298 relations: A-type main-sequence star, Absorption spectroscopy, Acetamide, Acetone, Act of God, Adenine, Albedo, Alexis Clairaut, Amateur astronomy, Amino acid, Ammonia, Ancient Greek, Andromedids, Antitail, Apsis, Arietids, Aristotle, Armageddon (1998 film), Arthur C. Clarke, Asphalt, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Astronomical symbols, Astronomical unit, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Atacama Large Millimeter Array, Australite, Barycenter, Beta Pictoris, Biela's Comet, Binoculars, Black-body radiation, Bow shocks in astrophysics, C/1861 J1, C/1980 E1 (Bowell), C/1999 F1, C/2000 U5, C/2001 Q4 (NEAT), C/2006 P1, C/2007 F1, C/2009 R1, C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy), C/2012 F6 (Lemmon), C/2013 A1, Cambridge University Press, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Cassini–Huygens, Centaur (minor planet), Ceres (dwarf planet), ..., Charles Messier, Chemical compound, Coma (cometary), Comet, Comet Arend–Roland, Comet dust, Comet Encke, Comet Hale–Bopp, Comet Holmes, Comet Hyakutake, Comet Ikeya–Seki, Comet ISON, Comet Kohoutek, Comet nucleus, Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9, Comet Swift–Tuttle, Comet tail, Comet vintages, Comet West, Conic section, Coronal mass ejection, Curve fitting, Cyanogen, Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs, Deep Impact (film), Deep Impact (spacecraft), Deep Space 1, DNA, Dry ice, Dust, Dwarf planet, Earth, Eccentricity (mathematics), Ecliptic, Edmond Halley, Electron, Elliptic orbit, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Ephorus, Epoch (astronomy), EPOXI, Ethane, Ethanol, Eudora Welty, European Southern Observatory, European Space Agency, Exocomet, Extinct comet, Far-infrared astronomy, Formaldehyde, Fred Lawrence Whipple, Fried ice cream, Friedrich Bessel, Galactic tide, Galaxy Science Fiction, Genesis flood narrative, Giant planet, Giotto (spacecraft), Glycine, Gram, Gravitational collapse, Gravity, Great comet, Great Comet of 1577, Great Comet of 1680, Great Comet of 1811, Great Comet of 1882, Great January Comet of 1910, Guanine, Halley Armada, Halley's Comet, Heaven's Gate (religious group), Herschel Space Observatory, Hill sphere, Hubble Space Telescope, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen cyanide, Hydrogen isocyanide, Hyperbolic trajectory, Icarus (journal), Ice, Immanuel Kant, Impact event, Indian astronomy, Instability, Ion, Ionosphere, Isaac Newton, James Thomson (poet, born 1700), Jan Oort, Jérôme Lalande, Jet force, Johann Georg Palitzsch, Joseph-Nicolas Delisle, JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System, Jules Verne, Jupiter, Kilogram, Kreutz sungrazer, Kuiper belt, Last Judgment, Latin, Latinisation of names, Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research, List of hyperbolic comets, List of impact craters on Earth, List of numbered comets, List of periodic comets, List of unconfirmed impact craters on Earth, Lists of comets, Lost comet, Lucifer's Hammer, Lunar water, Magnetic reconnection, Magnetosphere, Main-belt comet, Mark Twain, Mars, Mary Chapin Carpenter, Mercury (planet), Meteor shower, Meteorite, Meteoroid, Methane, Methanol, Methyl isocyanate, Milky Way, Molecule, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Naked eye, NASA, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Nature (journal), Near-Earth object, Neptune, Nicole-Reine Lepaute, Night of the Comet, Off on a Comet, Old English, Omen, Oort cloud, Oracle bone, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital elements, Orbital period, Order of magnitude, Organic compound, Origin of water on Earth, Orionids, Osculating orbit, Outer space, Outgassing, Oxford English Dictionary, Parabolic trajectory, Parallax, Perihelion and aphelion, Perseids, Perturbation (astronomy), Petroleum, Philae (spacecraft), Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Photochemistry, Photodissociation, Photoionization, Photon, Planetesimal, Pliny the Elder, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Popular culture, Princeton University Press, Propionaldehyde, Protein, Quadrantids, Radiation pressure, RNA, Rock (geology), ROSAT, Rosetta (spacecraft), Royal Society, Rubble pile, Saturn, Scattered disc, Science (journal), Science fiction, Scientific American, Shock synthesis, Shooting Straight in the Dark, Small Solar System body, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Solar irradiance, Solar System, Solar wind, Space probe, Spacecraft, Specific orbital energy, Springer Science+Business Media, Stardust (spacecraft), STEREO, Sun, Sunlight, Tar, Tektite, Telescope, Tempel 1, The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, The Big Splash (book), The New York Times, The Seasons (Thomson), Tidal force, Two-body problem, Tycho Brahe, Ultraviolet, Unicode, Uranus, Utpala (astronomer), Varāhamihira, Vega 1, Vega 2, Venus, Volatiles, Volatility (chemistry), Water, Water vapor, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, William Whiston, X-ray, Zodiac, 103P/Hartley, 11P/Tempel–Swift–LINEAR, 14827 Hypnos, 1618 in science, 166P/NEAT, 19P/Borrelly, 2060 Chiron, 2061: Odyssey Three, 29P/Schwassmann–Wachmann, 311P/PANSTARRS, 322P/SOHO, 3552 Don Quixote, 42P/Neujmin, 53P/Van Biesbroeck, 60558 Echeclus, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann, 81P/Wild, 96P/Machholz. Expand index (248 more) » « Shrink index
An A-type main-sequence star (A V) or A dwarf star is a main-sequence (hydrogen-burning) star of spectral type A and luminosity class V. These stars have spectra which are defined by strong hydrogen Balmer absorption lines.
Absorption spectroscopy refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample.
Acetamide (systematic name: ethanamide) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CONH2.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
In legal usage throughout the English-speaking world, an act of God is a natural hazard outside human control, such as an earthquake or tsunami, for which no person can be held responsible.
Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
Alexis Claude Clairaut (13 May 1713 – 17 May 1765) was a French mathematician, astronomer, and geophysicist.
Amateur astronomy is a hobby whose participants enjoy observing or imaging celestial objects in the sky using the unaided eye, binoculars, or telescopes.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Andromedids meteor shower is associated with Biela's Comet, the showers occurring as Earth passes through old streams left by the comet's tail.
An antitail is a spike projecting from a comet's coma which seems to go towards the Sun, and thus geometrically opposite to the other tails: the ion tail and the dust tail.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
The Arietids are a strong meteor shower that lasts from May 22 to July 2 each year, and peaks on June 7.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Armageddon is a 1998 American science fiction disaster film directed by Michael Bay, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, and released by Touchstone Pictures.
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.
Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy & Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is an astronomical interferometer of radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
Australites are tektites found in Australia.
The barycenter (or barycentre; from the Ancient Greek βαρύς heavy + κέντρον centre) is the center of mass of two or more bodies that are orbiting each other, which is the point around which they both orbit.
Beta Pictoris (β Pic, β Pictoris) is the second brightest star in the constellation Pictor.
Biela's Comet or Comet Biela (official designation: 3D/Biela) was a periodic Jupiter-family comet first recorded in 1772 by Montaigne and Messier and finally identified as periodic in 1826 by Wilhelm von Biela.
Binoculars or field glasses are two telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.
Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).
Bow shocks form the boundary between a magnetosphere and an ambient magnetized medium.
The Great Comet of 1861 formally designated C/1861 J1 and 1861 II, is a long-period comet that was visible to the naked eye for approximately 3 months.
C/1980 E1 is a non-periodic comet discovered by Edward L. G. Bowell on 11 February 1980.
C/1999 F1 (Catalina) is one of the longest known long-period comets.
C/2000 U5 (LINEAR) is a single-apparition comet discovered on October 29, 2000, by Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research.
C/2001 Q4 (NEAT) is a comet with an unusual, almost perpendicular retrograde orbit which brings it into the inner solar system by a deeply southward path.
