the Andes of northwestern South America from Colombia south to central Chile, typically growing at altitudes of m. It has also been known as Carica pubescens.

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Muisca

The Muisca are an indigenous group of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia, that formed the Muisca Confederation before the Spanish conquest.

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Muisca Confederation

The Muisca Confederation was a loose confederation of different Muisca rulers (zaques, zipas, iraca and tundama) in the central Andean highlands of present-day Colombia before the Spanish conquest of northern South America.

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Mulatto

Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.

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Municipalities of Colombia

The Municipalities of Colombia are decentralized subdivisions of the Republic of Colombia.

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Music of Colombia

The music of Colombia is an expression of Colombian culture, which contains diverse music genres, both traditional and modern, according with the features of each geographic region, although it is not uncommon to find different musical styles in the same region.

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Mysticism

Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.

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Nadaism

Nadaism (Nadaísmo, meaning "Nothing-ism" in English) was an artistic and philosophical counterculture movement in Colombia prevalent from 1958 to 1964.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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Nariño Department

Nariño is a department of Colombia named after independence leader Antonio Nariño.

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National Administrative Department of Statistics (Colombia)

The National Administrative Department of Statistics (Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística), commonly referred to as DANE, is the Colombian Administrative Department responsible for the planning, compilation, analysis and dissemination of the official statistics of Colombia.

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National Anthem of Colombia

The "National Anthem of the Republic of Colombia" (Himno Nacional de la República de Colombia) is the official name of the national anthem of Colombia.

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National Army of Colombia

The National Army of Colombia (Ejército Nacional de Colombia) is the land military force of Colombia and the largest and oldest service branch of the Military Forces of Colombia.

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National Front (Colombia)

National Front (Frente Nacional 1958–1974) was a period in the history of Colombia in which the two main political parties, the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party, agreed to rotate power, intercalating for a period of four presidential terms.

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National Indigenous Organization of Colombia

The National Indigenous Organization of Colombia (Organización Nacional Indígena de Colombia or ONIC) is an organization representing the indigenous peoples of Colombia, who comprise some 800,000 people or approximately 2% of the population.

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National Infrastructure Agency (Colombia)

The National Infrastructure Agency (Agencia Nacional de Infraestructura) ANI, is a Colombian government agency, part of the Ministry of Transport, in charge of concessions through public–private partnerships, for the design, construction, maintenance, operation, and administration of the transport infrastructure in Colombia.

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National Intelligence Directorate (Colombia)

The National Intelligence Directorate (Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia; DNI) is the main Intelligence Agency of Colombia.

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National Liberation Army (Colombia)

The National Liberation Army (Spanish: Ejército de Liberación Nacional, ELN) is an armed group involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict, Official Journal of the European Union.

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National Police of Colombia

The National Police of Colombia (Spanish: Policía Nacional de Colombia) is the national police force of Colombia.

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National Roads Institute (Colombia)

The National Roads Institute (INVÍAS) is an agency of the Executive Branch of the Government of Colombia in charge of allocating, regulating and supervising contracts for highway and roads construction and maintenance.

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National Service of Learning (Colombia)

The National Vocational Training Agency (Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje) (SENA) is a Colombian public institution aimed to develop vocational training programs for the Colombian labor force as a means to increase the competitiveness of Colombia's enterprises.

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National symbols of Colombia

The National symbols of Colombia are the symbols which represent the national identity of the Republic of Colombia as a sovereign state.

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National Symphony Orchestra of Colombia

The National Symphony Orchestra of Colombia (Orquesta Sinfónica Nacional de Colombia) was founded in 2003 following the dissolution of the Colombia Symphony Orchestra (Orquesta Sinfónica de Colombia) in December 2002.

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National University of Colombia

The Universidad Nacional de Colombia (National University of Colombia) is a public, national, coeducational, research university, located primarily in Bogotá, Medellín, Manizales and Palmira, Colombia.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Natural regions of Colombia

Because of its natural structure, Colombia can be divided into six very distinct natural regions.

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Navigation

Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.

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Necropolis

A necropolis (pl. necropoleis) is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.

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Neiva, Huila

Neiva is the capital of the Department of Huila.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.

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Neoplasm

Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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Neurology

Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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New Kingdom of Granada

The New Kingdom of Granada (Nuevo Reino de Granada), or Kingdom of the New Granada, was the name given to a group of 16th-century Spanish colonial provinces in northern South America governed by the president of the Audiencia of Santa Fe, an area corresponding mainly to modern-day Colombia, Panama and Venezuela.

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New Spain

The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

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Nicaragua

Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Nihilism

Nihilism is the philosophical viewpoint that suggests the denial or lack of belief towards the reputedly meaningful aspects of life.

