245 relations: Abort, Retry, Fail?, About URI scheme, Acorn Computers, ActivePerl, Adverb, Alias (command), Almquist shell, Android (operating system), Apple DOS, Apple II, Apple Lisa, Applesoft BASIC, Application software, ASCII art, Backslash, Bash (Unix shell), BASIC, Batch file, Batch processing, BBC BASIC, BBC Micro, Bell Labs, Bourne shell, Brian Kernighan, Bulletin board system, Business Basic, BusyBox, C (programming language), C shell, C++, Caldera (company), Case sensitivity, Cathode ray tube, Cisco IOS, Cisco Systems, Client (computing), Clig, Cmd.exe, Colossal Cave Adventure, Command (computing), Command-line completion, Command-line interface, COMMAND.COM, Commodore PET, Comparison of command shells, Compatible Time-Sharing System, Computer file, Computer mouse, Computer operator, Computer program, ..., Computer programming, Computer terminal, CONFIG.SYS, Console application, Conversational Monitor System, CP/M, Cygwin, Darwin (operating system), Data compression, Data General, Data General RDOS, Data stream, Debug (command), Default (computer science), Delimiter, Desktop metaphor, Dialog box, DIGITAL Command Language, Digital Equipment Corporation, DOS, DOS Shell, Douglas Adams, DR-DOS, E Text Editor, Emacs, Embedded system, Enter key, Entry point, Environment variable, Escape character, Eval, Everything is a file, Executable, File manager, File Transfer Protocol, FlexOS, Forth (programming language), FreeBSD, FreeDOS, General Software, GEOS (16-bit operating system), Getopt, Getopts, Glenda Schroeder, Glob (programming), GNU, Google, Graphical user interface, Hamilton C shell, Help (command), Hostname, Hyphen-minus, IBM, IBM Personal Computer, In the Beginning... Was the Command Line, Inter-process communication, Interactive fiction, Interix, Interpreted language, Interpreter (computing), Interpreter directive, Java (programming language), John Wiley & Sons, Julia (programming language), Juniper Networks, Junos OS, Jython, Ken Thompson, Keyboard shortcut, King's Quest, KornShell, Linux distribution, Linux on embedded systems, Lisp (programming language), List of command-line interpreters, Louis Pouzin, Lua (programming language), Macintosh, MacOS, Man page, MATLAB, Menu (computing), Microcomputer revolution, Microsoft, Microsoft POSIX subsystem, Microsoft Windows, MinGW, MIT Computation Center, MKS Inc., MKS Toolkit, Mode (computer interface), MS-DOS, Multics, Multiuser DOS, Named pipe, Natural user interface, Newline, Nortel, Numerical analysis, Open-source model, OpenVMS, Operating system, OS/2, PARC (company), PATH (variable), Perl, PHP, Pipeline (Unix), PL/I, Pointer (user interface), PowerShell, Prentice Hall, Presentation Manager, Programming language, Prompt, PTS-DOS, Python (programming language), QBasic, Read–eval–print loop, Redirection (computing), Refreshable braille display, Resident monitor, Resource Kit, Restricted shell, Rexx, RISC OS, Rm (Unix), Rob Pike, Router (computing), RSTS/E, RSX-11, Ruby (programming language), Run command, Run commands, Scripting language, Secure Shell, Semantics, Sense switch, Serial port, Shebang (Unix), Shell (computing), Shell script, Standard streams, String (computer science), Subroutine, Sudo, Superuser, Syntax (programming languages), System administrator, System call, System console, System Management Interface Tool, Take Command (command line interpreter), Take Command Console, Tcl, Tcsh, Teleprinter, Teletype Model 33, Telnet, Terminal (macOS), Terminal emulator, Terminate and stay resident program, Text editor, Text-based user interface, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (video game), The Open Group, Thompson shell, Time-sharing, Tk (software), Underscore, Unix, Unix shell, Unix-like, User (computing), Utility software, UWIN, Verb, Vertical bar, VT52, Web application, Whitespace character, Windows 3.1x, Windows 95, Windows Embedded Compact, Windows Script Host, Windows Services for UNIX, WinZip, Working directory, Wrapper function, XLNT, Z shell, .NET Framework, 4690 Operating System, 4DOS, 4OS2. Expand index (195 more) » « Shrink index
"Abort, Retry, Fail?" is a computer error message found in the DOS operating systems, which prompts the end-user for a course of action to follow.
