141 relations: Achromatopsia, Adobe Photoshop, Amphibian, Animal, Australian sea lion, Bee, Bevil Conway, Bird, Bird vision, Blob (visual system), Blue, Blue-green, Brain, Bumblebee, Butterfly, Cataract surgery, Catarrhini, Centroid, Chromaticity, Chromosome, CIE 1931 color space, Color, Color balance, Color blindness, Color constancy, Color space, Color theory, Columbidae, Complementary colors, Cone (topology), Cone cell, David H. Hubel, Dichromacy, Dispersive prism, Diurnality, Edwin H. Land, Encyclopædia Britannica, Euclidean space, Eutheria, Evolution of color vision in primates, Ewald Hering, Eye, Fat-tailed dunnart, Frequency, Gecko, Gene duplication, Glob (visual system), Green, Herbivore, Hermann von Helmholtz, ..., Hilbert space, Himba people, Hominidae, Honey bee, How the Mind Works, Howler monkey, Hue, Human, Hummingbird, Hymenoptera, ICC profile, Ideasthesia, Insect, Invertebrate, Inverted spectrum, Isaac Newton, John Locke, John Wiley & Sons, Just-noticeable difference, Lateral geniculate nucleus, Light, List of light sources, Locus (mathematics), Mammal, Mantis shrimp, Marine mammal, Marsupial, Mesopic vision, Molecular electronic transition, Monochromacy, Nanometre, Nectar, New World monkey, Night monkey, Nocturnality, Occipital lobe, Oil droplet, OPN1LW, OPN1MW, Opponent process, Opsin, Optic chiasm, Optic nerve, Optic tract, Osmia bicornis, Papilio, Pentachromacy, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Photopic vision, Photopigment, Polymorphism (biology), Primary color, Psychophysics, Purkinje effect, Purple, Red, Reflection (physics), Reptile, Retina, Retinal ganglion cell, RGB color model, Rod cell, Scotopic vision, Semir Zeki, Simplex, Spectral color, Spectral sensitivity, Steven Pinker, Synapse, Synesthesia, Temporal lobe, Tetrachromacy, Thalamus, The dress, Thomas Young (scientist), Torsten Wiesel, Transmittance, Trichromacy, Tropical fish, Two-streams hypothesis, Ultraviolet, Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Vector space, Violet (color), Visual cortex, Visual perception, Wavelength, White point, X-inactivation, Yellow, Young–Helmholtz theory. Expand index (91 more) » « Shrink index
Achromatopsia (ACHM), also known as total color blindness, is a medical syndrome that exhibits symptoms relating to at least five conditions.
Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Systems for macOS and Windows.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
The Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) also known as the Australian sea-lion or Australian sealion, is a species of sea lion that is the only endemic pinniped in Australia.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Bevil Conway (born 4 November 1974, in Harare, Zimbabwe) is a neuroscientist and artist.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Vision is the most important sense for birds, since good eyesight is essential for safe flight, and this group has a number of adaptations which give visual acuity superior to that of other vertebrate groups; a pigeon has been described as "two eyes with wings".
Blobs are sections of the visual cortex where groups of neurons that are sensitive to color assemble in cylindrical shapes.
Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.
Blue-green/bottle green is a color that is a representation of the color that is between green and blue on a typical traditional old-fashioned RYB color wheel.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
A bumblebee (or bumble bee, bumble-bee or humble-bee) is any of over 250 species in the genus Bombus, part of Apidae, one of the bee families.
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which also includes moths.
Cataract surgery is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called "crystalline lens") that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract.
Catarrhini is one of the two subdivisions of the simians, the other being the plathyrrhine (New World monkeys).
In mathematics and physics, the centroid or geometric center of a plane figure is the arithmetic mean position of all the points in the shape.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chromaticity is an objective specification of the quality of a color regardless of its luminance.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
The CIE 1931 color spaces were the first defined quantitative links between distributions of wavelengths in the electromagnetic visible spectrum, and physiologically perceived colors in human color vision.
Color (American English) or colour (Commonwealth English) is the characteristic of human visual perception described through color categories, with names such as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, or purple.
In photography and image processing, color balance is the global adjustment of the intensities of the colors (typically red, green, and blue primary colors).
Color blindness, also known as color vision deficiency, is the decreased ability to see color or differences in color.