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Nikolaus Federmann

Nikolaus Federmann (Nicolás de Federmán) (c. 1505, Ulm – February 1542, Valladolid) was a German adventurer and conquistador in the colonies of Venezuela and Colombia.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

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Norte de Santander Department

Norte de Santander is a department of the nation of Colombia.

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OECD

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Olympic weightlifting

Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.

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Omar Rayo

Omar Rayo Reyes (January 20, 1928 – June 7, 2010) was a renowned Colombian painter, sculptor, caricaturist and plastic artist.

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One Hundred Years of Solitude

One Hundred Years of Solitude (Cien años de soledad) is a landmark 1967 novel by Colombian author Gabriel García Márquez that tells the multi-generational story of the Buendía family, whose patriarch, José Arcadio Buendía, founds the town of Macondo, a fictitious town in the country of Colombia.

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Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.

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Orchidaceae

The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.

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Organic food

Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming.

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Organization of American States

The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.

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Organization of Ibero-American States

The Organization of Ibero-American States (Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, usually abbreviated OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.

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Orinoco

The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at.

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Orinoquía natural region

The Orinoquía region is one of the five natural regions of Colombia that belongs to the Orinoco River watershed.

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Orlando Cabrera

Orlando Luis Cabrera, nicknamed "O-Cab" and "The OC", (born November 2, 1974) is a Colombian-American former baseball infielder.

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Ornament (art)

In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object.

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Oscar Murillo (artist)

Oscar Murillo (born 1986 in La Paila, Colombia) is a Colombian artist working within the painting tradition.

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Otorhinolaryngology

Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.

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Outline of Colombia

188px An enlargeable relief map of the Republic of Colombia The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Colombia: Colombia – tropical equatorial country located in northern South America.

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Pacific Alliance

The Pacific Alliance (Alianza del Pacífico) is a Latin American trade bloc, formed by — Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which all border the Pacific Ocean.

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Pacific coast

A country's Pacific coast is the part of its coast bordering the Pacific Ocean.

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Pacific/Chocó natural region

The Pacific/Chocó natural region is one of the five major natural regions of Colombia.

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Paez people

The Páez people, also known as the Nasa, are a Native American people who live in the southwestern highlands of Colombia, especially in the Cauca Department, but also the Caquetá Department lowlands and Tierradentro.

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Paleo-Indians

Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.

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Palestinians

The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.

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Panama

Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

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Panama Canal

The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.

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Pandebono

Pandebono or pan de bono is a type of Colombian bread made of corn flour, cassava starch, cheese, eggs and in some regions of the country they put a guava jam known as bocadillo.

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Papaya

The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.

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Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus and the causative agent of the disease paracoccidioidomycosis.

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Paradigm

In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.

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Participatory democracy

Participatory democracy emphasizes the broad participation of constituents in the direction and operation of political systems.

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Pasillo

Pasillo (hallway or aisle) is a Colombian genre of music extremely popular in the territories that composed the 19th century Viceroyalty of New Granada and Gran Colombia: Born in Gran Colombia, spread in the territory, especially Ecuador (where it is considered the national musical style), and to a lesser extent in the mountainous regions of Venezuela and Panama.

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Passiflora edulis

Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower that is native to southern Brazil through Paraguay and northern Argentina.

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Passiflora ligularis

Passiflora ligularis, commonly known as the sweet granadilla or grenadia, is a plant species in the genus Passiflora.

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Pasto, Colombia

Pasto, officially San Juan de Pasto, is the capital of the department of Nariño, in southern Colombia.

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Patriot (Spanish American independence)

Patriots (Patriotas) was the name that the people of the Spanish America who rebelled against Spanish control during the Spanish American wars of independence called themselves.

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Páramo

Páramo can refer to a variety of alpine tundra ecosystems.

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Pedro Nel Gómez

Pedro Nel Gómez Agudelo (4 July 1899 — 6 June 1984) was a Colombian engineer, painter, and sculptor, best known for his work as a muralist, and for starting, along with Santiago Martinez Delgado, the Colombian Muralist Movement, inspired by the Mexican movement that drew on nationalistic, social, and political messages as subjects.

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Pedro Simón

Fray Pedro Simón (San Lorenzo de la Parrilla, Spain, 1574 - Ubaté, Colombia, ca. 1628) was a Spanish franciscan friar, professor and chronicler of the indigenous peoples of Colombia and Venezuela, at the time forming the New Kingdom of Granada.

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Percussion instrument

A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument.

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Pereira, Colombia

Pereira is the capital city of the Colombian department of Risaralda.