Comet McNaught, also known as the Great Comet of 2007 and given the designation C/2006 P1, is a non-periodic comet discovered on 7 August 2006 by British-Australian astronomer Robert H. McNaught using the Uppsala Southern Schmidt Telescope.
C/2007 F1 (LONEOS) is a hyperbolic comet discovered on March 19, 2007 as part as the Lowell Observatory Near Earth Object Search (LONEOS).
C/2009 R1, one of more than fifty comets known as Comet McNaught, is a non-periodic comet discovered by British-Australian astronomer Robert H. McNaught on September 9, 2009, using the Uppsala Southern Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia.
Comet Lovejoy, formally designated C/2011 W3 (Lovejoy), is a long-period comet and Kreutz Sungrazer.
C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) is a long-period comet discovered in Leo on 23 March 2012, by A. R. Gibbs using the 1.5-m reflector at the Mt. Lemmon Survey, located at the summit of Mount Lemmon in the Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, Arizona, USA.
C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) is an Oort cloud comet discovered on 3 January 2013 by Robert H. McNaught at Siding Spring Observatory using the Uppsala Southern Schmidt Telescope.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Centaurs are small solar system bodies with a semi-major axis between those of the outer planets.
Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.
Charles Messier (26 June 1730 – 12 April 1817) was a French astronomer most notable for publishing an astronomical catalogue consisting of nebulae and star clusters that came to be known as the 110 "Messier objects".
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
The coma is the nebulous envelope around the nucleus of a comet, formed when the comet passes close to the Sun on its highly elliptical orbit; as the comet warms, parts of it sublime.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
Comet Arend–Roland was discovered on November 8, 1956, by Belgian astronomers Sylvain Arend and Georges Roland on photographic plates.
Comet dust refers to cosmic dust that originates from a comet.
Comet Encke or Encke's Comet (official designation: 2P/Encke) is a periodic comet that completes an orbit of the Sun once every 3.3 years.
Comet Hale–Bopp (formally designated C/1995 O1) is a comet that was perhaps the most widely observed of the 20th century, and one of the brightest seen for many decades.
Comet Holmes (official designation: 17P/Holmes) is a periodic comet in the Solar System, discovered by the British amateur astronomer Edwin Holmes on November 6, 1892.
Comet Hyakutake (formally designated C/1996 B2) is a comet, discovered on 31 January 1996, that passed very close to Earth in March of that year.
Comet Ikeya–Seki, formally designated C/1965 S1, 1965 VIII, and 1965f, was a long-period comet discovered independently by Kaoru Ikeya and Tsutomu Seki.
Comet ISON, formally known as C/2012 S1, was a sungrazing comet discovered on 21 September 2012 by Vitaly Nevsky (Виталий Невский, Vitebsk, Belarus) and Artyom Novichonok (Артём Новичонок, Kondopoga, Russia).
Comet Kohoutek, formally designated C/1973 E1, 1973 XII, and 1973f, was first sighted on 7 March 1973 by Czech astronomer Luboš Kohoutek.
The nucleus is the solid, central part of a comet, popularly termed a dirty snowball or an icy dirtball.
Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (formally designated D/1993 F2) was a comet that broke apart in July 1992 and collided with Jupiter in July 1994, providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System objects.
Comet Swift–Tuttle (formally designated 109P/Swift–Tuttle) is a periodic comet with a current (osculating) orbital period of 133 years.
A comet tail—and coma—are features visible in comets when they are illuminated by the Sun and may become visible from Earth when a comet passes through the inner Solar System.
Comet vintages are years during which an astronomical event, involving generally a "Great Comet", occurs prior to harvest.
Comet West, formally designated C/1975 V1, 1976 VI, and 1975n, was a comet described as one of the brightest objects to pass through the inner solar system in 1976.
In mathematics, a conic section (or simply conic) is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane.
A coronal mass ejection (CME) is a significant release of plasma and magnetic field from the solar corona.
Curve fitting is the process of constructing a curve, or mathematical function, that has the best fit to a series of data points, possibly subject to constraints.
Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula (CN)2.
Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs: The Astounding Interconnectedness of the Universe is a 2015 non-fiction book by Harvard astrophysicist Lisa Randall.
Deep Impact is a 1998 American science-fiction disaster film directed by Mimi Leder, written by Bruce Joel Rubin and Michael Tolkin, and starring Robert Duvall, Téa Leoni, Elijah Wood, Vanessa Redgrave, Maximilian Schell, and Morgan Freeman.
Deep Impact was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 18:47 UTC on January 12, 2005.
Deep Space 1 (DS1) was a NASA technology demonstration spacecraft which flew by an asteroid and a comet.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Dry ice, sometimes referred to as "cardice" (chiefly by British chemists), is the solid form of carbon dioxide.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
In mathematics, the eccentricity, denoted e or \varepsilon, is a parameter associated with every conic section.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Ephorus of Cyme (Ἔφορος ὁ Κυμαῖος, Ephoros ho Kymaios; c. 400 – 330 BC), often named in conjunction with his birthplace Cyme, Aeolia, was an ancient Greek historian.
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
EPOXI is a compilation of NASA Discovery program missions led by the University of Maryland and principal investigator Michael A'Hearn, with co-operation from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Ball Aerospace.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Eudora Alice Welty (April 13, 1909 – July 23, 2001) was an American short story writer and novelist who wrote about the American South.
The European Southern Observatory (ESO) is a 15-nation intergovernmental research organization for ground-based astronomy.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
An exocomet, or extrasolar comet, is a comet outside the Solar System, which includes interstellar comets and those that orbit stars other than the Sun.
An extinct comet is a comet that has expelled most of its volatile ice and has little left to form a tail and coma.
Far-infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics that deals with objects visible in far-infrared radiation (extending from 30 µm towards submillimeter wavelengths around 450 µm).
Fred Lawrence Whipple (November 5, 1906 – August 30, 2004) was an American astronomer, who worked at the Harvard College Observatory for over 70 years.
Fried ice cream is a dessert made from a breaded scoop of ice cream that is quickly deep-fried creating a warm, crispy shell around the still-cold ice cream.
Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (22 July 1784 – 17 March 1846) was a German astronomer, mathematician, physicist and geodesist.
A galactic tide is a tidal force experienced by objects subject to the gravitational field of a galaxy such as the Milky Way.
Galaxy Science Fiction was an American digest-size science fiction magazine, published from 1950 to 1980.
The Genesis flood narrative is a flood myth found in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 6–9 in the Book of Genesis).
A giant planet is any massive planet.
Giotto was a European robotic spacecraft mission from the European Space Agency.
Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
Gravitational collapse is the contraction of an astronomical object due to the influence of its own gravity, which tends to draw matter inward toward the center of gravity.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
A great comet is a comet that becomes exceptionally bright.
The Great Comet of 1577 (official designation: C/1577 V1) is a non-periodic comet that passed close to Earth during the year 1577 AD.
C/1680 V1, also called the Great Comet of 1680, Kirch's Comet, and Newton's Comet, has the distinction of being the first comet discovered by telescope.
The Great Comet of 1811, formally designated C/1811 F1, is a comet that was visible to the naked eye for around 260 days, a record it held until the appearance of Comet Hale–Bopp in 1997.
The Great Comet of 1882 formally designated C/1882 R1, 1882 II, and 1882b, was a comet which became very bright in September 1882.
The Great January Comet of 1910, formally designated C/1910 A1 and often referred to as the Daylight Comet,.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
The Halley Armada is the name of five space probes sent to examine Halley's Comet during its 1986 sojourn through the inner Solar System, connected with apparition "1P/1982 U1".
Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.
Heaven's Gate was an American UFO religious millenarian cult based in San Diego, California, founded in 1974 and led by Marshall Applewhite (1931–1997) and Bonnie Nettles (1927–1985).
The Herschel Space Observatory was a space observatory built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA).
An astronomical body's Hill sphere is the region in which it dominates the attraction of satellites.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), sometimes called prussic acid, is a chemical compound with the chemical formula HCN.