Color constancy is an example of subjective constancy and a feature of the human color perception system which ensures that the perceived color of objects remains relatively constant under varying illumination conditions.
A color space is a specific organization of colors.
In the visual arts, color theory or colour theory is a body of practical guidance to color mixing and the visual effects of a specific color combination.
Pigeons and doves constitute the animal family Columbidae and the order Columbiformes, which includes about 42 genera and 310 species.
Complementary colors are pairs of colors which, when combined, cancel each other out.
In topology, especially algebraic topology, the cone CX of a topological space X is the quotient space: of the product of X with the unit interval I.
Cone cells, or cones, are one of three types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of mammalian eyes (e.g. the human eye).
David Hunter Hubel (February 27, 1926 – September 22, 2013) was a Canadian neurophysiologist noted for his studies of the structure and function of the visual cortex.
Dichromacy (di meaning "two" and chroma meaning "color") is the state of having two types of functioning color receptors, called cone cells, in the eyes.
In optics, a dispersive prism is an optical prism, usually having the shape of a geometrical triangular prism, used as a spectroscopic component.
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.
Edwin Herbert Land, ForMemRS, FRPS, Hon.MRI (May 7, 1909 – March 1, 1991) was an American scientist and inventor, best known as the co-founder of the Polaroid Corporation.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.
Eutheria (from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic.
The evolution of color vision in primates is unique compared to most eutherian mammals.
Karl Ewald Konstantin Hering (5 August 1834 – 26 January 1918) was a German physiologist who did much research into color vision, binocular perception and eye movements.
Eyes are organs of the visual system.
The fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata) is a species of mouse-like marsupial of the Dasyuridae, the family that includes the little red kaluta, quolls, and the Tasmanian devil.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Geckos are lizards belonging to the infraorder Gekkota, found in warm climates throughout the world.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
Globs are millimeter-sized color modules found beyond the visual area V2 in the brain's color processing ventral (also known as parvocellular) pathway.
Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions in several scientific fields.
The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space.
The Himba (singular: OmuHimba, plural: OvaHimba) are indigenous peoples with an estimated population of about 50,000 people living in northern Namibia, in the Kunene Region (formerly Kaokoland) and on the other side of the Kunene River in Angola.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax.
How the Mind Works is a 1997 book by Canadian-American cognitive scientist Steven Pinker, in which the author attempts to explain some of the human mind's poorly understood functions and quirks in evolutionary terms.
Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta monotypic in subfamily Alouattinae) are among the largest of the New World monkeys.
Hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color, defined technically (in the CIECAM02 model), as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow", (which in certain theories of color vision are called unique hues).
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Hummingbirds are birds from the Americas that constitute the family Trochilidae.
Hymenoptera is a large order of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants.
In color management, an ICC profile is a set of data that characterizes a color input or output device, or a color space, according to standards promulgated by the International Color Consortium (ICC).
Ideasthesia (alternative spelling ideaesthesia) is defined as a phenomenon in which activations of concepts (inducers) evoke perception-like experiences (concurrents).
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
The inverted spectrum is the hypothetical concept of two people sharing their color vocabulary and discriminations, although the colors one sees — one's qualia — are systematically different from the colors the other person sees.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
In the branch of experimental psychology focused on sense, sensation, and perception, which is called psychophysics, a just-noticeable difference or JND is the amount something must be changed in order for a difference to be noticeable, detectable at least half the time (absolute threshold).
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN; also called the lateral geniculate body or lateral geniculate complex) is a relay center in the thalamus for the visual pathway.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
This is a list of sources of light, including both natural and artificial processes that emit light.
In geometry, a locus (plural: loci) (Latin word for "place", "location") is a set of all points (commonly, a line, a line segment, a curve or a surface), whose location satisfies or is determined by one or more specified conditions.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Mantis shrimps, or stomatopods, are marine crustaceans of the order Stomatopoda.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
Mesopic vision is a combination of photopic vision and scotopic vision in low but not quite dark lighting situations.
Molecular electronic transitions take place when electrons in a molecule are excited from one energy level to a higher energy level.The energy change associated with this transition provides information on the structure of a molecule and determines many molecular properties such as color.
Monochromacy (from Greek mono, meaning "one "and chromo, meaning "color") is the ability of organisms or machines to distinguish only one single frequency of the electromagnetic light spectrum.
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).