about is an internal URI scheme (also known as a "URL scheme" or, erroneously, "protocol") implemented in various Web browsers to reveal internal state and built-in functions.
Acorn Computers Ltd. was a British computer company established in Cambridge, England, in 1978.
ActivePerl is a distribution of Perl from ActiveState (formerly part of Sophos) for Windows, macOS, Linux, Solaris, AIX and HP-UX.
An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
In computing, alias is a command in various command line interpreters (shells) such as Unix shells, 4DOS/4NT and Windows PowerShell, which enables a replacement of a word by another string.
Almquist shell (also known as A Shell, ash and sh) is a lightweight Unix shell originally written by Kenneth Almquist in the late 1980s.
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
Apple DOS is the family of disk operating systems for the Apple II series of microcomputers from late 1978 through early 1983.
The Apple II (stylized as Apple.
The Apple Lisa is a desktop computer developed by Apple, released on January 19, 1983.
Applesoft BASIC is a dialect of Microsoft BASIC, developed by Marc McDonald and Ric Weiland, supplied with the Apple II series of computers.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
ASCII art is a graphic design technique that uses computers for presentation and consists of pictures pieced together from the 95 printable (from a total of 128) characters defined by the ASCII Standard from 1963 and ASCII compliant character sets with proprietary extended characters (beyond the 128 characters of standard 7-bit ASCII).
The backslash (\) is a typographical mark (glyph) used mainly in computing and is the mirror image of the common slash (/).
Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
A batch file is a kind of script file in DOS, OS/2 and Microsoft Windows.
In computing, batch processing refers to a computer working through a queue or batch of separate jobs (programs) without manual intervention (non-interactive).
BBC BASIC is a programming language, developed in 1981 as a native programming language for the MOS Technology 6502 based Acorn BBC Micro home/personal computer.
The British Broadcasting Corporation Microcomputer System, or BBC Micro, is a series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by the Acorn Computer company for the BBC Computer Literacy Project, operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
The Bourne shell (sh) is a shell, or command-line interpreter, for computer operating systems.
Brian Wilson Kernighan (born January 1, 1942) is a Canadian computer scientist who worked at Bell Labs alongside Unix creators Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie and contributed to the development of Unix.
A bulletin board system or BBS (also called Computer Bulletin Board Service, CBBS) is a computer server running software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program.
Business Basic is a category of variants of the BASIC computer programming language which were specialised for business use on minicomputers in the 1970s and 1980s.
BusyBox is software that provides several stripped-down Unix tools in a single executable file.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
The C shell (csh or the improved version, tcsh) is a Unix shell created by Bill Joy while he was a graduate student at University of California, Berkeley in the late 1970s.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
Caldera was a US-based software company founded in 1994 to develop Linux- and DOS-based operating system products.
In computers, upper case and lower case text may be treated as distinct (case sensitivity) or equivalent (case insensitivity).
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
Cisco IOS (originally Internetwork Operating System) is a family of software used on most Cisco Systems routers and current Cisco network switches.
Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley, that develops, manufactures and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products.
A client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server.
clig (Command Line Interpreter Generator) is a *NIX command line utility which uses a simple description file to create C code to interpret the typical *NIX command line as well as an up-to-date usage message and a manual page skeleton.
Command Prompt, also known as cmd.exe or cmd (after its executable file name), is the command-line interpreter on Windows NT, Windows CE, OS/2 and eComStation operating systems.