Hydrogen isocyanide is a chemical with the molecular formula HNC.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, a hyperbolic trajectory is the trajectory of any object around a central body with more than enough speed to escape the central object's gravitational pull.
Icarus is a scientific journal dedicated to the field of planetary science.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.
Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times.
In numerous fields of study, the component of instability within a system is generally characterized by some of the outputs or internal states growing without bounds.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
James Thomson (c. 11 September 1700 – 27 August 1748) was a British poet and playwright, known for his poems The Seasons and The Castle of Indolence, and for the lyrics of "Rule, Britannia!".
Jan Hendrik Oort (or; 28 April 1900 – 5 November 1992) was a Dutch astronomer who made significant contributions to the understanding of the Milky Way and who was a pioneer in the field of radio astronomy.
Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (11 July 1732 – 4 April 1807) was a French astronomer, freemason and writer.
Jet force is the exhaust from some machine, esp.
Johann Georg Palitzsch (11 June 1723 – 21 February 1788) was a German astronomer who became famous for recovering Comet 1P/Halley (better known as Halley's Comet) on Christmas Day, 1758.
Joseph-Nicolas Delisle (4 April 1688 – 11 September 1768) was a French astronomer and cartographer.
JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System provides easy access to key Solar System data and flexible production of highly accurate ephemerides for Solar System objects.
Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
The Kreutz sungrazers (pronounced kroits) are a family of sungrazing comets, characterized by orbits taking them extremely close to the Sun at perihelion.
The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
The Last Judgment, Final Judgment, Day of Judgment, Judgment Day, Doomsday, or The Day of the Lord (Hebrew Yom Ha Din) (יום הדין) or in Arabic Yawm al-Qiyāmah (یوم القيامة) or Yawm ad-Din (یوم الدین) is part of the eschatological world view of the Abrahamic religions and in the Frashokereti of Zoroastrianism.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.
The Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research (LINEAR) project is a collaboration of the United States Air Force, NASA, and the MIT's Lincoln Laboratory for the systematic detection and tracking of near-Earth objects.
This is a list of parabolic and hyperbolic comets in the Solar System.
This list of impact craters on Earth contains a selection of the 190 confirmed craters given in the Earth Impact Database.
This is a list of periodic comets that were numbered by the Minor Planet Center after having been observed on at least two occasions.
Periodic comets (also known as short-period comets) are comets having orbital periods of less than 200 years or that have been observed during more than a single perihelion passage (e.g. 153P/Ikeya–Zhang).
This list of more than 130 possible impact craters on Earth includes theoretical impact sites that have appeared several times in the literature, or may have been endorsed by the Impact Field Studies Group (IFSG) or Expert Database on Earth Impact Structures (EDEIS), but not yet confirmed by the Earth Impact Database (EID).
Non-periodic comets are seen only once.
A lost comet is a previously discovered comet that has been missed at its most recent perihelion passage, generally because there is not enough data to calculate reliably the comet's orbit and predict its location.
Lucifer's Hammer is a science fiction post-apocalypse / survival novel by American writers Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle, first published in 1977.
Lunar water is water that is present on the Moon.
Magnetic reconnection is a physical process in highly conducting plasmas in which the magnetic topology is rearranged and magnetic energy is converted to kinetic energy, thermal energy, and particle acceleration.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
Main-belt comets (MBCs) are bodies orbiting within the asteroid belt that have shown comet-like activity during part of their orbit.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mary Chapin Carpenter (born February 21, 1958) is an American singer-songwriter.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
A meteor shower is a celestial event in which a number of meteors are observed to radiate, or originate, from one point in the night sky.
A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
Methyl isocyanate (MIC) is an organic compound with the molecular formula CH3NCO.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Naked eye, also called bare eye or unaided eye, is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical instrument, such as a telescope or microscope.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (MagLab) is a facility at Florida State University, the University of Florida, and Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, that performs magnetic field research in physics, biology, bioengineering, chemistry, geochemistry, biochemistry.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A near-Earth object (NEO) is any small Solar System body whose orbit can bring it into proximity with Earth.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
Nicole-Reine Lepaute (née Étable de la Briere; also known as Hartense Lepaute or Hortense Lepaute), (5 January 1723 – 6 December 1788) was a French astronomer and mathematician.
