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Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple. [1]

167 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Achromatopsia, Additive color, Afterimage, Albert Henry Munsell, Alternative medicine, American English, Aristotle, Art, Azure (color), Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution, Bird, Black, Black and white, Blue, Brent Berlin, Brightness, Brown, Bumblebee, Chemiluminescence, Chromaticity, Chromophore, Chromotherapy, CIE 1931 color space, CIECAM02, CMYK color model, Color (disambiguation), Color analysis (art), Color blindness, Color constancy, Color management, Color mapping, Color printing, Color psychology, Color scheme, Color space, Color symbolism, Color theory, Color vision, Color wheel, Colorful (disambiguation), Colorfulness, Colorimetry, Complementary colors, Cone cell, Cyan, Dichromatism, Diffraction grating, Dominant wavelength, Edwin H. Land, ..., Electromagnetic radiation, Electron microscope, English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Ewald Hering, Fish, Fluorescence, Frequency, Fruit, Functional neuroimaging, Gamut, Gloss (optics), Grapheme-color synesthesia, Green, Grey, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hertz, Honey bee, Hue, Human, Human eye, ICC profile, Ideasthesia, Impossible color, Incandescence, Indigo, Indigo dye, Infrared, International Color Consortium, International Colour Association, International Commission on Illumination, Iridescence, Isaac Newton, Italian language, James Clerk Maxwell, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kruithof curve, Language, Lateral geniculate nucleus, Latin, Light, Light-emitting diode, Lightness, List of colors (compact), List of light sources, Lists of colors, Luminous intensity, Magenta, Mantis shrimp, Marsupial, Metamerism (color), MIT Press, Nacre, Nanometre, National colours, Off Book, Olive (color), Opacity (optics), Opal, Opponent process, Opponent-process theory, Orange (colour), Orange (fruit), Papilio, Paul Kay, Peafowl, Pearlescent coating, Pentachromacy, Phosphorescence, Photon energy, Photonics, Photoreceptor cell, Physics, Pink, Primary color, Principle of univariance, Purple, Qualia, Rainbow, Red, Reflection (physics), Refractive index, Reptile, Retina, RGB color space, Robert Ridgway, Rod cell, Russian language, Salmon (color), Scattering, Secondary color, Soap bubble, Spectral color, Specular reflection, Spider, Subtractive color, Synesthesia, Tan (color), Tertiary color, Tetrachromacy, Theory of Colours, Thin-film optics, Thomas Young (scientist), Tints and shades, Tomato, Transparency and translucency, Trichromacy, Tyndall effect, Ultraviolet, University of Buenos Aires, University of California Press, Vacuum, Vincent van Gogh, Violet (color), Visible spectrum, Wave interference, Wavelength, Yellow. Expand index (117 more) »

Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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Achromatopsia

Achromatopsia (ACHM), also known as total color blindness, is a medical syndrome that exhibits symptoms relating to at least five conditions.

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Additive color

Additive color is a method to create color by mixing a number of different light colors, with shades of red, green, and blue being the most common primary colors used in additive color system.

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Afterimage

An afterimage is an image that continues to appear in one's vision after the exposure to the original image has ceased.

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Albert Henry Munsell

Albert Henry Munsell (January 6, 1858 – June 28, 1918) was an American painter, teacher of art, and the inventor of the Munsell color system.

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Alternative medicine

Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.

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American English

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.

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Aristotle

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Art

Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.

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Azure (color)

Azure is a variation of blue that is often described as the color of the sky on a clear day.

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Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution

Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (1969) is a book by Brent Berlin and Paul Kay.

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Bird

Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Black

Black is the darkest color, the result of the absence or complete absorption of visible light.

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Black and white

Black and white, often abbreviated B/W or B&W, and hyphenated black-and-white when used as an adjective, is any of several monochrome forms in visual arts.

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Blue

Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.

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Brent Berlin

Overton Brent Berlin (born 1936) is an American anthropologist, most noted for his work with linguist Paul Kay on color, and his ethnobiological research among the Maya of Chiapas, Mexico.

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Brightness

Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light.

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Brown

Brown is a composite color.

