184 relations: Abuja Securities and Commodities Exchange, Alternative trading system, Aluminium, Aluminium alloy, American International Group, Australian dollar, B3 (stock exchange), Bahrain, Benchmark (crude oil), BlackRock, Blood diamond, Board of Trade of City of Chicago v. Olsen, Bond market, Brent Crude, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bursa Malaysia, Call option, Central counterparty clearing, Chicago Board of Trade, Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Citigroup, Clay, Clearing house (finance), CME Group, Cobalt, Cocoa bean, Coffee, Commodity, Commodity Exchange Act, Commodity Exchange Bratislava, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Commodity Futures Trading Commission Act of 1974, Commodity index fund, Commodity money, Commodity price index, Contract for difference, Copper, Cornell Law School, Cornell University, Counterparty, Cyprus, Dalian Commodity Exchange, De Beers, Decimal, Derivative (finance), Derivatives market, Diversification (finance), Dmitry Medvedev, Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Dubai Gold & Commodities Exchange, ..., Dubai Mercantile Exchange, Economic and Financial Affairs Council, Economic sector, Electronic communication network, Emerging markets, ETF Securities, Ethanol, Ethiopia Commodity Exchange, Euronext, Euronext Amsterdam, European Central Bank, European Commission, European Parliament, European Securities and Markets Authority, Exchange (organized market), Exchange-traded derivative contract, Exchange-traded fund, Exchange-traded note, Farmers' market, Financial Information eXchange, Financial Services Action Plan, Foreign exchange market, Forward contract, Forward price, Fuel hedging, Future Trading Act, Futures contract, Gasoline, Genetically modified organism, Gibbon, Gold, Goldman Sachs, Grain Futures Act, Heating oil, Heavy crude oil, High-frequency trading, Hill v. Wallace, Hong Kong Mercantile Exchange, Imperial units, Index (economics), Intercontinental Exchange, International Trade Centre, Investment Company Act of 1940, Iran, Iranian oil bourse, Iraq, IShares, Jerry Markham, Kansas City Board of Trade, Lead, Light crude oil, List of commodities exchanges, List of commodity booms, London bullion market, London Metal Exchange, Malaysian ringgit, Margin (finance), Marius Vassiliou, Market maker, Marketplace, Markets in Financial Instruments Directive 2004, Metric system, Metrication, Minneapolis Grain Exchange, Molybdenum, Multi Commodity Exchange, National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange, National Futures Association, National Spot Exchange, Natural gas, New York Board of Trade, New York City, New York Mercantile Exchange, New York Stock Exchange, Nickel, No-action letter, Oil, Open outcry, Option (finance), Organic farming, Over-the-counter (finance), Palladium, Palm oil, Pension fund, Petroleum, Platinum, Pork belly, Precious metal, Propane, Real prices and ideal prices, Reinsurance, Rosario Board of Trade, Royal Bank of Canada, S&P GSCI, Securities and Exchange Board of India, Securities Exchange Act of 1934, Sergey Aleynikov, Silver, Silver exchange-traded product, Singapore Exchange, Social Science Research Network, Soft commodity, Software as a service, Sovereign wealth fund, Soybean, SPDR Gold Shares, Spot contract, Steel, Stock market, Strike price, Sugar, Sumer, Swap (finance), Terephthalic acid, Thomson Reuters/CoreCommodity CRB Index, Ticker symbol, Tin, Tokyo Commodity Exchange, Tonne, Triple Point Technology, Troy weight, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, UBS, Underlying, United States Congress, Venezuela, Volatility (finance), West Texas Intermediate, Wheat, Winnipeg Commodity Exchange, World Bank, World Federation of Diamond Bourses, World Gold Council, 2012–13 Cypriot financial crisis. Expand index (134 more) » « Shrink index
The Abuja Securities and Commodities Exchange (ASCE) is (besides the Nigerian Stock Exchange) one of two principal stock exchanges in Nigeria.
Alternative trading system (ATS) is a US and Canadian regulatory term for a non-exchange trading venue that matches buyers and sellers to find counterparties for transactions.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium alloys (or aluminum alloys; see spelling differences) are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal.
American International Group, Inc., also known as AIG, is an American multinational finance and insurance corporation with operations in more than 80 countries and jurisdictions.
The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including its external territories Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.