Colossal Cave Adventure (also known as ADVENT, Colossal Cave, or Adventure) is a text adventure game, developed originally in 1976, by Will Crowther for the PDP-10 mainframe.
In computing, a command is a directive to a computer program acting as an interpreter of some kind, in order to perform a specific task.
Command-line completion (also tab completion) is a common feature of command line interpreters, in which the program automatically fills in partially typed commands.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
COMMAND.COM is the default command-line interpreter for DOS, Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows ME.
The Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) is a line of home/personal computers produced starting in 1977 by Commodore International.
A command shell is a command line interface computer program to an operating system.
The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at the MIT Computation Center.
A computer file is a computer resource for recording data discretely in a computer storage device.
A computer mouse is a hand-held pointing device that detects two-dimensional motion relative to a surface.
A role in IT, computer operators oversee the running of computer systems, ensuring that the machines and computers are running properly.
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
Computer programming is the process of building and designing an executable computer program for accomplishing a specific computing task.
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.
CONFIG.SYS is the primary configuration file for the DOS and OS/2 operating systems.
A console application is a computer program designed to be used via a text-only computer interface, such as a text terminal, the command line interface of some operating systems (Unix, DOS, etc.) or the text-based interface included with most Graphical User Interface (GUI) operating systems, such as the Win32 console in Microsoft Windows, the Terminal in Mac OS X, and xterm in Unix.
The Conversational Monitor System (CMS – originally: "Cambridge Monitor System") is a simple interactive single-user operating system.
CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.
Cygwin is a Unix-like environment and command-line interface for Microsoft Windows.
Darwin is an open-source Unix operating system first released by Apple Inc. in 2000.
In signal processing, data compression, source coding, or bit-rate reduction involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation.
Data General was one of the first minicomputer firms from the late 1960s.
The Data General RDOS (Real-time Disk Operating System) was a real-time operating system released in 1970.
In connection-oriented communication, a data stream is a sequence of digitally encoded coherent signals (packets of data or data packets) used to transmit or receive information that is in the process of being transmitted.
debug is a command in DOS, OS/2 and Microsoft Windows (only in 32bitAccording to, inline assembly is not supported for x64.) which runs the program debug.exe (or DEBUG.COM in DOS version 4.x and older).
A default, in computer science, refers to the preexisting value of a user-configurable setting that is assigned to a software application, computer program or device.
A delimiter is a sequence of one or more characters used to specify the boundary between separate, independent regions in plain text or other data streams.
In computing, the desktop metaphor is an interface metaphor which is a set of unifying concepts used by graphical user interfaces to help users interact more easily with the computer.
The graphical control element dialog box (also called dialogue box (British English) or just dialog) is a small window that communicates information to the user and prompts them for a response.
DIGITAL Command Language (DCL) is the standard command language adopted by most of the operating systems (OSs) that were sold by the former Digital Equipment Corporation (which was acquired by Compaq, which was in turn acquired by Hewlett-Packard).
Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
DOS Shell is a file manager, debuted in MS-DOS and IBM PC DOS version 4.0 (June 1988).
Douglas Noel Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, scriptwriter, essayist, humorist, satirist and dramatist.
DR-DOS (DR DOS, without hyphen up to and including version 6.0) is an operating system of the DOS family, written for IBM PC-compatible personal computers.
E Text Editor is a text editor for Microsoft Windows.
Emacs is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
On computer keyboards, the enter key (or the return key on Macs and most Sun Workstations) in most cases causes a command line, window form, or dialog box to operate its default function.
In computer programming, an entry point is where control is transferred from the operating system to a computer program, at which place the processor enters a program or a code fragment and execution begins.
An environment variable is a dynamic-named value that can affect the way running processes will behave on a computer.
In computing and telecommunication, an escape character is a character which invokes an alternative interpretation on subsequent characters in a character sequence.
