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Comma

Index Comma

The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages. [1]

159 relations: A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Adobe Systems, Adverb, Aldus Manutius, Alexander John Ellis, Ancient Greek, AP Stylebook, Apostrophe, Apposition, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic diacritics, Arabic script, Aristophanes of Byzantium, Armenian alphabet, Array data type, Ascender (typography), ASCII, Asyndeton, Bamum script, Brazil, C (programming language), Caron, Cedilla, Character (computing), China, Chinese punctuation, Clause, Colon (punctuation), Comma operator, Comma splice, Comma-separated values, Concatenation, Conjunction (grammar), Continental Europe, Cuatrillo, Cyrillic script, Czech language, D-comma, Decimal separator, Dependent clause, Descender, Diacritic, Dze, E. B. White, Enclosed Alphanumeric Supplement, English language, Estonian language, ʻOkina, Finnish Kalo language, ..., Full stop, Ge'ez script, Georgian scripts, German language, Glyph, Grammar, Greek language, Guatemala, Harvard University Press, Haverford College, Hawaiian language, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew punctuation, Hellenic Organization for Standardization, Henry Watson Fowler, Hexadecimal, HTML, Hypodiastole, Imperative mood, Independent clause, Interpunct, Japan, Japanese punctuation, Japanese writing system, Joseph Robertson (priest), Korean punctuation, Lakota language, Latin America, Latin script, Latvian language, Latvian orthography, List of typographical symbols, Lisu language, Livonian language, Logical conjunction, Lynne Truss, Macro (computer science), Manchu alphabet, Medefaidrin, Middle Ages, Mongolian script, N'Ko alphabet, Nasalization, Newsweek, Numeric character reference, Ogonek, Optical character recognition, Oxford University Press, Palaeography, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (phonetics), Parameter (computer programming), Parenthesis (rhetoric), Persian language, Pinyin, Polish language, Prachalit Nepal alphabet, Prolog, Punctuation, Quotation mark, Raid on Alexandria (1941), Reading (process), Relative clause, Restrictiveness, Robert Burchfield, Robert J. Samuelson, Romance languages, Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanization of Greek, Romanization of Japanese, Rough breathing, Royal Mail, Rule of thumb, Semicolon, Sentence (linguistics), Serial comma, SignWriting, Silent letter, Simplified Chinese characters, Sindhi language, Skolt Sami language, Slash (punctuation), Slovak language, Smalltalk, Smooth breathing, Statement (computer science), Stop consonant, Subject (grammar), Subroutine, Syriac alphabet, Thaana, The Chicago Manual of Style, The Elements of Style, The Guardian, Traditional Chinese characters, Typeface, Typikon, Uganda, Unicode, United States, United States Government Publishing Office, United States Postal Service, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urdu, Vai syllabary, William Strunk Jr., Written Chinese, Z. Expand index (109 more) »

A Dictionary of Modern English Usage

A Dictionary of Modern English Usage (1926), by Henry Watson Fowler (1858–1933), is a style guide to British English usage, pronunciation, and writing.

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Adobe Systems

Adobe Systems Incorporated, commonly known as Adobe, is an American multinational computer software company.

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Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.

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Aldus Manutius

Aldus Pius Manutius (Aldo Pio Manuzio; 1449/14526 February 1515) was a Venetian humanist, scholar, and educator.

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Alexander John Ellis

Alexander John Ellis, (14 June 1814 – 28 October 1890) was an English mathematician, philologist and early phonetician, who also influenced the field of musicology.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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AP Stylebook

The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, usually called the AP Stylebook, is an English grammar style and usage guide created by American journalists working for or connected with the Associated Press over the last century to standardize mass communications.

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Apostrophe

The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.

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Apposition

Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to identify the other in a different way; the two elements are said to be in apposition.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic alphabet

The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.

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Arabic diacritics

The Arabic script has numerous diacritics, including i'jam -, consonant pointing and tashkil -, supplementary diacritics.

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Arabic script

The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.

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Aristophanes of Byzantium

Aristophanes of Byzantium (Ἀριστοφάνης ὁ Βυζάντιος; BC) was a Hellenistic Greek scholar, critic and grammarian, particularly renowned for his work in Homeric scholarship, but also for work on other classical authors such as Pindar and Hesiod.