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Peru

Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Peruvian corn

Choclo, also referred to as Peruvian corn or Cuzco corn (after the capital city of the Inca empire), is a large-kernel variety of field corn from the Andes.

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Peter Claver

Saint Peter Claver, S.J., (Pedro Claver y Corberó, Pere Claver i Corberó) (26 June 1580 – 8 September 1654) was a Catalan Jesuit priest and missionary born in Verdú (Catalonia) who, due to his life and work, became the patron saint of slaves, the Republic of Colombia, and ministry to African Americans.

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Physalis peruviana

Physalis peruviana, a plant species of the genus Physalis in the nightshade family Solanaceae, has its origin in present day Chile and Peru.

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Piaroa–Saliban languages

The Saliban (Salivan) languages, also known as Piaroa–Saliban or Saliba–Piaroan, are a small proposed language family of the middle Orinoco Basin, which forms an independent island within an area of Venezuela and Colombia (northern llanos) dominated by peoples of Carib and Arawakan affiliation.

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Pico Cristóbal Colón

Pico Cristóbal Colón is the highest mountain in Colombia, with an estimated height of.

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Pipeline transport

Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.

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Piracy in the Caribbean

The era of piracy in the Caribbean began in the 1500s and phased out in the 1830s after the navies of the nations of Western Europe and North America with colonies in the Caribbean began combating pirates.

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Pitaya

A pitaya or pitahaya is the fruit of several cactus species indigenous to the Americas.

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Political party

A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.

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Popayán

Popayán is the capital of the Colombian department of Cauca.

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Pope Francis

Pope Francis (Franciscus; Francesco; Francisco; born Jorge Mario Bergoglio; 17 December 1936) is the 266th and current Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State.

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Population growth

In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.

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Porfirio Barba-Jacob

Miguel Ángel Osorio Benítez (July 29, 1883 – January 14, 1942), better known by his pseudonym, Porfirio Barba-Jacob, was a Colombian poet and writer.

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Porro

The porro is a musical style and dance from the Caribbean region of Colombia.

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Portrait

A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant.

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Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.

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Preschool

A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.

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President of Colombia

The President of Colombia (Presidente de Colombia), officially known as the President of the Republic of Colombia (Presidente de la República de Colombia) is the head of state and head of government of Colombia.

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President of the Congress of Colombia

The President of the Congress of Colombia (Presidente del Congreso de la República de Colombia) is the leader of the Congress of the Republic of Colombia.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Princess of Asturias Awards

The Princess of Asturias Awards (Premios Princesa de Asturias, Premios Princesa d'Asturies), formerly the Prince of Asturias Awards from 1981–2014 (Premios Príncipe de Asturias) are a series of annual prizes awarded in Spain by the Princess of Asturias Foundation (previously the Prince of Asturias Foundation) to individuals, entities or organizations from around the world who make notable achievements in the sciences, humanities, and public affairs.

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Production (economics)

Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output).

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Provinces of the Republic of New Granada

According to the constitution of 1832, the territory of the Republic of New Granada was divided into provinces.

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Public expenditure

Public expenditure is spending made by the government of a country on collective needs and wants such as pension, provision, infrastructure, etc.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Public–private partnership

A public–private partnership (PPP, 3P or P3) is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature.

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Puerto Carreño

Puerto Carreño is the departmental capital, and a municipality, of the department of Vichada in the llanos of Colombia.

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Puerto Hormiga archaeological site

The Puerto Hormiga archaeological site is located in the Bolivar department, Colombia, in the lower Magdalena basin near the Caribbean coast.

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Purple mangosteen

The purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), known simply as mangosteen, is a tropical evergreen tree believed to have originated in the Sunda Islands of the Malay archipelago and the Moluccas of Indonesia.

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Putumayo Department

Putumayo is a department of Colombia.

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Putumayo River

The Putumayo River or Içá River (Río Putumayo, Río Içá) is one of the tributaries of the Amazon River, west of and parallel to the Japurá River.

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Quena

The quena (hispanicized spelling of Quechua qina, sometimes also written kena in English) is the traditional flute of the Andes.

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Quibdó

Quibdó is the capital city of Chocó Department, in western Colombia, on the Atrato River.

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Quimbaya civilization

The Quimbaya civilization /kɪmbaɪa/ was a South American civilization, noted for spectacular gold work characterized by technical accuracy and detailed designs.

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Quindío Department

Quindío is a department of Colombia.

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Quito

Quito (Kitu; Kitu), formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, and the one which is closest to the equator.

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Race and ethnicity in Colombia

Race and ethnicity in Colombia descends mainly from three racial groups—Amerindians, Africans, and Caucasians—that have mingled throughout the last 500 years of the country's history.