In some programming languages, eval is a function which evaluates a string as though it were an expression and returns a result; in others, it executes multiple lines of code as though they had been included instead of the line including the eval.
"Everything is a file" describes one of the defining features of Unix, and its derivatives — that a wide range of input/output resources such as documents, directories, hard-drives, modems, keyboards, printers and even some inter-process and network communications are simple streams of bytes exposed through the filesystem name space.
In computing, executable code or an executable file or executable program, sometimes simply referred to as an executable or binary, causes a computer "to perform indicated tasks according to encoded instructions," as opposed to a data file that must be parsed by a program to be meaningful.
A file manager or file browser is a computer program that provides a user interface to manage files and folders.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
FlexOS is a discontinued modular real-time multi-user multi-tasking operating system (RTOS) designed for computer-integrated manufacturing, laboratory, retail and financial markets.
Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.
FreeBSD is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descended from Research Unix via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD).
FreeDOS (formerly Free-DOS and PD-DOS) is a free operating system for IBM PC compatible computers.
General Software was a Washington, USA based creator and supplier of system software headquartered in Bellevue, Washington.
GEOS (also later known as Geoworks Ensemble, NewDeal Office and Breadbox Ensemble) is a computer operating environment, graphical user interface, and suite of application software.
getopt is a C library function used to parse command-line options.
getopts is a built-in Unix shell command for parsing command-line arguments.
Glenda Schroeder is an American software engineer noted for implementing the first command-line user interface shell and publishing one of the earliest research papers describing electronic mail systems while working as a member of the staff at the MIT Computation Center in 1965.
In computer programming, glob patterns specify sets of filenames with wildcard characters.
GNU is an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software.
Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
Hamilton C shell is a clone of the Unix C shell and utilities Early for Microsoft Windows created by Nicole Hamilton at Hamilton Laboratories as a completely original work, not based on any prior code.
In computing, help is a command in various command line shells such as COMMAND.COM, cmd.exe, Bash, 4DOS/4NT, Windows PowerShell, Singularity shell, Python and GNU Octave.
In computer networking, a hostname (archaically nodename) is a label that is assigned to a device connected to a computer network and that is used to identify the device in various forms of electronic communication, such as the World Wide Web.
The hyphen-minus (-) is a character used in digital documents and computing to represent a hyphen (‐) or a minus sign (−).
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version and progenitor of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.
In the Beginning...
In computer science, inter-process communication or interprocess communication (IPC) refers specifically to the mechanisms an operating system provides to allow the processes to manage shared data.
Interactive fiction, often abbreviated IF, is software simulating environments in which players use text commands to control characters and influence the environment.
Interix was an optional, POSIX-conformant Unix subsystem for Windows NT operating systems.
An interpreted language is a type of programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly and freely, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.
In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that directly executes, i.e. performs, instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a machine language program.
An interpreter directive is a computer language construct, that on some systems is better described as an aspect of the system's executable file format, that is used to control which interpreter parses and interprets the instructions in a computer program.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Julia is a high-level dynamic programming language designed to address the needs of high-performance numerical analysis and computational science, without the typical need of separate compilation to be fast, while also being effective for general-purpose programming, web use or as a specification language.
Juniper Networks, Inc. is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Sunnyvale, California that develops and markets networking products.
Junos OS (more formally Juniper Network Operating System) is the FreeBSD-based operating system used in Juniper Networks hardware routers.
Jython is an implementation of the Python programming language designed to run on the Java platform.
Kenneth Lane "Ken" Thompson (born February 4, 1943), commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles, is an American pioneer of computer science.
In computing, a keyboard shortcut is a series of one or several keys, such as Ctrl+F to search a character string.
King's Quest is a graphic adventure game series created by the American software company Sierra Entertainment.
KornShell (ksh) is a Unix shell which was developed by David Korn at Bell Labs in the early 1980s and announced at USENIX on July 14, 1983.
