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Colorectal cancer

Index Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine). [1]

197 relations: ACVR2A, Adenocarcinoma, Adenoma, Adenomatous polyposis coli, Adjuvant therapy, Alcohol, Alcohol (drug), American Cancer Society, American Gastroenterological Association, American Joint Committee on Cancer, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Anemia, Antioxidant, Apoptosis, ARID1A, Ascending colon, Aspirin, ATM serine/threonine kinase, AXIN1, AXIN2, Beta-catenin, Bevacizumab, Biomarker, Biopsy, BRAF (gene), C-Raf, Calcium, Cancer, Cancer screening, Capecitabine, Carcinoembryonic antigen, Carcinogenesis, Carcinoma, CDH17, CDKN1B, CDX2, Cecum, Celecoxib, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cetuximab, Chemotherapy, Chemotherapy regimen, Chest radiograph, Choosing Wisely, Clostridium novyi, Colectomy, Colon cancer staging, Colonoscopy, Colorectal cancer, ..., Colorectal polyp, Colostomy, Complete blood count, Consanguinity, Constipation, CpG site, Crohn's disease, CT scan, Cytostasis, Deleted in Colorectal Cancer, Developed country, DNA, Dysplasia, Endoscopy, Environment (biophysical), Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epigenetics, Epithelial–mesenchymal transition, Epithelium, Exercise, FAM123B, Familial adenomatous polyposis, Fatigue, Fecal occult blood, Feces, Five-year survival rate, Fluorouracil, FOLFIRI, FOLFOX, FOLFOXIRI, Gardner's syndrome, Gastrointestinal tract, Genetic disorder, Genome, Gross examination, H&E stain, Hemoglobin A, Hepatocyte growth factor, Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, Histology, HSPA1A, Immersed boundary method, Immunochemistry, Immunotherapy, In vitro, Inflammatory bowel disease, Intestinal gland, Irinotecan, Jehoram of Judah, Keratin 20, KRAS, Lactobacillales, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Laparoscopy, Laparotomy, Large intestine, Liver, Liver cancer, Liver function tests, Lower gastrointestinal bleeding, Lung, Lung cancer, Lymph node, Lymphoma, Magnetic resonance imaging, Medical history, Medical imaging, Medical ultrasound, Metabolic equivalent, Metastasis, Micrograph, MicroRNA, Mismatch repair cancer syndrome, Mouse model of colorectal and intestinal cancer, MSH3, MSH6, Mummy, Muscularis mucosae, Myc, Naked cuticle 1, National Cancer Institute, National Colon Cancer Awareness Month, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Nausea, Neoadjuvant therapy, Neoplasm, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Obesity, Oncogene, Oncology, Oxaliplatin, P53, Palliative care, Panitumumab, Peritoneum, PET-CT, Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Physical examination, PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, Polyp (medicine), Positron emission tomography, Processed meat, Proctocolectomy, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, PTEN (gene), Ptolemaic Kingdom, Quality of life, Radiation, Radiation therapy, RBM3, Rectal bleeding, Rectum, Red meat, SATB2, Sigmoidoscopy, Signet ring cell, Sitting, SMAD (protein), Smoking, Somatic cell, SOX9, Squamous cell carcinoma, Stem cell, Stomach cancer, Stool guaiac test, Streptococcus, Streptococcus bovis, Submucosa, Targeted therapy, TCF7L2, Tegafur/uracil, TGF beta receptor 2, The Cancer Genome Atlas, TNM staging system, Transcription (biology), Transforming growth factor beta, Tumor budding, Ulcerative colitis, Union for International Cancer Control, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Villous adenoma, Virtual colonoscopy, Vitamin D, Vomiting, Weight loss, Wnt signaling pathway. Expand index (147 more) »


Activin receptor type-2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ACVR2A gene.

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Adenocarcinoma (plural adenocarcinomas or adenocarcinomata) is a type of cancerous tumor that can occur in several parts of the body.