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Radio in Colombia

Radio in Colombia started in the early 1920s when a group of radio amateurs and enthusiasts brought the first receivers to the country, mostly in order to listen broadcasts from Europe and the United States.

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Rafael Pombo

"Rafael Pombo is one of the great poets of Colombia, and the best exponent of romanticism in the country".

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Rail freight transport

Rail freight transport is the use of railroads and trains to transport cargo as opposed to human passengers.

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Rail transport in Colombia

The Colombia railway network has a total length of.

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Rain

Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.

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Rastafari

Rastafari, sometimes termed Rastafarianism, is an Abrahamic religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.

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Rationalism (architecture)

In architecture, rationalism is an architectural current which mostly developed from Italy in the 1920s-1930s.

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Rómulo Gallegos Prize

The Rómulo Gallegos International Novel Prize (Premio internacional de novela Rómulo Gallegos) was created on 6 August 1964 by a presidential decree enacted by Venezuelan president Raúl Leoni, in honor of the Venezuelan politician and President Rómulo Gallegos, the author of Doña Bárbara.

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RCN Radio

RCN Radio (Radio Cadena Nacional, "National Radio Network") is one of the main radio networks in Colombia.

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RCN Televisión

RCN Televisión (Radio Cadena Nacional) is a Colombian private television network.

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Real Audiencia

The Real Audiencia, or simply Audiencia (Reial Audiència, Audiència Reial, or Audiència), was an appellate court in Spain and its empire.

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Recession

In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.

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Refractive error

Refractive error, also known as refraction error, is a problem with focusing light accurately onto the retina due to the shape of the eye.

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Regional power

In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.

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Reinforced concrete

Reinforced concrete (RC) (also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC) is a composite material in which concrete's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility.

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Religious art

Religious art or sacred art is artistic imagery using religious inspiration and motifs and is often intended to uplift the mind to the spiritual.

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Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.

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Republic

A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Republic of New Granada

The Republic of New Granada was a centralist republic consisting primarily of present-day Colombia and Panama with smaller portions of today's Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, and Brazil.

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Requinto

The term requinto is used in both Spanish and Portuguese to mean a smaller, higher-pitched version of another instrument.

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Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia

The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia—People's Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia—Ejército del Pueblo, FARC–EP and FARC) was a guerrilla movement involved in the continuing Colombian armed conflict from 1964 to 2017.

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Rhythm

Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".

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Right-wing paramilitarism in Colombia

Right-wing paramilitary groups in Colombia are paramilitary groups acting in opposition to revolutionary Marxist-Leninist guerrilla forces and their allies among the civilian population.

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Ring of Fire

The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.

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Riohacha

Riohacha, Rio Hacha or Rio de la Hacha (River of the Axe or Axeshore - Wayuu: Süchiimma, "Süchii" means river, and "mma" means land, Riverland), is a city in the Riohacha Municipality in the northern Caribbean Region of Colombia by the mouth of the Ranchería River and the Caribbean sea, capital city of the La Guajira Department.

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Risaralda Department

Risaralda is a department of Colombia.

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Rock (geology)

Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Rococo

Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.

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Rodolfo Llinás

Rodolfo R. Llinás (Bogotá, Colombia 16 December 1934) is a Colombian neuroscientist.

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Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt

Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt (October 23, 1919 in Fredonia, Antioquia - May 14, 1995) was a Colombian sculptor.

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Rodrigo de Bastidas

Rodrigo de Bastidas (Triana, Seville, Andalusia, c. 1465 – Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 28 July 1527) was a Spanish conquistador and explorer who mapped the northern coast of South America, discovered Panama, and founded the city of Santa Marta.

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Rogelio Salmona

Rogelio Salmona (April 28, 1929 – October 3, 2007) was a Colombian architect.

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Romani language

Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Romani people

The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.

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Rondador

The rondador is a set of chorded cane panpipes that produces two tones simultaneously.

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Roscón

Roscón is a sweet bread-based ring-shaped dessert filled with guava paste.

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Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada

The Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada (Expedición Botánica al Virreinato de Nueva Granada.) took place between 1783 and 1816 in the territories of New Granada, covering present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela, Peru and northern Brazil and western Guyana.

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Royalist (Spanish American independence)

The royalists were the Latin American and European supporters of the various governing bodies of the Spanish Monarchy, during the Spanish American wars of independence, which lasted from 1808 until the king's death in 1833.

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Sacred

Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.

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Saint-Domingue

Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804.