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
Operating systems based on the Linux kernel are used in embedded systems such as consumer electronics (i.e. set-top boxes, smart TVs, personal video recorders (PVRs), in-vehicle infotainment (IVI), networking equipment (such as routers, switches, wireless access points (WAPs) or wireless routers), machine control, industrial automation, navigation equipment, spacecraft flight software, and medical instruments in general).
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
In computing, a command-line interpreter, or command language interpreter, is a blanket term for a certain class of programs designed to read lines of text entered by a user, thus implementing a command-line interface.
Louis Pouzin (born 1931 in Chantenay-Saint-Imbert, Nièvre, France) invented the datagram and designed an early packet communications network, CYCLADES.
Lua (from meaning moon) is a lightweight, multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded use in applications.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.
A man page (short for manual page) is a form of software documentation usually found on a Unix or Unix-like operating system.
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks.
In computing and telecommunications, a menu is a list of options or commands presented to the user of a computer or communications system.
The microcomputer revolution (or personal computer revolution or digital revolution) is a phrase used to describe the rapid advances of microprocessor-based computers from esoteric hobby projects to a commonplace fixture of homes in industrial societies during the 1970s and 1980s.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft POSIX subsystem is one of four subsystems shipped with the first versions of Windows NT.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
MinGW (Minimalist GNU for Windows), formerly mingw32, is a free and open source software development environment for creating Microsoft Windows applications.
The MIT Computation Center was organized in 1956 as a 10-year joint venture between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and IBM to provide computing resources for New England universities.
MKS, Inc (formerly called Mortice Kern Systems) is a subsidiary of PTC, Inc.
MKS Toolkit is a software package produced and maintained by that provides a Unix-like environment for scripting, connectivity and porting Unix and Linux software to both 32- and 64-bit Microsoft Windows systems.
In user interface design, a mode is a distinct setting within a computer program or any physical machine interface, in which the same user input will produce perceived results different to those that it would in other settings.
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.
Multiuser DOS is a real-time multi-user multi-tasking operating system for IBM PC-compatible microcomputers.
In computing, a named pipe (also known as a FIFO for its behavior) is an extension to the traditional pipe concept on Unix and Unix-like systems, and is one of the methods of inter-process communication (IPC).
In computing, a natural user interface, or NUI, or natural interface is a user interface that is effectively invisible, and remains invisible as the user continuously learns increasingly complex interactions.
Newline (frequently called line ending, end of line (EOL), line feed, or line break) is a control character or sequence of control characters in a character encoding specification, e.g. ASCII or EBCDIC.
Nortel Networks Corporation, formerly known as Northern Telecom Limited, Northern Electric and sometimes known simply as Nortel, was a multinational telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.
Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation (as opposed to general symbolic manipulations) for the problems of mathematical analysis (as distinguished from discrete mathematics).
The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.
OpenVMS is a closed-source, proprietary computer operating system for use in general-purpose computing.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
OS/2 is a series of computer operating systems, initially created by Microsoft and IBM under the leadership of IBM software designer Ed Iacobucci.
PARC (Palo Alto Research Center; formerly Xerox PARC) is a research and development company in Palo Alto, California, with a distinguished reputation for its contributions to information technology and hardware systems.
PATH is an environment variable on Unix-like operating systems, DOS, OS/2, and Microsoft Windows, specifying a set of directories where executable programs are located.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
In Unix-like computer operating systems, a pipeline is a sequence of processes chained together by their standard streams, so that the output of each process (stdout) feeds directly as input (stdin) to the next one.
PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.
In computing, a pointer or mouse cursor (as part of a personal computer WIMP style of interaction) is a symbol or graphical image on the computer monitor or other display device that echoes movements of the pointing device, commonly a mouse, touchpad, or stylus pen.
PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
Presentation Manager (PM) is the graphical user interface (GUI) that IBM and Microsoft introduced in version 1.1 of their operating system OS/2 in late 1988.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Prompt may refer to.