The B3 (in full, B3 - Brasil Bolsa Balcão S.A.), formerly BM&FBOVESPA, is a Stock Exchange located at São Paulo, Brazil.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
A benchmark crude or marker crude is a crude oil that serves as a reference price for buyers and sellers of crude oil.
BlackRock, Inc. is an American global investment management corporation based in New York City.
Blood diamonds (also called conflict diamonds, war diamonds, hot diamonds, or red diamonds) is a term used for a diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency, an invading army's war efforts, or a warlord's activity.
Board of Trade of City of Chicago v. Olsen, 262 U.S. 1 (1923), is a United States Supreme Court decision in which the Court upheld the Grain Futures Act as constitutional under the Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution.
The bond market (also debt market or credit market) is a financial market where participants can issue new debt, known as the primary market, or buy and sell debt securities, known as the secondary market.
Brent Crude is a major trading classification of sweet light crude oil that serves as a major benchmark price for purchases of oil worldwide.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is a unit of the United States Department of Labor.
Bursa Malaysia Berhad is an exchange holding company approved under Section 15 of the Capital Markets and Services Act 2007.
A call option, often simply labeled a "call", is a financial contract between two parties, the buyer and the seller of this type of option.
Central counterparty clearing (CCP), also referred to as a central counterparty, is a financial institution that takes on counterparty credit risk between parties to a transaction and provides clearing and settlement services for trades in foreign exchange, securities, options, and derivative contracts.
The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), established on April 3, 1848, is one of the world's oldest futures and options exchanges.
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) (often called "the Chicago Merc", or "the Merc") is an American financial and commodity derivative exchange based in Chicago and located at 20 S. Wacker Drive.
Citigroup Inc. or Citi (stylized as citi) is an American multinational investment bank and financial services corporation headquartered in New York City.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
A clearing house is a financial institution formed to facilitate the exchange (i.e., clearance) of payments, securities, or derivatives transactions.
CME Group Inc. (Chicago Mercantile Exchange & Chicago Board of Trade) is an American financial market company operating an options and futures exchange.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
Commodity Exchange Act (ch. 545,, enacted June 15, 1936) is a federal act passed in 1936 by the U.S. Government (replacing the Grain Futures Act of 1922).
Commodity Exchange Bratislava, JSC (Komoditná burza Bratislava, a.s. (KBB), Warenbörse Bratislava, AG) formerly BMKB, then BCE, now CEB is a European commodity exchange made for organising market with commodities according to adjudication of Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic.
The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent agency of the US government created in 1974, that regulates futures and option markets.
Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-463) created the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, to replace the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Commodity Exchange Authority, as the independent federal agency responsible for regulating the futures trading industry.
A commodity index fund is a fund whose assets are invested in financial instruments based on or linked to a commodity price index.
Commodity money is money whose value comes from a commodity of which it is made.
A commodity price index is a fixed-weight index or (weighted) average of selected commodity prices, which may be based on spot or futures prices.
In finance, a contract for difference (CFD) is a contract between two parties, typically described as "buyer" and "seller", stipulating that the seller will pay to the buyer the difference between the current value of an asset and its value at contract time (if the difference is negative, then the buyer pays instead to the seller).
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cornell Law School is the law school of Cornell University, a private Ivy League university located in Ithaca, New York.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
A counterparty (sometimes contraparty) is a legal entity, unincorporated entity, or collection of entities to which an exposure to financial risk might exist.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Dalian Commodity Exchange (DCE) is a Chinese futures exchange based in Dalian, Liaoning province, China.
The De Beers Group of Companies is an international corporation that specialises in diamond exploration, diamond mining, diamond retail, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors.
The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.
The derivatives market is the financial market for derivatives, financial instruments like futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of assets.
In finance, diversification is the process of allocating capital in a way that reduces the exposure to any one particular asset or risk.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (commonly referred to as Dodd–Frank) was signed into United States federal law by US President Barack Obama on July 21, 2010.
The Dubai Gold & Commodities Exchange (DGCX) is a financial and commodity derivatives exchange located in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates.
The Dubai Mercantile Exchange (DME) is a commodity exchange based in Dubai currently listing its flagship futures contract, DME Oman Crude Oil Futures Contract (OQD).
The Economic and Financial Affairs Council (ECOFIN) is one of the oldest configurations of the Council of the European Union and is composed of the economics and finance ministers of the 28 European Union member states, as well as Budget Ministers when budgetary issues are discussed.
One classical breakdown of economic activity distinguishes three sectors.