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Salesians of Don Bosco

The Salesians of Don Bosco (SDB; also known as the Salesian Society; officially named the Society of St. Francis de Sales) is a Roman Catholic Latin Rite religious institute founded in the late nineteenth century by Italian priest Saint John Bosco to help poor children during the Industrial Revolution.

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Salsa music

Salsa music is a popular dance music that initially arose in New York City during the 1960s.

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Salvador Rizo

Salvador Rizo Blanco (Santa Cruz de Mompox, Viceroyalty of New Granada, 1760 - Bogotá, Viceroyalty of New Granada, 1816) was a botanist and painter who was a person very important during the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada which classified plants and wildlife.

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San Agustín Archaeological Park

The San Agustín Archaeological Park (Spanish: Parque Arqueológico de San Agustín) is an archaeological site located near the town of San Agustín in Huila Department in Colombia.

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San Agustín, Huila

San Agustín is a town and municipality in the southern Colombian Department of Huila.

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San Andrés, San Andrés y Providencia

San Andrés is the capital city of the department of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina, in Colombia.

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San Basilio de Palenque

San Basilio de Palenque or Palenque de San Basilio is a Palenque village and corregimiento in the Municipality of Mahates, Bolivar in northern Colombia.

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San José del Guaviare

San José del Guaviare is a town and municipality in Colombia, capital of the department of Guaviare by the Guaviare River.

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Sancocho

Sancocho (from the Spanish verb sancochar, "to parboil") is a traditional soup (often considered a stew) in several Latin American cuisines.

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Sanjuanero

El Sanjuanero Tolimense, often called simply Sanjuanero, is a traditional Colombian bambuco song.

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Santa María la Antigua del Darién

Santa María la Antigua del Darién, formerly also known as Dariena, was a Spanish colonial town founded in 1510 by Vasco Núñez de Balboa, located in present-day Colombia approximately 40 miles south of Acandí, within the municipality of Unguía in the Chocó Department.

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Santa Marta

Santa Marta, officially Distrito Turístico, Cultural e Histórico de Santa Marta ("Touristic, Cultural and Historic District of Santa Marta"), is a city in Colombia.

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Santander Department

Santander is a department of Colombia.

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Santiago Martínez Delgado

Santiago Martínez Delgado (1906–1954) was a Colombian painter, sculptor, art historian and writer.

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Sarcophagus

A sarcophagus (plural, sarcophagi) is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried.

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Savanna

A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.

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School leaving qualification

A school leaving qualification is an academic qualification awarded for the completion of high school.

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School life expectancy

School life expectancy is a measure of how many years of education a child of school-entering age would receive during his or her lifetime if the school enrollment rates stay the same as of today.

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Schottische

The schottische is a partnered country dance that apparently originated in Bohemia.

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Scientist

A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.

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Señal Radio Colombia

Señal Radio Colombia is a Colombian state-owned radio network, formerly known as Radiodifusora Nacional de Colombia and Radio Nacional de Colombia.

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Sebastián de Belalcázar

Sebastián de Belalcázar (1479 or 1480, Córdoba – Cartagena, 1551) was a Spanish conquistador.

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Senate of Colombia

The Senate of the Republic of Colombia (Senado de la República de Colombia) is the upper house of the Congress of Colombia, with the lower house being the House of Representatives.

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Sense

A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

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Separation of Panama from Colombia

The separation of Panama from Colombia was formalized on 3 November 1903, with the establishment of the Republic of Panama.

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Separation of powers

The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.

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Serranía del Baudó

The Serranía del Baudó is a coastal mountain range on the Pacific coast of Colombia.

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Seven Years' War

The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.

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Shaft tomb

A shaft tomb or shaft grave is a type of deep rectangular burial structure, similar in shape to the much shallower cist grave, containing a floor of pebbles, walls of rubble masonry, and a roof constructed of wooden planks.

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Shakira

Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll (born 2 February 1977) is a Colombian singer, songwriter, and dancer.

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Shooting sports

Shooting sports is a collective group of competitive and recreational sporting activities involving proficiency tests of accuracy, precision and speed in using various types of ranged weapons, mainly referring to man-portable guns (firearms and airguns, in forms such as handguns, rifles and shotguns) and bows/crossbows.

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Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is an isolated mountain range separated from the Andes chain that runs through Colombia.

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Simón Bolívar

Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule.

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Sincelejo

Sincelejo is the capital and largest city in the Colombian department of Sucre.

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Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Small press

A small press is a publisher with annual sales below a certain level.

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Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.

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Snare drum

A snare drum or side drum is a percussion instrument that produces a sharp staccato sound when the head is struck with a drum stick, due to the use of a series of stiff wires held under tension against the lower skin.

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Society of Jesus

The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.