PTS-DOS is a disk operating system, an MS-DOS clone, developed in Russia by PhysTechSoft.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
QBasic, a short form of Quick Beginners All purpose Symbolic Instruction Code, is an integrated development environment and interpreter for a variety of BASIC programming languages which are based on QuickBASIC.
A Read–Eval–Print Loop (REPL), also known as an interactive toplevel or language shell, is a simple, interactive computer programming environment that takes single user inputs (i.e. single expressions), evaluates them, and returns the result to the user; a program written in a REPL environment is executed piecewise.
In computing, redirection is a form of interprocess communication, and is a function common to most command-line interpreters, including the various Unix shells that can redirect standard streams to user-specified locations.
A refreshable braille display or braille terminal is an electro-mechanical device for displaying braille characters, usually by means of round-tipped pins raised through holes in a flat surface.
In computing, a resident monitor is a type of system software program that was used in many early computers from the 1950s to 1970s.
Resource Kit is a term used by Microsoft for a set of software resources and documentation released for their software products, but which is not part of that product.
The restricted shell is a Unix shell that restricts some of the capabilities available to an interactive user session, or to a shell script, running within it.
Rexx (Restructured Extended Executor) is an interpreted programming language developed at IBM by Mike Cowlishaw.
RISC OS is a computer operating system originally designed by Acorn Computers Ltd in Cambridge, England.
rm (short for remove) is a basic UNIX command used to remove objects such as files, directories and symbolic links from filesystems and also special files such as device nodes, pipes and sockets.
Robert "Rob" C. Pike (born 1956) is a Canadian programmer and author.
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.
RSTS is a multi-user time-sharing operating system, initially developed by Evans, Griffiths, & Hart of Boston, and acquired by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC, now part of Hewlett Packard) for the PDP-11 series of 16-bit minicomputers.
RSX-11 is a discontinued family of multi-user real-time operating systems for PDP-11 computers created by Digital Equipment Corporation.
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.
On the Microsoft Windows operating system, the Run command is used to directly open an application or document whose path is known.
In the context of Unix-like systems, the term rc stands for the phrase "run commands".
A scripting or script language is a programming language that supports scripts: programs written for a special run-time environment that automate the execution of tasks that could alternatively be executed one-by-one by a human operator.
Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
A sense switch, or program switch, is a switch on the front panel of a computer whose state can be tested by conditional branch instructions in software.
In computing, a serial port is a serial communication interface through which information transfers in or out one bit at a time (in contrast to a parallel port).
In computing, a shebang is the character sequence consisting of the characters number sign and exclamation mark at the beginning of a script.
In computing, a shell is a user interface for access to an operating system's services.
A shell script is a computer program designed to be run by the Unix shell, a command-line interpreter.
In computer programming, standard streams are preconnected input and output communication channels between a computer program and its environment when it begins execution.
In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
In computer programming, a subroutine is a sequence of program instructions that performs a specific task, packaged as a unit.
sudo is a program for Unix-like computer operating systems that allows users to run programs with the security privileges of another user, by default the superuser.
In computing, the superuser is a special user account used for system administration.
In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language.
A system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems; especially multi-user computers, such as servers.
In computing, a system call is the programmatic way in which a computer program requests a service from the kernel of the operating system it is executed on.
The system console, computer console, root console, operator's console, or simply console is the text entry and display device for system administration messages, particularly those from the BIOS or boot loader, the kernel, from the init system and from the system logger.
The System Management Interface Tool (SMIT) is a menu-based management tool for the IBM AIX operating system.
Take Command was the name that JP Software used for their GUI command-line interpreters for Windows 3.1 (TC16), Windows 32-bit (TC32) and later OS/2 Presentation Manager (TCOS2).
Take Command Console (TCC), formerly known as 4DOS for Windows NT (4NT), is a command line interpreter by JP Software, designed as a substitute for the default command interpreter in Microsoft Windows, CMD.EXE.
