168 relations: Acetaldehyde, Adiabatic flame temperature, Adiabatic process, Air–fuel ratio, Allotropes of oxygen, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Autoignition temperature, Boiler, Bond energy, Bonfire, Bunsen burner, Buoyancy, Campfire, Candle, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Carburizing, Catalysis, Catalytic converter, Cellulose, Chain reaction, Charring, Chemical equation, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical looping combustion, Chemical reaction, Chlorine, Chlorine trifluoride, Coal, Combustion, Combustion chamber, Compost, Contact process, Cooking, Cotton, CRC Press, Deflagration, Detonation, Detonation velocity, Diesel engine, Diesel exhaust fluid, Diffusion flame, Disproportionation, Dry distillation, Dust, Dynamical system, Electricity, ..., Elementary reaction, Emission standard, Endothermic process, Engine knocking, Engineer, Enthalpy, Environmental law, Ethanol, Exhaust gas, Exothermic process, Explosion, External combustion engine, Fire, Fire point, Firefighter, Firewood, First law of thermodynamics, Flame, Flash point, Flue gas, Fluorine, Forbidden mechanism, Fossil fuel, Fuel, Fuel efficiency, Furnace, Gas turbine, Heat, Heat capacity, Heat of combustion, Heat treating, Hemoglobin, Heterogeneous combustion, Humus, HVAC, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen chloride, Hydroperoxyl, Hydroxyl radical, Incandescence, Incineration, Internal combustion engine, International Flame Research Foundation, International Space Station, Iron(III) oxide, Light, Lightning, Liquid fuel, List of light sources, List of polyurethane applications, Markstein number, Mass balance, Methane, Micro-combustion, Mole (unit), Natural gas, Nitric acid, Nitric oxide, Nitrogen, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, Nitrous oxide, NOx, Oil, Oil burner, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Peat, Petrol engine, Phlogiston theory, Plant litter, Platinum, Poison, Polymer, Power station, Premixed flame, Propane, Pyrolysis, Quenching, Radical (chemistry), Redox, Renewable fuels, Rocket, Rocket engine, Sensible heat, Singlet oxygen, Smoke, Smouldering, Solid fuel, Soot, Spin (physics), Spontaneous combustion, Steam generator (boiler), Stoichiometry, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur trioxide, Sulfuric acid, Syngas, The Combustion Institute, Thermal management (electronics), Thermal power station, Thermoacoustic heat engine, Thermobaric weapon, Thermogravimetric analysis, Tobacco, Triplet oxygen, Tropospheric ozone, Upholstery, Urea, Vanadium, Vapor, Volcano, Water, Water-gas shift reaction, Wildfire, Wiley-VCH, Wood. Expand index (118 more) » « Shrink index
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
In the study of combustion, there are two types of adiabatic flame temperature depending on how the process is completed, constant volume and constant pressure, describing the temperature that the combustion products theoretically reach if no energy is lost to the outside environment.
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
Air–fuel ratio (AFR) is the mass ratio of air to a solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel present in a combustion process.
There are several known allotropes of oxygen.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The autoignition temperature or kindling point of a substance is the lowest temperature at which it spontaneously ignites in normal atmosphere without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark.
A boiler is a closed vessel in which fluid (generally water) is heated.
In chemistry, bond energy (E) or bond enthalpy (H) is the measure of bond strength in a chemical bond.
A bonfire is a large but controlled outdoor fire, used either for informal disposal of burnable waste material or as part of a celebration.
A Bunsen burner, named after Robert Bunsen, is a common piece of laboratory equipment that produces a single open gas flame, which is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
A campfire is a fire at a campsite that provides light and warmth, and heat for cooking.
A candle is an ignitable wick embedded in wax, or another flammable solid substance such as tallow, that provides light, and in some cases, a fragrance.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in too much carbon monoxide (CO).
Carburizing, carburising (chiefly English), or carburization is a heat treatment process in which iron or steel absorbs carbon while the metal is heated in the presence of a carbon-bearing material, such as charcoal or carbon monoxide.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
A catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants by catalyzing a redox reaction (an oxidation and a reduction reaction).
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
Charring is a chemical process of incomplete combustion of certain solids when subjected to high heat.
A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a technological process typically employing a dual fluidized bed system (circulating fluidized bed process) where a metal oxide is employed as a bed material providing the oxygen for combustion in the fuel reactor.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chlorine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula ClF3.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
A combustion chamber is that part of an internal combustion engine (ICE) in which the fuel/air mix is burned.
Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed in a process called composting.
The contact process is the current method of producing sulfuric acid in the high concentrations needed for industrial processes.
Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Deflagration (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.
Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.
Explosive velocity, also known as detonation velocity or velocity of detonation (VoD), is the velocity at which the shock wave front travels through a detonated explosive.
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).
Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is an aqueous urea solution made with 32.5% urea and 67.5% deionized water.
Glassman,I., Yetter, R.A. (2008) Combustion.
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.
Dry distillation is the heating of solid materials to produce gaseous products (which may condense into liquids or solids).
Dust are fine particles of matter.
In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
An elementary reaction is a chemical reaction in which one or more chemical species react directly to form products in a single reaction step and with a single transition state.
Emission standards are the legal requirements governing air pollutants released into the atmosphere.
The term endothermic process describes the process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat.
Knocking (also knock,, spark knock, pinging or pinking) in spark-ignition internal combustion engines occurs when combustion of some of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not result from propagation of the flame front ignited by the spark plug, but one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front.
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyze, build, and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.
Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.
Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
An external combustion engine (EC engine) is a heat engine where a working fluid, contained internally, is heated by combustion in an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger.
Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.
The fire point of a fuel is the lowest temperature at which the vapour of that fuel will continue to burn for at least 5 seconds after ignition by an open flame.
A firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting, primarily to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten life, property and the environment as well as to rescue people and animals from dangerous situations.
Firewood is any wooden material that is gathered and used for fuel.
The first law of thermodynamics is a version of the law of conservation of energy, adapted for thermodynamic systems.
A flame (from Latin flamma) is the visible, gaseous part of a fire.
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source.
Flue gas is the gas exiting to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator.
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.
In spectroscopy, a forbidden mechanism (forbidden transition or forbidden line) is a spectral line associated with absorption or emission of light by atomic nuclei, atoms, or molecules which undergo a transition that is not allowed by a particular selection rule but is allowed if the approximation associated with that rule is not made.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as heat energy or to be used for work.
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work.
A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.
A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.
In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.
Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.
Heat treating (or heat treatment) is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Heterogeneous combustion, otherwise known as combustion in porous media, is a type of combustion in which a solid and gas phase interact to promote the complete transfer of reactants to their lower energy potential products.
In soil science, humus (derived in 1790–1800 from the Latin humus for earth, ground) denominates the fraction of soil organic matter that is amorphous and without the "cellular cake structure characteristic of plants, micro-organisms or animals." Humus significantly affects the bulk density of soil and contributes to its retention of moisture and nutrients.
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.
The hydroperoxyl radical, also known as the perhydroxyl radical, is the protonated form of superoxide with the chemical formula HO2.
The hydroxyl radical, •OH, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH−).
Incandescence is the emission of electromagnetic radiation (including visible light) from a hot body as a result of its temperature.
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
The International Flame Research Foundation – IFRF is a non-profit research association and network created in 1948 in IJmuiden (Netherlands), established in Livorno (Italy) between 2005 and 2016 (Fondazione Internazionale per la Ricerca Sulla Combustione – ONLUS), and in Sheffield (UK) since 2017.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container.
This is a list of sources of light, including both natural and artificial processes that emit light.
Polyurethane products have many uses.
In combustion engineering and explosion studies, the Markstein number characterizes the effect of local heat release of a propagating flame on variations in the surface topology along the flame and the associated local flame front curvature.
A mass balance, also called a material balance, is an application of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Micro-combustion is the sequence of exothermic chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat and conversion of chemical species at micro level.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.
Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.
Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or nitrous, is a chemical compound, an oxide of nitrogen with the formula.
In atmospheric chemistry, is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
An oil burner is a heating device which burns #1, #2 and #6 heating oils, diesel fuel or other similar fuels.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Peat, also called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, bogs, mires, moors, or muskegs.
A petrol engine (known as a gasoline engine in American English) is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels.
The phlogiston theory is a superseded scientific theory that postulated that a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.
Litterfall, plant litter, leaf litter, tree litter, soil litter, or duff, is dead plant material (such as leaves, bark, needles, twigs, and cladodes) that have fallen to the ground.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
A premixed flame is a flame formed under certain conditions during the combustion of a premixed charge (also called pre-mixture) of fuel and oxidiser.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
In materials science, quenching is the rapid cooling of a workpiece in water, oil or air to obtain certain material properties.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Renewable fuels are fuels produced from renewable resources.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
Sensible heat is heat exchanged by a body or thermodynamic system in which the exchange of heat changes the temperature of the body or system, and some macroscopic variables of the body or system, but leaves unchanged certain other macroscopic variables of the body or system, such as volume or pressure.
Singlet oxygen, systematically named dioxygen(singlet) and dioxidene, is a gaseous inorganic chemical with the formula O.
Smoke is a collection of airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass.
Smouldering (British English) or smoldering (American English; see spelling differences) is the slow, low-temperature, flameless form of combustion, sustained by the heat evolved when oxygen directly attacks the surface of a condensed-phase fuel.
Solid fuel refers to various forms of solid material that can be burnt to release energy, providing heat and light through the process of combustion.
Soot is a mass of impure carbon particles resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
Spontaneous combustion or spontaneous ignition is a type of combustion which occurs by self-heating (increase in temperature due to exothermic internal reactions), followed by thermal runaway (self heating which rapidly accelerates to high temperatures) and finally, autoignition.
A steam generator is a form of low water-content boiler, similar to a flash steam boiler.
Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.
Sulfur trioxide (alternative spelling sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.
The Combustion Institute is an educational non-profit, international, scientific and engineering society whose purpose is to promote research in combustion science.
All electronic devices and circuitry generate excess heat and thus require thermal management to improve reliability and prevent premature failure.
A thermal power station is a power station in which heat energy is converted to electric power.
Thermoacoustic engines (sometimes called "TA engines") are thermoacoustic devices which use high-amplitude sound waves to pump heat from one place to another, or conversely use a heat difference to induce high-amplitude sound waves.
A thermobaric weapon is a type of explosive that uses oxygen from the surrounding air to generate a high-temperature explosion, and in practice the blast wave typically produced by such a weapon is of a significantly longer duration than that produced by a conventional condensed explosive.
Thermogravimetric analysis or thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is a method of thermal analysis in which the mass of a sample is measured over time as the temperature changes.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Triplet oxygen, 3O2, refers to the S.
Ozone (O3) is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer).
Upholstery is the work of providing furniture, especially seats, with padding, springs, webbing, and fabric or leather covers.
Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR) describes the reaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen (the mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen (not water) is known as water gas): The water gas shift reaction was discovered by Italian physicist Felice Fontana in 1780.
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.
Wiley-VCH is a German publisher owned by John Wiley & Sons.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
Burning, Burning point, Combusting, Combustion Air, Combustion Gas, Combustion Product, Combustion air, Combustion chemistry, Combustion gas, Combustion phenomena, Combustion reaction, Combustion reactions, Combustion theory, Incomplete combustion, Rate of combustion.