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Bumblebee

A bumblebee (or bumble bee, bumble-bee or humble-bee) is any of over 250 species in the genus Bombus, part of Apidae, one of the bee families.

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Chemiluminescence

Chemiluminescence (also chemoluminescence) is the emission of light (luminescence), as the result of a chemical reaction.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Chromaticity

Chromaticity is an objective specification of the quality of a color regardless of its luminance.

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Chromophore

A chromophore is the part of a molecule responsible for its color.

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Chromotherapy

Chromotherapy, sometimes called color therapy, colorology or cromatherapy, is an alternative medicine method, which is considered pseudoscience.

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CIE 1931 color space

The CIE 1931 color spaces were the first defined quantitative links between distributions of wavelengths in the electromagnetic visible spectrum, and physiologically perceived colors in human color vision.

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CIECAM02

In colorimetry, CIECAM02 is the color appearance model published in 2002 by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) Technical Committee 8-01 (Color Appearance Modelling for Color Management Systems) and the successor of CIECAM97s.

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CMYK color model

The CMYK color model (process color, four color) is a subtractive color model, used in color printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself.

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Color (disambiguation)

Color is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, yellow, blue, etc.

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Color analysis (art)

Color analysis (American English; colour analysis in Commonwealth English), also known as personal color analysis (PCA), seasonal color analysis, or skin-tone matching, is a term often used within the cosmetics and fashion industry to describe a method of determining the colors of clothing and makeup that harmonise with a person's skin complexion, eye color, and hair color with the benefit of being able to use this tool for wardrobe planning and style consulting.

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Color blindness

Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.

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Color constancy

Color constancy is an example of subjective constancy and a feature of the human color perception system which ensures that the perceived color of objects remains relatively constant under varying illumination conditions.

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Color management

In digital imaging systems, color management is the controlled conversion between the color representations of various devices, such as image scanners, digital cameras, monitors, TV screens, film printers, computer printers, offset presses, and corresponding media.

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Color mapping

Color mapping is a function that maps (transforms) the colors of one (source) image to the colors of another (target) image.

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Color printing

Color printing or colour printing is the reproduction of an image or text in color (as opposed to simpler black and white or monochrome printing).

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Color psychology

Color psychology is the study of hues as a determinant of human behavior.

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Color scheme

In color theory, a color scheme is the choice of colors used in design for a range of media.

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Color space

A color space is a specific organization of colors.

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Color symbolism

Color symbolism in art and anthropology refers to the use of color as a symbol in various cultures.

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Color theory

In the visual arts, color theory or colour theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination.

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Color vision

Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.

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Color wheel

A color wheel or colour circle is an abstract illustrative organization of color hues around a circle, which shows the relationships between primary colors, secondary colors, tertiary colors etc.

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Colorful (disambiguation)

Colorful refers to the quality of possessing prominent and varied colors.

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Colorfulness

Colorfulness, chroma and saturation are attributes of perceived color relating to chromatic intensity.

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Colorimetry

Colorimetry is "the science and technology used to quantify and describe physically the human color perception." It is similar to spectrophotometry, but is distinguished by its interest in reducing spectra to the physical correlates of color perception, most often the CIE 1931 XYZ color space tristimulus values and related quantities.

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Complementary colors

Complementary colors are pairs of colors which, when combined, cancel each other out.

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Cone cell

Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).

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Cyan

Cyan is a greenish-blue color.

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Dichromatism

Dichromatism (or polychromatism) is a phenomenon where a material or solution's hue is dependent on both the concentration of the absorbing substance and the depth or thickness of the medium traversed.

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Diffraction grating

In optics, a diffraction grating is an optical component with a periodic structure that splits and diffracts light into several beams travelling in different directions.

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Dominant wavelength

In color science, the dominant wavelength (and the corresponding complementary wavelength) are ways of characterizing any light mixture in terms of the monochromatic spectral light that evokes an identical (and the corresponding opposite) perception of hue.

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Edwin H. Land

Edwin Herbert Land, ForMemRS, FRPS, Hon.MRI (May 7, 1909 – March 1, 1991) was an American scientist and inventor, best known as the co-founder of the Polaroid Corporation.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electron microscope

An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

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English in the Commonwealth of Nations

The use of the English language in most member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations was inherited from British colonisation.