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An adenoma (from Greek αδένας, adeno-, "gland" + -ώμα, -oma, "tumor") (plural adenomas or adenomata) is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both.

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Adenomatous polyposis coli

Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) also known as deleted in polyposis 2.5 (DP2.5) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APC gene.

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Adjuvant therapy

Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Alcohol (drug)

Alcohol, also known by its chemical name ethanol, is a psychoactive substance or drug that is the active ingredient in alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits (hard liquor).

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American Cancer Society

The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.

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American Gastroenterological Association

The American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) is a medical association of gastroenterologists.

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American Joint Committee on Cancer

The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) is an organization best known for defining and popularizing cancer staging standards, officially the AJCC staging system.

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American Society of Clinical Oncology

The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is a professional organization representing physicians of all oncology sub-specialties who care for people with cancer.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARID1A gene.

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Ascending colon

The ascending colon is the part of the colon located between the cecum and the transverse colon.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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ATM serine/threonine kinase

ATM serine/threonine kinase, symbol ATM, is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recruited and activated by DNA double-strand breaks.

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Axin-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AXIN1 gene.

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Axin-2 also known as axin-like protein (Axil) or axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2) or conductin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AXIN2 gene.

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Catenin beta-1, also known as β-catenin, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CTNNB1 gene.

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Bevacizumab, sold under the trade name Avastin, is medication used to treat a number of types of cancers and a specific eye disease.

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A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.

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A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

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BRAF (gene)

BRAF is a human gene that encodes a protein called B-Raf.

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RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase, also known as proto-oncogene c-RAF or simply c-Raf or even Raf-1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RAF1 gene.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cancer screening

Cancer screening aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear.

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Capecitabine, sold under the brand name Xeloda among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat breast cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.

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Carcinoembryonic antigen

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) describes a set of highly related glycoproteins involved in cell adhesion.

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Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.

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Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells.

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Cadherin-17 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDH17 gene.

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Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is an enzyme inhibitor that in humans is encoded by the CDKN1B gene.

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Homeobox protein CDX-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDX2 gene.

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The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.

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Celecoxib, sold under the brand name Celebrex among others, is a COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck cancer.

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Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

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Chemotherapy regimen

A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations.

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Chest radiograph

A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.

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Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

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Clostridium novyi

Clostridium novyi (oedematiens) a Gram-positive, endospore- forming, obligate anaerobic bacteria of the class clostridia.

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Colectomy (col- + -ectomy) is bowel resection of the large bowel (colon).

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Colon cancer staging

Colon cancer staging is an estimate of the amount of penetration of a particular cancer.

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Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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Colorectal polyp

A colorectal polyp is a polyp (fleshy growth) occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum.

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A colostomy is a surgical procedure in which an opening (stoma) is formed by drawing the healthy end of the large intestine or colon through an incision in the anterior abdominal wall and suturing it into place.

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Complete blood count

A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.

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Consanguinity ("blood relation", from the Latin consanguinitas) is the property of being from the same kinship as another person.

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Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.

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CpG site

The CpG sites or CG sites are regions of DNA where a cytosine nucleotide is followed by a guanine nucleotide in the linear sequence of bases along its 5' → 3' direction.

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Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cytostasis (cyto – cell; stasis – stoppage) is the inhibition of cell growth and multiplication.

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Deleted in Colorectal Cancer

Deleted in Colorectal Carcinoma, also known as DCC, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the DCC gene.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dysplasia (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys-, "bad" or "difficult" and πλάσις plasis, "formation") is a term used in pathology to refer to an abnormality of development or an epithelial anomaly of growth and differentiation (epithelial dysplasia).

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An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.

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Environment (biophysical)

A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.

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Epidermal growth factor receptor

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.

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Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence.

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Epithelial–mesenchymal transition

The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion, and gain migratory and invasive properties to become mesenchymal stem cells; these are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types.

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Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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FAM123B is a human gene, also referred to as WTX.