Tcl (pronounced "tickle" or tee cee ell) is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.
tcsh (“tee-see-shell”, “tee-shell”, or as “tee see ess aitch”) is a Unix shell based on and compatible with the C shell (csh).
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
The Teletype Model 33 is an electromechanical teleprinter designed for light-duty office.
Telnet is a protocol used on the Internet or local area network to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection.
Terminal (Terminal.app) is the terminal emulator included in the macOS operating system by Apple.
A terminal emulator, terminal application, or term, is a program that emulates a video terminal within some other display architecture.
Regarding computers, a terminate and stay resident program (commonly referred to by the initialism TSR) is a computer program that uses a system call in DOS operating systems to return control of the computer to the operating system, as though the program has quit, but stays resident in computer memory so it can be reactivated by a hardware or software interrupt.
A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text.
Text-based user interface (TUI), also called textual user interface or terminal user interface, is a retronym coined sometime after the invention of graphical user interfaces.
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy is an interactive fiction video game based on the comedic science fiction series of the same name.
The Open Group is an industry consortium that seeks to "enable the achievement of business objectives" by developing "open, vendor-neutral technology standards and certifications".
The Thompson shell is the first Unix shell, introduced in the first version of Unix in 1971, and was written by Ken Thompson.
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.
Tk is a free and open-source, cross-platform widget toolkit that provides a library of basic elements of GUI widgets for building a graphical user interface (GUI) in many programming languages.
The symbol underscore (_), also called underline, low line or low dash, is a character that originally appeared on the typewriter and was primarily used to underline words.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional Unix-like command line user interface.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
A user is a person who utilizes a computer or network service.
Utility software is system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer.
UWIN is a computer software package created by David Korn which allows programs written for the operating system Unix to be built and run on Microsoft Windows with few, if any, changes.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
The vertical bar (|) is a computer character and glyph with various uses in mathematics, computing, and typography.
The VT50 was a CRT-based computer terminal introduced by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in July 1974.
In computing, a web application or web app is a client–server computer program which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser.
In computer programming, white space is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.
Windows 3.1x (codenamed Janus) is a series of 16-bit operating environments produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers.
Windows 95 (codenamed Chicago) is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft.
Windows Embedded Compact, formerly Windows Embedded CE and Windows CE, is an operating system subfamily developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows Embedded family of products.* Unlike Windows Embedded Standard, which is based on Windows NT, Windows Embedded Compact uses a different hybrid kernel.
The Microsoft Windows Script Host (WSH) (formerly named Windows Scripting Host) is an automation technology for Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides scripting abilities comparable to batch files, but with a wider range of supported features.
Windows Services for UNIX (SFU) is a discontinued software package produced by Microsoft which provided a Unix environment on Windows NT and some of its immediate successor operating-systems.
WinZip is a trialware file archiver and compressor for Windows, macOS, iOS and Android developed by WinZip Computing (formerly Nico Mak Computing).
In computing, the working directory of a process is a directory of a hierarchical file system, if any, dynamically associated with each process.
A wrapper function is a subroutine in a software library or a computer program whose main purpose is to call a second subroutine or a system call with little or no additional computation.
XLNT is a scripting language for Windows platforms based on the DCL language for VAX-VMS machines.
The Z shell (Zsh) is a Unix shell that can be used as an interactive login shell and as a command interpreter for shell scripting.
.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.
4690 Operating System, sometimes shortened to 4690 OS or 4690 is a specially designed Point of Sale operating system, originally sold by IBM; however, in 2012 IBM sold its retail business, including this product, to Toshiba, who now supports it.
4DOS is a command line interpreter by JP Software, designed to replace the default command interpreter COMMAND.COM in DOS and Windows 95/98/SE/ME.
4OS2 is the OS/2 analogue of 4NT and 4DOS by JP Software, Inc.
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