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Armenian alphabet

The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.

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Array data type

Language support for array types may include certain built-in array data types, some syntactic constructions (array type constructors) that the programmer may use to define such types and declare array variables, and special notation for indexing array elements.

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Ascender (typography)

In typography, an ascender is the portion of a minuscule letter in a Latin-derived alphabet that extends above the mean line of a font.

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ASCII

ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

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Asyndeton

Asyndeton (from the ἀσύνδετον, "unconnected", sometimes called asyndetism) is a literary scheme in which one or several conjunctions are deliberately omitted from a series of related clauses.

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Bamum script

The Bamum scripts are an evolutionary series of six scripts created for the Bamum language by King Njoya of Cameroon at the turn of the 19th century.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

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Caron

A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.

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Cedilla

A cedilla (from Spanish), also known as cedilha (from Portuguese) or cédille (from French), is a hook or tail (¸) added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation.

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Character (computing)

In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese punctuation

Chinese punctuation uses a different set of punctuation marks from European languages, although the concept of modern standard punctuation was adapted in the written language during the 20th century from Western punctuation marks.

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Clause

In grammar, a clause is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete proposition.

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Colon (punctuation)

The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.

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Comma operator

In the C and C++ programming languages, the comma operator (represented by the token) is a binary operator that evaluates its first operand and discards the result, and then evaluates the second operand and returns this value (and type).

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Comma splice

In English grammar, a comma splice or comma fault is the use of a comma to join two independent clauses.

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Comma-separated values

In computing, a comma-separated values (CSV) file is a delimited text file that uses a comma to separate values.

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Concatenation

In formal language theory and computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining character strings end-to-end.

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Conjunction (grammar)

In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.

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Continental Europe

Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.

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Cuatrillo

Cuatrillo (capital: Ꜭ, small: ꜭ) (Spanish for "little four") is a letter of several colonial Mayan alphabets in the Latin script that is based on the digit 4.

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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D-comma

D̦ d̦ (D-comma) is a letter that was part of the Romanian alphabet to represent the sound or if it was derived from a Latin d (e.g. d̦i, pronounced came from Latin die, day).

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Decimal separator

A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form.

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Dependent clause

A dependent clause is a clause that provides a sentence element with additional information, but which cannot stand alone as a sentence.

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Descender

In typography, a descender is the portion of a letter that extends below the baseline of a font.

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Diacritic

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Dze

Dze (Ѕ ѕ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used in the Macedonian language to represent the voiced alveolar affricate, pronounced like ⟨ds⟩ in "pods".

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E. B. White

Elwyn Brooks White (July 11, 1899 – October 1, 1985) was an American writer and a world federalist.

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Enclosed Alphanumeric Supplement

Enclosed Alphanumeric Supplement is a Unicode block consisting Latin alphabet characters and Hindu-Arabic numerals enclosed in circles, ovals or boxes, used for a variety of purposes.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Estonian language

Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.

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ʻOkina

The okina, also called by several other names, is a unicameral consonant letter used within the Latin script to mark the phonemic glottal stop, as it is used in many Polynesian languages.

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Finnish Kalo language

Finnish Kalo (Fíntika Rómma) is a language of the Romani language family (a subgroup of Indo-European) spoken by Finnish Kale.

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Full stop

The full point or full stop (British and broader Commonwealth English) or period (North American English) is a punctuation mark.

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Ge'ez script

Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Georgian scripts

The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Glyph

In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.

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Grammar

In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Guatemala

Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Haverford College

Haverford College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in Haverford, Pennsylvania.

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Hawaiian language

The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.

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Hebrew alphabet

The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.

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Hebrew punctuation

Hebrew punctuation is similar to that of English and other Western languages, Modern Hebrew having imported additional punctuation marks from these languages in order to avoid the ambiguities sometimes occasioned by the relative paucity of such symbols in Biblical Hebrew.

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Hellenic Organization for Standardization

The Hellenic Organization for Standardization (Ελληνικός Οργανισμός Τυποποίησης, Ellīnikós Organismós Typopoíīsīs; abbreviated ΕΛΟΤ in Greek and ELOT in English) is the national standards organization for the Hellenic Republic (Greece).