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Software

Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Solanum quitoense

Solanum quitoense, known as naranjilla ("little orange") in Ecuador and Panama and as lulo (from Quechua) in Colombia, is a subtropical perennial plant from northwestern South America.

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Soursop

Soursop (also graviola, custard apple, and in Latin America, guanábana) is the fruit of Annona muricata, a broadleaf, flowering, evergreen tree.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spaniards

Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.

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Spanish American wars of independence

The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.

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Spanish architecture

Spanish architecture refers to architecture carried out in any area in what is now Spain, and by Spanish architects worldwide.

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Spanish colonization of the Americas

The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.

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Spanish conquest of the Muisca

The Spanish conquest of the Muisca took place from 1537 to 1540.

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Spanish immigration to Colombia

A Spanish Colombian is a Colombian of Spanish descent.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Spanish reconquest of New Granada

The Spanish Invasion of New Granada in 1815–1816 was part of the Spanish American wars of independence in South America.

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Spatial analysis

Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.

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Special Administrative Unit of Civil Aeronautics

The Special Administrative Unit of Civil Aeronautics (Unidad Administrativa Especial de Aeronáutica Civil, also known as Aeronáutica Civil, Aerocivil or UAEAC) is a government agency of the Colombian Ministry of Transport.

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Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Sport of athletics

Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.

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Stem-cell therapy

Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.

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Steppe

In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.

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Stone and Sky (movement)

Stone and sky (Piedra y cielo) was a Colombian literary movement that appeared in 1939 and whose name is taken from the title of a 1919 poetry book published by Juan Ramón Jiménez.

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Stonemasonry

The craft of stonemasonry (or stonecraft) involves creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the earth, and is one of the oldest trades in human history.

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Subdivisions of Gran Colombia

The subdivisions of Republic of Gran Colombia, a former independent country in northern South America.

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Sucre Department

Sucre is a department in the Caribbean Region of Colombia.

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Suero

Suero, also referred to as suero costeño or suero atollabuey, is a fermented milk based condiment from Colombia's Caribbean coastal region.

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Sugarcane

Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.

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Superintendency of Ports and Transport (Colombia)

The Superintendency of Ports and Transport (Supertransporte) is a government agency of the Executive Branch of the Government of Colombia that serves as the port authority of the nation in charge of securing and inspecting the ports and harbours of the nation.

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Superior Council of Judicature

Superior Council of Judicature (Consejo Superior de la Judicatura) is Colombian institution part of the judicial branch of Colombia in charge of adopting a yearly report which is presented to the Congress of Colombia with a detailed report on justice handling in Colombia.

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Supreme Court of Justice of Colombia

The Supreme Court of Colombia (Corte Suprema de Justicia de Colombia) in Bogotá is the highest judicial body in civil and penal matters and issues of criminal and civil procedure in Colombia.

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Sustainable Development Goals

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a good collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015.

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Symbolism (arts)

Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.

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Synthetic substance

A synthetic substance or synthetic compound refers to a substance that is man-made by synthesis, rather than being produced by nature.

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Synthetic vaccine

A synthetic vaccine is a vaccine consisting mainly of synthetic peptides, carbohydrates, or antigens.

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Taekwondo

Taekwondo (from Korean 태권도, 跆拳道) is a Korean martial art, characterised by its emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking techniques.

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Tairona

Tairona was a group of chiefdoms in the region of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in present-day Cesar, Magdalena and La Guajira Departments of Colombia, South America, which goes back at least to the 1st century CE and had significant demographic growth around the 11th century.

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Tamale

A tamale (tamal, tamalli) is a traditional Mesoamerican dish made of masa or dough (starchy, and usually corn-based), which is steamed in a corn husk or banana leaf.

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Teatro de Cristóbal Colón

Facade of the ''Teatro de Cristobal Colón'' Bogotá D.C. Frescoes of six muses on the ceiling of the main hall The Teatro de Cristóbal Colón (The Christopher Columbus Theatre), also known as the "Teatro Colón", is located in Bogotá, Colombia and it is the nation's National Theatre.

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Tejo (sport)

Tejo, also known, to a lesser degree, as turmeque, is a traditional throwing sport in Colombia.

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Telephone numbers in Colombia

Colombia has various telephone dial plans, depending on the type of service.

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Television in Colombia

Television in Colombia or Colombian television (Televisión de Colombia) is a media of Colombia.

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Tequendama

Tequendama is a preceramic and ceramic archaeological site located southeast of Soacha, Cundinamarca, Colombia, a couple of kilometers east of Tequendama Falls.