Nectar is a sugar-rich liquid produced by plants in glands called nectaries, either within the flowers with which it attracts pollinating animals, or by extrafloral nectaries, which provide a nutrient source to animal mutualists, which in turn provide antiherbivore protection.
New World monkeys are the five families of primates that are found in the tropical regions of Central and South America and Mexico: Callitrichidae, Cebidae, Aotidae, Pitheciidae, and Atelidae.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The night monkeys, also known as the owl monkeys or douroucoulis, are the members of the genus Aotus of New World monkeys (monotypic in family Aotidae).
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Oil droplets are found in the eyes of some animals, being located in the photoreceptor cells.
OPN1LW is a gene on the X chromosome that encodes for long wave sensitive (LWS) opsin, or red cone photopigment.
Green-sensitive opsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPN1MW gene.
The color opponent process is a color theory that states that the human visual system interprets information about color by processing signals from cones and rods in an antagonistic manner.
Opsins are a group of proteins, made light-sensitive, via the chromophore retinal found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.
The optic chiasm or optic chiasma (Greek χίασμα, "crossing", from the Greek χιάζω 'to mark with an X', after the Greek letter 'Χ', chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross.
The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, is a paired nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain.
The optic tract (from the Latin tractus opticus) is a part of the visual system in the brain.
Osmia bicornis, synonym Osmia rufa, is a species of mason bee, and is known as the red mason bee due to its covering of dense gingery hair.
Papilio is a genus in the swallowtail butterfly family, Papilionidae, as well as the only representative of the tribe Papilionini.
Pentachromacy describes the capability and capacity for capturing, transmitting, processing, and perceiving five independent channels of color information through the primary visual system.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Photopic vision is the vision of the eye under well-lit conditions (luminance level 10 to 108 cd/m2).
Photopigments are unstable pigments that undergo a chemical change when they absorb light.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
A set of primary colors is, most tangibly, a set of real colorants or colored lights that can be combined in varying amounts to produce a gamut of colors.
Psychophysics quantitatively investigates the relationship between physical stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they produce.
The Purkinje effect (sometimes called the Purkinje shift) is the tendency for the peak luminance sensitivity of the human eye to shift toward the blue end of the color spectrum at low illumination levels as part of dark adaptation.
Purple is a color intermediate between blue and red.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.
A retinal ganglion cell (RGC) is a type of neuron located near the inner surface (the ganglion cell layer) of the retina of the eye.
The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.
Rod cells are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that can function in less intense light than the other type of visual photoreceptor, cone cells.
Scotopic vision is the vision of the eye under low-light levels.
Semir Zeki FMedSci FRS is a British neurobiologist who has specialised in studying the primate visual brain and more recently the neural correlates of affective states, such as the experience of love, desire and beauty that are generated by sensory inputs within the field of neuroesthetics.
In geometry, a simplex (plural: simplexes or simplices) is a generalization of the notion of a triangle or tetrahedron to arbitrary dimensions.
A spectral color is a color that is evoked in a normal human by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a relatively narrow band of wavelengths, also known as monochromatic light.
Spectral sensitivity is the relative efficiency of detection, of light or other signal, as a function of the frequency or wavelength of the signal.
Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Tetrachromacy is the condition of possessing four independent channels for conveying color information, or possessing four types of cone cells in the eye.
The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.
"The dress" is a photograph that became a viral Internet sensation on 26 February 2015, when viewers disagreed over whether the colours of the item of clothing depicted were black and blue or white and gold.
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
Torsten Nils Wiesel (born 3 June 1924) is a Swedish neurophysiologist.
Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.
Trichromacy or trichromatism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye.
Tropical fish are generally those fish found in aquatic tropical environments around the world, including both freshwater and saltwater species.
The two-streams hypothesis is a widely accepted and influential model of the neural processing of vision as well as hearing.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry (UV–Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region.
A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.
Violet is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light between blue and the invisible ultraviolet.
The visual cortex of the brain is a part of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
A white point (often referred to as reference white or target white in technical documents) is a set of tristimulus values or chromaticity coordinates that serve to define the color "white" in image capture, encoding, or reproduction.
X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.
Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.
The Young–Helmholtz theory (based on the work of Thomas Young and Hermann von Helmholtz in the 19th century) is a theory of trichromatic color vision – the manner in which the photoreceptor cells in the eyes of humans and other primates work to enable color vision.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.