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Familial adenomatous polyposis

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant inherited condition in which numerous adenomatous polyps form mainly in the epithelium of the large intestine.

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Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Fecal occult blood

Fecal occult blood (FOB) refers to blood in the feces that is not visibly apparent (unlike other types of blood in stool such as melena or hematochezia).

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Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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Five-year survival rate

The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis.

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Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.

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FOLFIRI is a chemotherapy regimen for treatment of colorectal cancer.

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FOLFOX is a chemotherapy regimen for treatment of colorectal cancer, made up of the drugs.

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FOLFOXIRI is a chemotherapy regimen for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer.

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Gardner's syndrome

Gardner syndrome, also known as Gardner's syndrome or familial colorectal polyposis, is an autosomal dominant form of polyposis characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in the colon together with tumors outside the colon.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Genetic disorder

A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.

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In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Gross examination

Gross examination or "grossing" is the process by which pathology specimens are inspected with the bare eye to obtain diagnostic information, while being processed for further microscopic examination. Gross examination of surgical specimens is typically performed by a pathologist, or by a pathologists' assistant working within a pathology practice.

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H&E stain

Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology.

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Hemoglobin A

Hemoglobin A (HbA), also known as adult hemoglobin, hemoglobin A1 or α2β2, is the most common human hemoglobin tetramer, comprising over 97% of the total red blood cell hemoglobin.

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Hepatocyte growth factor

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (or scatter factor (SF) is a paracrine cellular growth, motility and morphogenic factor. It is secreted by mesenchymal cells and targets and acts primarily upon epithelial cells and endothelial cells, but also acts on haemopoietic progenitor cells and T cells. It has been shown to have a major role in embryonic organ development, specifically in myogenesis, in adult organ regeneration, and in wound healing.

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Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic condition that has a high risk of colon cancer as well as other cancers including endometrial cancer (second most common), ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin.

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Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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Heat shock 70 kDa protein 1, also termed Hsp72, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPA1A gene.

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Immersed boundary method

In computational fluid dynamics, the immersed boundary method originally referred to an approach developed by Charles Peskin in 1972 to simulate fluid-structure (fiber) interactions.

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Immunochemistry is a branch of chemistry that involves the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of the immune system, especially the nature of antibodies, antigens and their interactions.

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Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".

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In vitro

In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.

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Inflammatory bowel disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.

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Intestinal gland

In histology, an intestinal gland (also crypt of Lieberkühn and intestinal crypt) is a gland found in the intestinal epithelium lining of the small intestine and large intestine (colon).

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Irinotecan, sold under the brand name Camptosar among others, is a medication used to treat colon cancer, and small cell lung cancer.

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Jehoram of Judah

Jehoram of Judah or Joram (Ioram; Joram), was a king of Judah, and the son of Jehoshaphat.

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Keratin 20

Keratin 20, often abbreviated CK20, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KRT20 gene.

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KRAS (K-ras or Ki-ras) is a gene that acts as an on/off switch in cell signalling.

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Lactobacillales or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an order of Gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, nonrespiring, either rod- or coccus-shaped bacteria that share common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and milk products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation. This trait has, throughout history, linked LAB with food fermentations, as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. Proteinaceous bacteriocins are produced by several LAB strains and provide an additional hurdle for spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. The industrial importance of the LAB is further evidenced by their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, due to their ubiquitous appearance in food and their contribution to the healthy microflora of human mucosal surfaces. The genera that comprise the LAB are at its core Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus, as well as the more peripheral Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Oenococcus, Sporolactobacillus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella; these belong to the order Lactobacillales.

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Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.

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Lactococcus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria that were formerly included in the genus Streptococcus Group N1.

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Laparoscopy is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera.

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A laparotomy is a surgical procedure involving a large incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity.

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Large intestine

The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Liver cancer

Liver cancer, also known as hepatic cancer and primary hepatic cancer, is cancer that starts in the liver.