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Ewald Hering

Karl Ewald Konstantin Hering (5 August 1834 – 26 January 1918) was a German physiologist who did much research into color vision, binocular perception and eye movements.

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Fish

Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Fluorescence

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

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Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Fruit

In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.

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Functional neuroimaging

Functional neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions.

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Gamut

In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut, is a certain complete subset of colors.

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Gloss (optics)

Gloss is an optical property which indicates how well a surface reflects light in a specular (mirror-like) direction.

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Grapheme-color synesthesia

Grapheme-color synaesthesia or colored grapheme synesthesia is a form of synesthesia in which an individual's perception of numerals and letters is associated with the experience of colors.

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Green

Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.

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Grey

Grey (British English) or gray (American English; see spelling differences) is an intermediate color between black and white.

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Hermann von Helmholtz

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.

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Hertz

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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Honey bee

A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.

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Hue

Hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color, defined technically (in the CIECAM02 model), as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow", (which in certain theories of color vision are called unique hues).

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Human

Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

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ICC profile

In color management, an ICC profile is a set of data that characterizes a color input or output device, or a color space, according to standards promulgated by the International Color Consortium (ICC).

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Ideasthesia

Ideasthesia (alternative spelling ideaesthesia) is defined as a phenomenon in which activations of concepts (inducers) evoke perception-like experiences (concurrents).

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Impossible color

Impossible colors or forbidden colors are supposed colors that cannot be perceived in normal seeing of light that is a combination of various intensities of the various frequencies of visible light, but are reported to be seen in special circumstances.

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Incandescence

Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.

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Indigo

Indigo is a deep and rich color close to the color wheel blue (a primary color in the RGB color space), as well as to some variants of ultramarine.

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Indigo dye

Indigo dye is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color (see indigo).

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Infrared

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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International Color Consortium

The International Color Consortium was formed in 1993 by eight vendors in order to create an open, vendor-neutral color management system which would function transparently across all operating systems and software packages.

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International Colour Association

The International Colour Association (Association Internationale de la Couleur (AIC), or Internationale Vereinigung für die Farbe) is a learned society whose aims are to encourage research in all aspects of color, to disseminate the knowledge gained from this research, and to promote its application to the solution of problems in the fields of science, art, design and industry on an international basis.

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International Commission on Illumination

The International Commission on Illumination (usually abbreviated CIE for its French name, Commission internationale de l'éclairage) is the international authority on light, illumination, colour, and colour spaces.

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Iridescence

Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to gradually change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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Kruithof curve

The Kruithof curve describes a region of illuminance levels and color temperatures that are often viewed as comfortable or pleasing to an observer.

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Language

Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Lateral geniculate nucleus

The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN; also called the lateral geniculate body or lateral geniculate complex) is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Light-emitting diode

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.

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Lightness

In colorimetry and color theory, lightness, also known as value or tone, is a representation of variation in the perception of a color or color space's brightness.

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List of colors (compact)

The following list shows a compact version of the colors in the List of colors A–F, G–M, and N–Z articles.

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List of light sources

This is a list of sources of light, including both natural and artificial processes that emit light.

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Lists of colors

These are lists of colors.

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Luminous intensity

In photometry, luminous intensity is a measure of the wavelength-weighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle, based on the luminosity function, a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye.

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Magenta

Magenta is a color that is variously defined as purplish-red, reddish-purple, purplish, or mauvish-crimson.

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Mantis shrimp

Mantis shrimps, or stomatopods, are marine crustaceans of the order Stomatopoda.

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Marsupial

Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.

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Metamerism (color)

In colorimetry, metamerism is a perceived matching of the colors with different (nonmatching) spectral power distributions.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Nacre

Nacre (also), also known as mother of pearl, is an organic-inorganic composite material produced by some molluscs as an inner shell layer; it also makes up the outer coating of pearls.

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Nanometre

The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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National colours

National colours are frequently part of a country's set of national symbols.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Off Book

Off Book is a web show on digital culture and art created for PBS by Kornhaber Brown, a Webby award-winning production studio that creates web series, videos, and motion graphics.

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Olive (color)

Olive is a dark yellowish-green color, like that of unripe or green olives.