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Ternera a la llanera

Ternera a la llanera (or mamona) is a style of barbecue traditional to Colombia cuisine of the Los Llanos (South America) region of grasslands.

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Terrace (agriculture)

In agriculture, a terrace is a piece of sloped plane that has been cut into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming.

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Textile

A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).

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Theater of Colombia

Theater was introduced in Colombia during the Spanish colonization in 1550 through zarzuela companies.

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Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.

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Thomson–Urrutia Treaty

The Thomson–Urrutia Treaty was signed on April 20, 1921 between the United States and Colombia.

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Thousand Days' War

The Thousand Days' War (1899–1902) (Guerra de los Mil Días), was a civil armed conflict in the Republic of Colombia (including its then Department of Panama), between the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party and radical factions.

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Tibitó

Tibitó is the second-oldest dated archaeological site on the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Colombia.

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Tierra caliente

Tierra caliente is an informal term used in Latin America to refer to places with a distinctly tropical climate.

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Tierra fría

In Latin America, tierra fría (Spanish for cold land) are mountain locations where high elevation results in a markedly cooler climate than that encountered in the lowlands at a comparable latitude.

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Tierra helada

Tierra Helada (Spanish for "frozen land"), also known as Tierra Nevada (Spanish for "snowy land"), is a term used in Latin America to refer to the highest places found within the Andes mountains.

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Tierra templada

Tierra templada (Spanish for temperate land) is a pseudoclimatological term used in Latin America to refer to places which are either located in the tropics at a moderately high elevation or are marginally outside the astronomical tropics, producing a somewhat cooler overall climate than that found in the tropical lowlands, the zone of which is known as the tierra caliente.

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Tierradentro

Tierradentro is a National archeological park in the jurisdiction of the municipality of Inza, Department of Cauca, Colombia.

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Time in Colombia

Colombia has one time zone, Colombia Time (COT), which is located in the UTC−05:00 zone, 5 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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Todelar

Todelar is a system of radio stations that covers all of Colombia, founded in 1953 by Bernardo Tobón de la Roche.

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Tolima Department

Tolima is one of the 32 departments of Colombia, located in the Andean region, in the center-west of the country.

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Tomás Carrasquilla

Tomás Carrasquilla Naranjo (1858 – 1940) was a Colombian writer who lived in the Antioquia region.

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Topology

In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

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Torta

Torta is a Spanish, Italian, Greek, Bulgarian, Hungarian, Portuguese, Croatian, Swedish, Serbian, Macedonian and also Slovak word with a wide array of culinary meanings, such as a cake, or flatbread.

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Torta de nata

Torta de nata is a traditional Colombian cuisine dessert.

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Tostones

Tostones (from the Spanish verb tostar which means "to toast") are twice-fried plantain slices.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Tourism in Colombia

The contribution of travel and tourism to GDP was USD5,880.3bn (2.0% of total GDP) in 2016.

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Town square

A town square is an open public space commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings.

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Tropical rainforest

Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.

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Tropics

The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Tucanoan languages

Tucanoan (also Tukanoan, Tukánoan) is a language family of Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.

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Tunja

Tunja is a city on the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes, in the region known as the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, 130 km northeast of Bogotá.

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UCI BMX World Championships

UCI BMX World Championships are the world championships for BMX racing (bicycle motorcross) held under the regulations of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the sport's international governing body.

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Unemployment

Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists

UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.

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Union of South American Nations

The Union of South American Nations (USAN; Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN; and sometimes referred to as the South American Union) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising twelve South American countries.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Provinces of New Granada

The United Provinces of New Granada was a country in South America from 1811 to 1816, a period known in Colombian history as the Patria Boba.

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United Self-Defense Forces of Colombia

The United Self-Defenders of Colombia (Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia, or AUC, in Spanish) was a Colombian paramilitary and drug trafficking group which was an active belligerent in the Colombian armed conflict during the period from 1997 to 2006.

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United States involvement in regime change in Latin America

The US involvement in regime change in Latin America was most prominent during the Cold War, in part due to the Truman Doctrine of fighting Communism, although some precedents exists especially during the early 20th century.

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United States of Colombia

The United States of Colombia was the name adopted in 1861 by the Rionegro Constitution for the Granadine Confederation, after years of civil war.

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Urban park

An urban park or metropolitan park, also known as a municipal park (North America) or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens (UK), is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality.

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Urbanization

Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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Valle del Cauca Department

Valle del Cauca, or Cauca Valley is a department of Colombia.

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Valledupar

Valledupar is a city and municipality in northeastern Colombia.

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Vallenato

Vallenato, along with cumbia, is a popular folk music of Colombia.