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Henry Watson Fowler

Henry Watson Fowler (10 March 1858 – 26 December 1933) was an English schoolmaster, lexicographer and commentator on the usage of the English language.

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Hexadecimal

In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.

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HTML

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.

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Hypodiastole

The hypodiastole (Greek: ὑποδιαστολή,, "lower separation "), also known as a diastole, was an interpunct developed in late classical and Byzantine Greek texts before the separation of words by spaces was commonplace.

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Imperative mood

The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

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Independent clause

; An independent clause (or main clause) is a clause that can stand by itself as a simple sentence.

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Interpunct

An interpunct (&middot), also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot, and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Japanese punctuation

includes various written marks (besides characters and numbers), which differ from those found in European languages, as well as some not used in formal Japanese writing but frequently found in more casual writing, such as exclamation and question marks.

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Japanese writing system

The modern Japanese writing system uses a combination of logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic kana.

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Joseph Robertson (priest)

Joseph Robertson (1726–1802) was an English clergyman and writer.

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Korean punctuation

For the Korean language, South Korea mainly uses a combination of East Asian and European punctuation, while North Korea uses a little more of the East Asian punctuation style.

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Lakota language

Lakota (Lakȟótiyapi), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes.

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Latin America

Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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Latvian language

Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Latvian orthography

Latvian orthography, historically, has used a system based upon German phonetic principles and the Latgalian dialect was written using Polish orthographic principles.

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List of typographical symbols

This is a list of typographical symbols.

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Lisu language

Lisu (Lisu: ꓡꓲ-ꓢꓴ or ꓡꓲꓢꓴ;; လီဆူဘာသာစကား) is a tonal Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Yunnan (southwestern China), northern Burma (Myanmar), and Thailand and a small part of India.

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Livonian language

Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.

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Logical conjunction

In logic, mathematics and linguistics, And (∧) is the truth-functional operator of logical conjunction; the and of a set of operands is true if and only if all of its operands are true.

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Lynne Truss

Lynne Truss (born 31 May 1955) is an English author, journalist, novelist, and radio broadcaster and dramatist.

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Macro (computer science)

A macro (short for "macroinstruction", from Greek μακρός 'long') in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence (often a sequence of characters) should be mapped to a replacement output sequence (also often a sequence of characters) according to a defined procedure.

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Manchu alphabet

The Manchu alphabet is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu language; a similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language variably considered as either a dialect of Manchu or a closely related, mutually intelligible, language.

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Medefaidrin

Medefaidrin (Medefidrin), or Obɛri Ɔkaimɛ, is an artificial language and script created as a Christian sacred language by an Ibibio congregation in 1930s Nigeria.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mongolian script

The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.

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N'Ko alphabet

N'Ko is both a script devised by Solomana Kante in 1949, as a writing system for the Manding languages of West Africa, and the name of the literary language written in that script.

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Nasalization

In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.

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Newsweek

Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.

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Numeric character reference

A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and SGML-derived markup languages such as HTML and XML.

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Ogonek

The ogonek (Polish:, "little tail", the diminutive of ogon; nosinė, "nasal") is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages.

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Optical character recognition

Optical character recognition (also optical character reader, OCR) is the mechanical or electronic conversion of images of typed, handwritten or printed text into machine-encoded text, whether from a scanned document, a photo of a document, a scene-photo (for example the text on signs and billboards in a landscape photo) or from subtitle text superimposed on an image (for example from a television broadcast).

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Palaeography

Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatalization (phonetics)

In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.

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Parameter (computer programming)

In computer programming, a parameter (often called formal parameter or formal argument) is a special kind of variable, used in a subroutine to refer to one of the pieces of data provided as input to the subroutine.

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Parenthesis (rhetoric)

In rhetoric, a parenthesis (plural: parentheses; from the Ancient Greek word παρένθεσις parénthesis 'injection, insertion', literally '(a) putting in beside') or parenthetical phrase is an explanatory or qualifying word, clause, or sentence inserted into a passage.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Pinyin

Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.

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Polish language

Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.

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Prachalit Nepal alphabet

Prachalit Nepal script is a type of Abugida script developed from the Mol script derivatives of Brahmi script.

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Prolog

Prolog is a general-purpose logic programming language associated with artificial intelligence and computational linguistics.

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Punctuation

Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.

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Quotation mark

Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.