An electronic communication network (ECN) is a type of computerized forum or network that facilitates the trading of financial products outside traditional stock exchanges.
An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.
ETF Securities is an asset management firm focused on exchange-traded funds (ETFs), exchange-traded commodities (Commodity ETCs) and exchange-traded currencies (Currency ETCs) with offices in Jersey, London, New York, Sydney and Melbourne.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
The Ethiopia Commodity Exchange (ECX) is a commodities exchange established April 2008 in Ethiopia.
Euronext NV is a European stock exchange seated in Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Lisbon, Dublin and Paris.
Euronext Amsterdam is a stock exchange based in Amsterdam.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) is a European Union financial regulatory institution and European Supervisory Authority, located in Paris.
An exchange, or bourse also known as a trading exchange or trading venue, is an organized market where (especially) tradable securities, commodities, foreign exchange, futures, and options contracts are sold and bought.
Exchange-traded derivative contracts are standardized derivative contracts such as futures and options contracts that are transacted on an organized futures exchange.
An exchange-traded fund (ETF) is an investment fund traded on stock exchanges, much like stocks.
An exchange-traded note (ETN) is a senior, unsecured, unsubordinated debt security issued by an underwriting bank.
A farmers' market is a physical retail marketplace intended to sell foods directly by farmers to consumers.
The Financial Information eXchange (FIX) protocol is an electronic communications protocol initiated in 1992 for international real-time exchange of information related to the securities transactions and markets.
The Financial Services Action Plan (FSAP) is a key component of the European Union's attempt to create a single market for financial services.
The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.
In finance, a forward contract or simply a forward is a non-standardized contract between two parties to buy or to sell an asset at a specified future time at a price agreed upon today, making it a type of derivative instrument.
The forward price (or sometimes forward rate) is the agreed upon price of an asset in a forward contract.
Fuel hedging is a contractual tool some large fuel consuming companies, such as airlines, cruise lines and trucking companies, use to reduce their exposure to volatile and potentially rising fuel costs.
The Future Trading Act of 1921 (ch. 86) was a United States Act of Congress, approved on August 24, 1921, by the 67th United States Congress intended to institute regulation of grain futures contracts and, particularly, the exchanges on which they were traded.
In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques (i.e., a genetically engineered organism).
Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in New York City.
The Grain Futures Act (ch. 369), is a United States federal law enacted September 21, 1922 involving the regulation of trading in certain commodity futures, and causing the establishment of the Grain Futures Administration, a predecessor organization to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
Heating oil is a low viscosity, liquid petroleum product used as a fuel oil for furnaces or boilers in buildings.
Heavy crude oil (or extra heavy crude oil) is highly-viscous oil that cannot easily flow to production wells under normal reservoir conditions.
In financial markets, high-frequency trading (HFT) is a type of algorithmic trading characterized by high speeds, high turnover rates, and high order-to-trade ratios that leverages high-frequency financial data and electronic trading tools.
Hill v. Wallace, 259 U.S. 44 (1922), was a U.S. Supreme Court decision overturning the legality of the Futures Trading Act of 1921.
Hong Kong Mercantile Exchange (abbreviated as HKMEx) was an electronic commodities exchange established in Hong Kong for the trading of commodity futures, options and other financial derivatives.
The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.
In economics and finance, an index is a statistical measure of changes in a representative group of individual data points.
Intercontinental Exchange is an American company that owns exchanges for financial and commodity markets, and operates 23 regulated exchanges and marketplaces.
The International Trade Centre (ITC) is a multilateral agency which has a joint mandate with the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the United Nations (UN) through the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
The Investment Company Act of 1940 is an act of Congress.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Oil Bourse (بورس نفت ایران), International Oil Bourse, Iran Petroleum Exchange Kish Exchange or Oil Bourse in Kish (IOB; the official English language name is unclear) also known as Iran Crude Oil Exchange,http://en.seo.ir/rendermodule.aspx?SelectedSingleViewItemID.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
iShares is a family of exchange-traded funds (ETFs) managed by BlackRock.
Jerry W. Markham is a Professor at the Florida International University College of Law, from the Florida International University College of Law.
The Kansas City Board of Trade (KCBT), was an American commodity futures and options exchange regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Light crude oil is liquid petroleum that has a low density and flows freely at room temperature.
A commodities exchange is an exchange where various commodities and derivatives products are traded.