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Vasco Núñez de Balboa

Vasco Núñez de Balboa (c. 1475around January 12–21, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador.

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Vaupés Department

Vaupés is a department of Colombia in the jungle covered Amazonas Region.

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Venezuela

Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Venezuelans

Venezuelan people are people identified with Venezuela.

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Vice President of Colombia

The Vice President of Colombia is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of Colombia upon leave of absence or death, resignation, or removal of the President, as designated by the Colombian Constitution of 1991 which also reinstated the vice president figure after almost a century of being abolished during the presidency of Rafael Núñez.

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Viceroyalty

A viceroyalty is an entity headed by a viceroy.

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Viceroyalty of New Granada

The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Virreinato de la Nueva Granada) was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela.

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Viceroyalty of Peru

The Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.

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Vichada Department

Vichada Department (Departamento del Vichada) is a department of the Republic of Colombia in South America.

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Villavicencio

Villavicencio is a city and municipality in Colombia.

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Virus

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Volcano

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

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Volume

Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

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Waltz

The waltz is a ballroom and folk dance, normally in time, performed primarily in closed position.

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War of Jenkins' Ear

The War of Jenkins' Ear (known as Guerra del Asiento in Spain) was a conflict between Britain and Spain lasting from 1739 to 1748, with major operations largely ended by 1742.

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Washtub bass

The washtub bass, or gutbucket, is a stringed instrument used in American folk music that uses a metal washtub as a resonator.

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Wayuu people

Wayuu (also Wayu, Wayúu, Guajiro, Wahiro) is a Native American ethnic group of the Guajira Peninsula in northernmost part of Colombia and northwest Venezuela.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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West Indies

The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.

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White Colombians

White Colombians are the Colombian descendants of European (overwhelmingly Spanish) and Middle Eastern (primarily Lebanese and Syrian) people, who self identify as such.

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William Ospina

William Ospina (2 March 1954) is a Colombian poet, essayist and novelist.

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Wind

Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Series

The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball (MLB) in North America, contested since 1903 between the American League (AL) champion team and the National League (NL) champion team.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wrestling

Wrestling is a combat sport involving grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds.

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Yopal

Yopal is a municipality and capital city of the department of Casanare in Colombia.

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Zarzuela

Zarzuela is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes, the latter incorporating operatic and popular song, as well as dance.

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Zenú

The Zenú or Sinú is an Amerindian tribe in Colombia, whose ancestral territory comprises the valleys of the Sinu and San Jorge rivers as well as the coast of the Caribbean around the Gulf of Morrosquillo.

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Zoomorphism

The word zoomorphism derives from the Greek ζωον (zōon), meaning "animal", and μορφη (morphē), meaning "shape" or "form".

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.co

.co is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) assigned to Colombia. It is administered by.CO Internet S.A.S.. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority. Retrieved February 6, 2011., there were no registration restrictions on second-level.co domains; any individual or entity in the world can register a.co domain..CO Internet S.A.S from Bogotá, Colombia, was appointed as the manager for the.co TLD through a public procurement process that took place in early 2009..CO Internet received the re-delegation approval as the manager of the.co TLD by ICANN on December 9, 2009, and received formal confirmation of the request by the United States Department of Commerce on December 23, 2009.

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12th parallel north

The 12th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 12 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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1997 World Series

The 1997 World Series, the 93rd edition of Major League Baseball's championship series, began on October 18 and ended on October 26 (after midnight October 27).

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19th of April Movement

The 19th of April Movement (in Spanish: Movimiento 19 de Abril) or M-19, was a Colombian guerrilla movement.

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2001 Copa América

The 2001 Copa América was held in Colombia, from 11 to 29 July.

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2010 Colombia–Venezuela diplomatic crisis

The 2010 Colombia–Venezuela diplomatic crisis was a diplomatic stand-off between Colombia and Venezuela over allegations in July by Colombian President Álvaro Uribe that the Venezuelan government was actively permitting the FARC and ELN guerrillas to seek safe haven in its territory.

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2010 World Series

The 2010 World Series was the championship series of Major League Baseball's (MLB) 2010 season.

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2016 Nobel Peace Prize

The 2016 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the President of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos "for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220,000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people." The conflict is the longest running war, and last remaining guerrilla struggle, in the Americas.

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4th parallel south

The 4th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 4 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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67th meridian west

The meridian 67° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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79th meridian west

The meridian 79° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, Central America, South America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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Redirects here:

Agrado, Colombiá, El Agrado, Etymology of Colombia, ISO 3166-1:CO, Name of Colombia, Republic of Colombia, Republic of Columbia, Republica de Colombia, República de Colombia, The Republic of Colombia.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colombia

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