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Liver function tests

Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.

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Lower gastrointestinal bleeding

Lower gastrointestinal bleeding, commonly abbreviated LGIB, is any form of gastrointestinal bleeding in the lower gastrointestinal tract.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

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Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.

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Medical history

The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Medical ultrasound

Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.

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Metabolic equivalent

The Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET), or simply metabolic equivalent, is a physiological measure expressing the energy cost of physical activities and is defined as the ratio of metabolic rate (and therefore the rate of energy consumption) during a specific physical activity to a reference metabolic rate, set by convention to 3.5 ml O2·kg−1·min−1 or approximately: \text\.

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Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.

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A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.

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A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

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Mismatch repair cancer syndrome

Mismatch repair cancer syndrome (MMRCS) is a cancer syndrome associated with biallelic DNA mismatch repair mutations.

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Mouse model of colorectal and intestinal cancer

Mouse models of colorectal cancer and intestinal cancer are experimental systems in which mice are genetically manipulated, fed a modified diet, or challenged with chemicals to develop malignancies in the gastrointestinal tract.

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DNA mismatch repair protein, MutS Homolog 3 (MSH3) is a human homologue of the bacterial mismatch repair protein MutS that participates in the mismatch repair (MMR) system.

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MSH6 or mutS homolog 6 is a gene that codes for DNA mismatch repair protein Msh6 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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A mummy is a deceased human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions.

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Muscularis mucosae

The lamina muscularis mucosae (or muscularis mucosae) is a thin layer (lamina) of muscle of the gastrointestinal tract, located outside the lamina propria and separating it from the submucosa.

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Myc is a family of regulator genes and proto-oncogenes that code for transcription factors.

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Naked cuticle 1

Naked cuticle 1 (NKD1) is a human gene that encodes the protein Nkd1, a member of the Naked cuticle (Nkd) family of proteins that regulate the Wnt signaling pathway.

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National Cancer Institute

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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National Colon Cancer Awareness Month

National Colon Cancer Awareness Month is an annual celebration observed in the United States during the month of March, to increase awareness of colorectal cancer.

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National Comprehensive Cancer Network

National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) is an alliance of 27 cancer centers in the United States, most of which are designated by the National Cancer Institute (one of the U.S. National Institutes of Health) as comprehensive cancer centers.

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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.

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Neoadjuvant therapy

Neoadjuvant therapy is the administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment.

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Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.

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Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.

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Oxaliplatin, sold under the brand name Eloxatin, is a cancer medication used to treat colorectal cancer.

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Tumor protein p53, also known as p53, cellular tumor antigen p53 (UniProt name), phosphoprotein p53, tumor suppressor p53, antigen NY-CO-13, or transformation-related protein 53 (TRP53), is any isoform of a protein encoded by homologous genes in various organisms, such as TP53 (humans) and Trp53 (mice).

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Palliative care

Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.

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Panitumumab (INN), formerly ABX-EGF, is a fully human monoclonal antibody specific to the epidermal growth factor receptor (also known as EGF receptor, EGFR, ErbB-1 and HER1 in humans).

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The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.

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Positron emission tomography–computed tomography (better known as PET-CT or PET/CT) is a nuclear medicine technique which combines, in a single gantry, a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner and an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner, to acquire sequential images from both devices in the same session, which are combined into a single superposed (co-registered) image.

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Phosphoinositide 3-kinase

Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (also called phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinases, PI 3-kinases, PI(3)Ks, PI-3Ks or by the HUGO official stem symbol for the gene family, PI3K(s)) are a family of enzymes involved in cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking, which in turn are involved in cancer.

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Physical examination

A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.

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PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway

The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is an intracellular signaling pathway important in regulating the cell cycle.

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Polyp (medicine)

A polyp is an abnormal growth of tissue projecting from a mucous membrane.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Processed meat

Processed meat is considered to be any meat which has been modified in order either to improve its taste or to extend its shelf life.