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Raid on Alexandria (1941)

The Raid on Alexandria was carried out on 19 December 1941 by Italian Navy divers of the Decima Flottiglia MAS, who attacked and disabled two Royal Navy battleships in the harbour of Alexandria, Egypt, using manned torpedoes.

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Reading (process)

Reading is a complex "cognitive process" of decoding symbols in order to construct or derive meaning (reading comprehension).

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Relative clause

A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.

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Restrictiveness

In semantics, a modifier is said to be restrictive (or defining) if it restricts the reference of its head.

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Robert Burchfield

Robert William Burchfield CNZM, CBE (27 January 1923 – 5 July 2004) was a lexicographer, scholar, and writer, who edited the Oxford English Dictionary for thirty years to 1986, and was Chief Editor from 1971.

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Robert J. Samuelson

Robert Jacob Samuelson (born December 23, 1945) is a journalist for The Washington Post, where he has written about business and economic issues since 1977.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romanian alphabet

The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.

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Romanian language

Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

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Romanization of Greek

Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet.

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Romanization of Japanese

The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.

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Rough breathing

In the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, the rough breathing (dasỳ pneûma or δασεῖα daseîa; δασεία dasía; Latin spīritus asper), is a diacritical mark used to indicate the presence of an sound before a vowel, diphthong, or after rho.

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Royal Mail

Royal Mail plc (Post Brenhinol; a' Phuist Rìoghail) is a postal service and courier company in the United Kingdom, originally established in 1516.

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Rule of thumb

The English phrase rule of thumb refers to a principle with broad application that is not intended to be strictly accurate or reliable for every situation.

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Semicolon

The semicolon or semi colon is a punctuation mark that separates major sentence elements.

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Sentence (linguistics)

In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.

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Serial comma

In English language punctuation, a serial comma or series comma (also called an Oxford comma or a Harvard comma) is a comma placed immediately before the coordinating conjunction (usually and or or) in a series of three or more terms.

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SignWriting

Sutton SignWriting, or simply, SignWriting, is a system of writing sign languages.

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Silent letter

In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.

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Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.

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Sindhi language

Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.

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Skolt Sami language

Skolt Sami (sääʹmǩiõll 'the Saami language' or nuõrttsääʹmǩiõll if a distinction needs to be made between it and the other Sami languages) is a Uralic, Sami language that is spoken by the Skolts, with approximately 300 speakers in Finland, mainly in Sevettijärvi and approximately 20–30 speakers of the Njuõʹttjäuʹrr (Notozero) dialect in an area surrounding Lake Lovozero in Russia.

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Slash (punctuation)

The slash is an oblique slanting line punctuation mark.

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Slovak language

Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

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Smalltalk

Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.

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Smooth breathing

The smooth breathing (psilòn pneûma; ψιλή psilí; spīritus lēnis) is a diacritical mark used in polytonic orthography.

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Statement (computer science)

In computer programming, a statement is a syntactic unit of an imperative programming language that expresses some action to be carried out.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Subject (grammar)

The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.

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Subroutine

In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.

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Syriac alphabet

The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.

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Thaana

Thaana, Taana or Tāna (  in Tāna script) is the present writing system of the Maldivian language spoken in the Maldives.

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The Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style (abbreviated in writing as CMOS or CMS, or sometimes as Chicago) is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press.

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The Elements of Style

The Elements of Style is a prescriptive American English writing style guide in numerous editions.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.

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Typeface

In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.

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Typikon

Typikon (or typicon, typica; Τυπικόν, "that of the prescribed form"; Slavonic: Тvпико́нъ Typikonə or Оуставъ, ustavə) is a liturgical book which contains instructions about the order of the Byzantine Rite office and variable hymns of the Divine Liturgy.

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Uganda

Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

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Unicode

Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Government Publishing Office

The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.

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United States Postal Service

The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.

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University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.

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Urdu

Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.

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Vai syllabary

The Vai syllabary is a syllabic writing system devised for the Vai language by Momolu Duwalu Bukele of Jondu, in what is now Grand Cape Mount County, Liberia.

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William Strunk Jr.

William Strunk Jr. (July 1, 1869 – September 26, 1946) was an American professor of English at Cornell University and author of The Elements of Style (1918).

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Written Chinese

Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.

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Z

Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comma

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