Night of the Comet is a 1984 American science fiction horror comedy film written and directed by Thom Eberhardt.
Off on a Comet (Hector Servadac) is an 1877 science fiction novel by Jules Verne.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
An omen (also called portent or presage) is a phenomenon that is believed to foretell the future, often signifying the advent of change.
The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from.
Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
The origin of water on Earth, or the reason that there is clearly more liquid water on Earth than on the other rocky planets of the Solar System, is not completely understood.
The Orionid meteor shower, usually shortened to the Orionids, is the most prolific meteor shower associated with Halley's Comet.
In astronomy, and in particular in astrodynamics, the osculating orbit of an object in space at a given moment in time is the gravitational Kepler orbit (i.e. ellipse or other conic) that it would have about its central body if perturbations were not present.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Outgassing (sometimes called offgassing, particularly when in reference to indoor air quality) is the release of a gas that was dissolved, trapped, frozen or absorbed in some material.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a parabolic trajectory is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity equal to 1.
Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.
The Perseids are prolific meteor showers associated with the comet Swift–Tuttle.
In astronomy, perturbation is the complex motion of a massive body subject to forces other than the gravitational attraction of a single other massive body.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Philae is a robotic European Space Agency lander that accompanied the ''Rosetta'' spacecraft until it separated to land on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, ten years and eight months after departing Earth.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
Photoionization is the physical process in which an ion is formed from the interaction of a photon with an atom or molecule.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Planetesimals are solid objects thought to exist in protoplanetary disks and in debris disks.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Propionaldehyde or propanal is the organic compound with the formula CH3CH2CHO.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The Quadrantids (QUA) are a January meteor shower.
Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface due to the exchange of momentum between the object and the electromagnetic field.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
ROSAT (short for Röntgensatellit, in German X-rays are called Röntgenstrahlen, in honour of Wilhelm Röntgen) was a German Aerospace Center-led satellite X-ray telescope, with instruments built by West Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Rosetta was a space probe built by the European Space Agency launched on 2 March 2004.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
In astronomy, a rubble pile is a celestial body that is not a monolith, consisting instead of numerous pieces of rock that have coalesced under the influence of gravity.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant circumstellar disc in the Solar System that is sparsely populated by icy small solar system bodies, and are a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Shock synthesis is the process of complex organic chemical creation through high velocity impact on simple amino acids, theorized to take place when a comet strikes a planetary body, or through the shock-wave created by a thunder clap.
Shooting Straight in the Dark is Mary Chapin Carpenter's third studio album.
A small Solar System body (SSSB) is an object in the Solar System that is neither a planet, nor a dwarf planet, nor a natural satellite.
The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft built by a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi Space (now Astrium) that was launched on a Lockheed Martin Atlas II AS launch vehicle on December 2, 1995, to study the Sun, and has discovered over 3000 comets.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
In the gravitational two-body problem, the specific orbital energy \epsilon\,\! (or vis-viva energy) of two orbiting bodies is the constant sum of their mutual potential energy (\epsilon_p\,\!) and their total kinetic energy (\epsilon_k\,\!), divided by the reduced mass.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stardust was a 390 kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on 7 February 1999.
STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) is a solar observation mission.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.
Tektites (from Greek τηκτός tēktós, "molten") are gravel-sized bodies composed of black, green, brown, or gray natural glass formed from terrestrial debris ejected during meteorite impacts.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
Tempel 1 (official designation: 9P/Tempel) is a periodic Jupiter-family comet discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1867.
The Astronomical Journal (often abbreviated AJ in scientific papers and references) is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal owned by the American Astronomical Society and currently published by IOP Publishing.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The Big Splash: A Scientific Discovery That Revolutionizes the Way We View the Origin of Life, the Water We Drink, the Death of the Dinosaurs, the Creation of the Oceans, the Nature of the Cosmos, and the Very Future of the Earth Itself is a 1990 book written by Louis A. Frank with Patrick Huyghe.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Seasons is a series of four poems written by the Scottish author James Thomson.