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Proctocolectomy is the surgical removal of the rectum and all or part of the colon.

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Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2

Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase) (The HUGO official symbol is PTGS2; HGNC ID, HGNC:9605), also known as cyclooxygenase-2 or COX-2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGS2 gene.

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PTEN (gene)

Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the PTEN gene.

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Ptolemaic Kingdom

The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

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Putative RNA-binding protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBM3 gene.

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Rectal bleeding

Rectal bleeding, also known as rectal hemorrhage, refers to bleeding in the rectum.

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The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.

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Red meat

In gastronomy, red meat is commonly red when raw and a dark color after it is cooked, in contrast to white meat, which is pale in color before and after cooking.

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Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) also known as DNA-binding protein SATB2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SATB2 gene.

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Sigmoidoscopy (from the Greek term for letter "s/ς" + "eidos" + "scopy": namely, to look inside an "s"/"ς"-like object) is the minimally invasive medical examination of the large intestine from the rectum through the nearest part of the colon, the sigmoid colon.

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Signet ring cell

In histology, a signet ring cell is a cell with a large vacuole, the malignant type is seen predominantly in carcinomas.

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Sitting is a basic human resting position.

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SMAD (protein)

Smads (or SMADs) comprise a family of structurally similar proteins that are the main signal transducers for receptors of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) superfamily, which are critically important for regulating cell development and growth.

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Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.

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Somatic cell

A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.

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Transcription factor SOX-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOX9 gene.

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Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas, also known as epidermoid carcinoma are a number of different types of cancer that result from squamous cells.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.

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Stool guaiac test

The stool guaiac test or guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) is one of several methods that detects the presence of fecal occult blood (blood invisible in the feces).

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Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).

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Streptococcus bovis

Streptococcus gallolyticus, formerly Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis), is a species of Gram-positive bacteria that in humans is associated with urinary tract infections, endocarditisRyan K.J. and C.G. Ray CG (editors).

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The submucosa (or tela submucosa) is a thin layer of tissue in various organs of the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts.

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Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy or molecularly targeted therapy is one of the major modalities of medical treatment (pharmacotherapy) for cancer, others being hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy.

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Transcription factor 7-like 2 (T-cell specific, HMG-box) also known as TCF7L2 or TCF4 is a protein acting as a transcription factor that in humans, is encoded by the TCF7L2 gene.

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Tegafur/uracil is a chemotherapy drug combination used in the treatment of cancer, primarily bowel cancer.

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TGF beta receptor 2

Transforming growth factor, beta receptor II (70/80kDa) is a TGF beta receptor.

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The Cancer Genome Atlas

The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a project, begun in 2005, to catalogue genetic mutations responsible for cancer, using genome sequencing and bioinformatics.

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TNM staging system

The TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) is a notation system that describes the stage of a cancer which originates from a solid tumour with alphanumeric codes.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transforming growth factor beta

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.

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Tumor budding

Tumor budding is loosely defined by the presence of individual cells and small clusters of tumor cells at the invasive front of carcinomas.

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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.

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Union for International Cancer Control

The Union for International Cancer Control (previously named International Union Against Cancer) or UICC (Union internationale contre le cancer) is a membership based, non-governmental organization that exists to help the global health community accelerate the fight against cancer.

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

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Villous adenoma

Villous adenoma is a type of polyp that grows in the colon and other places in the gastrointestinal tract and sometimes in other parts of the body.

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Virtual colonoscopy

Virtual colonoscopy (VC, also called CT Colonography or CT Pneumocolon) is a medical imaging procedure which uses x-rays and computers to produce two- and three-dimensional images of the colon (large intestine) from the lowest part, the rectum, all the way to the lower end of the small intestine and display them on a screen.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Weight loss

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.

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Wnt signaling pathway

The Wnt signaling pathways are a group of signal transduction pathways made of proteins that pass signals into a cell through cell surface receptors.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorectal_cancer

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