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Opacity (optics)

Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.

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Opal

Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%.

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Opponent process

The color opponent process is a color theory that states that the human visual system interprets information about color by processing signals from cones and rods in an antagonistic manner.

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Opponent-process theory

Opponent-process theory is a psychological and neurological model that accounts for a wide range of behaviors, including color vision.

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Orange (colour)

Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light.

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Orange (fruit)

The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.

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Papilio

Papilio is a genus in the swallowtail butterfly family, Papilionidae, as well as the only representative of the tribe Papilionini.

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Paul Kay

Paul Kay (born 1934 in New York) is an emeritus professor of linguistics at the University of California, Berkeley, United States.

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Peafowl

The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.

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Pearlescent coating

Pearlescent coatings or pigments possess optical effects that not only serve decorative purposes (such as cosmetics, printed products, industrial coatings, or automotive paints), but also provide important functional roles, such as security printing or optical filters.

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Pentachromacy

Pentachromacy describes the capability and capacity for capturing, transmitting, processing, and perceiving five independent channels of color information through the primary visual system.

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Phosphorescence

Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.

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Photon energy

Photon energy is the energy carried by a single photon.

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Photonics

Photonics is the physical science of light (photon) generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and detection/sensing.

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Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pink

Pink is a pale red color that is named after a flower of the same name.

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Primary color

A set of primary colors is, most tangibly, a set of real colorants or colored lights that can be combined in varying amounts to produce a gamut of colors.

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Principle of univariance

The principle of univariance states that one and the same visual receptor cell can be excited by different combinations of wavelength and intensity, so that the brain cannot know the color of a certain point of the retinal image.

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Purple

Purple is a color intermediate between blue and red.

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Qualia

In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.

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Rainbow

A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky.

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Red

Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.

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Reflection (physics)

Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Reptile

Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Retina

The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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RGB color space

A RGB color space is any additive color space based on the RGB color model.

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Robert Ridgway

Robert Ridgway (July 2, 1850 – March 25, 1929) was an American ornithologist specializing in systematics.

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Rod cell

Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Salmon (color)

Salmon is a range of pale pinkish-orange to light pink colors, named after the color of salmon flesh.

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Scattering

Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.

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Secondary color

A secondary color is a color made by mixing two primary colors in a given color space.

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Soap bubble

A soap bubble is an extremely thin film of soapy water enclosing air that forms a hollow sphere with an iridescent surface.

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Spectral color

A spectral color is a color that is evoked in a normal human by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a relatively narrow band of wavelengths, also known as monochromatic light.

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Specular reflection

Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.

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Spider

Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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Subtractive color

A subtractive color model explains the mixing of a limited set of dyes, inks, paint pigments or natural colorants to create a wider range of colors, each the result of partially or completely subtracting (that is, absorbing) some wavelengths of light and not others.

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Synesthesia

Synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.

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Tan (color)

Tan is a pale tone of brown.

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Tertiary color

A tertiary color is a color made by mixing full saturation of one primary color with half saturation of another primary color and none of a third primary color, in a given color space such as RGB, CMYK (more modern) or RYB (traditional).

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Tetrachromacy

Tetrachromacy is the condition of possessing four independent channels for conveying color information, or possessing four types of cone cells in the eye.

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Theory of Colours

Theory of Colours (German: Zur Farbenlehre) is a book by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe about the poet's views on the nature of colours and how these are perceived by humans.

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Thin-film optics

Thin-film optics is the branch of optics that deals with very thin structured layers of different materials.

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Thomas Young (scientist)

Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.

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Tints and shades

In color theory, a tint is the mixture of a color with white, which increases lightness, while a shade with black, which reduces lightness.

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Tomato

The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.

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Transparency and translucency

In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.

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Trichromacy

Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.

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Tyndall effect

The Tyndall effect, also known as Willis–Tyndall scattering, is light scattering by particles in a colloids or in a very fine suspension.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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University of Buenos Aires

The University of Buenos Aires (Universidad de Buenos Aires, UBA) is the largest university in Argentina and the second largest university by enrollment in Latin America.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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Vacuum

Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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Vincent van Gogh

Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art.

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Violet (color)

Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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Wave interference

In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.

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Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Yellow

Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color

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