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.
In classical mechanics, the two-body problem is to determine the motion of two point particles that interact only with each other.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Utpala or is the name of a 10th-century Indian commentator of Vārāha Mihira's Brihat Samhitā.
Vārāhamihira (505–587 CE), also called Vārāha or Mihira, was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain.
Vega 1 (along with its twin Vega 2) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program.
Vega 2 (along with Vega 1) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December 2009, and placed in hibernation in February 2011.
William Whiston (9 December 1667 – 22 August 1752) was an English theologian, historian, and mathematician, a leading figure in the popularisation of the ideas of Isaac Newton.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.
Comet Hartley 2, designated as 103P/Hartley by the Minor Planet Center, is a small periodic comet with an orbital period of 6.46 years.
11P/Tempel–Swift–LINEAR is a periodic Jupiter-family comet in the Solar System.
14827 Hypnos, provisional designation, is a highly eccentric, sub-kilometer-sized carbonaceous asteroid that is thought to be an extinct comet.
The year 1618 in science and technology involved some significant events.
166P/NEAT is a periodic comet and centaur in the outer Solar System.
Comet Borrelly or Borrelly's Comet (official designation: 19P/Borrelly) is a periodic comet, which was visited by the spacecraft Deep Space 1 in 2001.
2060 Chiron, provisional designation, and also known as 95P/Chiron, is a minor planet in the outer Solar System, orbiting the Sun between Saturn and Uranus.
2061: Odyssey Three is a science fiction novel by British writer Arthur C. Clarke, published in 1987.
Comet 29P/Schwassmann–Wachmann, also known as Schwassmann–Wachmann 1, was discovered on November 15, 1927, by Arnold Schwassmann and Arno Arthur Wachmann at the Hamburg Observatory in Bergedorf, Germany.
311P/PANSTARRS also known as P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS) is an asteroid (or main-belt comet) discovered by the Pan-STARRS telescope on 27 August 2013.
Comet 322P/SOHO, also designated P/1999 R1, P/2003 R5, P/2007 R5, and P/2011 R4, is the first periodic comet to be discovered using the automated telescopes of the SOHO (SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory) spacecraft, and second to be given a numbered designation, after 321P/SOHO.
3552 Don Quixote, provisionally designated, is an exceptionally eccentric asteroid, classified as a near-Earth object of the Amor group, Mars-crosser and Jupiter-crosser, as well as centaur and extinct comet.
42P/Neujmin, also known as Neujmin 3, is a periodic comet 2 km in diameter.
53P/Van Biesbroeck is a periodic comet 7 km in diameter.
60558 Echeclus is a centaur in the outer Solar System.
67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (abbreviated as 67P or 67P/C-G) is a Jupiter-family comet, originally from the Kuiper belt, with a current orbital period of 6.45 years, a rotation period of approximately 12.4 hours and a maximum velocity of.
73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann, also known as Schwassmann–Wachmann 3, is a periodic comet in the Solar System that is in the process of disintegrating.
Comet 81P/Wild, also known as Wild 2 (pronounced "vilt two"), is a comet named after Swiss astronomer Paul Wild, who discovered it on January 6, 1978, using a 40-cm Schmidt telescope at Zimmerwald, Switzerland.
Comet 96P/Machholz or 96P/Machholz 1 is a short-period sungrazing comet discovered on May 12, 1986, by amateur astronomer Donald Machholz on Loma Prieta peak, in central California using binoculars.
A1 comet, Black comets, COMET, Coma (astronomy), Comet Tails, Comet tails, Cometary, Cometary nuclei, Comets, Commet, Dirty snowball, Dirty snowball hypothesis, Dirty snowball model, Dirty snowball theory, Disconnection event, Encke-type comet, Halley-type comet, Jupiter family, Jupiter family comet, Jupiter-family comet, Long period comet, Long-period comet, Plasma tail, Short period comets, Short-period comet, ☄.