This is a list of economic booms created by commodities.
The London bullion market is a wholesale over-the-counter market for the trading of gold and silver.
The London Metal Exchange (LME) is the futures exchange with the world's largest market in options and futures contracts on base and other metals.
The Malaysian ringgit (plural: ringgit; symbol: RM; currency code: MYR; formerly the Malaysian dollar) is the currency of Malaysia.
In finance, margin is collateral that the holder of a financial instrument has to deposit with a counterparty (most often their broker or an exchange) to cover some or all of the credit risk the holder poses for the counterparty.
Marius Vassiliou (born 1957) is an American computational scientist, geophysicist, and aerospace executive.
A market maker or liquidity provider is a company or an individual that quotes both a buy and a sell price in a financial instrument or commodity held in inventory, hoping to make a profit on the bid-offer spread, or turn. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission defines a "market maker" as a firm that stands ready to buy and sell stock on a regular and continuous basis at a publicly quoted price.
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods.
The Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (known as "MiFID") as subsequently amended is a European Union law that provides harmonised regulation for investment services across the 31 member states of the European Economic Area (the 28 EU member states plus Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein).
The metric system is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement.
Metrication or metrification is conversion to the metric system of units of measurement.
The Minneapolis Grain Exchange (MGEX) was formed in 1881 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States, as a regional cash marketplace to promote fair trade and to prevent trade abuses in wheat, oats and corn.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd (MCX) is an independent commodity exchange based in India.
National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX) is an online commodity exchange based in India.
NFA is the self-regulatory organization for the U.S. derivatives industry, including on-exchange traded futures, retail off-exchange foreign currency (forex) and OTC derivatives (swaps).
The National Spot Exchange Limited (NSEL) was India’s first electronic commodity spot exchange that was established in view of the then Prime Minister’s vision to create a “single market” across the country for both manufactured and agricultural produce.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
The New York Board of Trade (NYBOT, renamed ICE Futures US in September, 2007), is a physical commodity futures exchange located in New York City.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CME Group of Chicago.
The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
A no-action letter is a letter written by the staff members of a government agency, requested by an entity subject to regulation by that agency, indicating that the staff will not recommend that the agency take legal action against the entity, should the entity engage in a course of action proposed by the entity through its request for a no-action letter.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
Open outcry is the name of a method of communication between professionals on a stock exchange or futures exchange typically on a trading floor.
In finance, an option is a contract which gives the buyer (the owner or holder of the option) the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on a specified date, depending on the form of the option.
Organic farming is an alternative agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices.
Over-the-counter (OTC) or off-exchange trading is done directly between two parties, without the supervision of an exchange.
Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.
A pension fund, also known as a superannuation fund in some countries, is any plan, fund, or scheme which provides retirement income.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Pork belly is a boneless cut of fatty meat from the belly of a pig.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
The distinction between real prices and ideal prices is a distinction between actual prices paid for products, services, assets and labour (the money that actually changes hands), and computed prices which are not actually charged or paid in market trade, although they may facilitate trade.
Reinsurance is insurance that is purchased by an insurance company.
The Rosario Board of Trade (Bolsa de Comercio de Rosario, BCR) is a non-profit making association based in Rosario, in the Province of Santa Fe, Argentina.
The Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) is a Canadian multinational financial services company and the largest bank in Canada by market capitalization.
The S&P GSCI (formerly the Goldman Sachs Commodity Index) serves as a benchmark for investment in the commodity markets and as a measure of commodity performance over time.
The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) is the regulator for the securities market in India.
The Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (also called the Exchange Act, '34 Act, or 1934 Act) (codified at et seq.) is a law governing the secondary trading of securities (stocks, bonds, and debentures) in the United States of America.
Sergey Aleynikov is a former Goldman Sachs computer programmer.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
Silver exchange-traded products are exchange-traded funds (ETFs), exchange-traded notes (ETNs) and closed-end funds (CEFs) that aim to track the price of silver.
Singapore Exchange Limited (SGX) is an investment holding company located in Singapore and provides different services related to securities and derivatives trading and others.
The Social Science Research Network (SSRN) is a website devoted to the rapid dissemination of scholarly research in the social sciences and humanities.
Soft commodities, or softs, are commodities such as coffee, cocoa, sugar, corn, wheat, soybean, fruit and livestock.
Software as a service (SaaS) is a software licensing and delivery model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and is centrally hosted.
A sovereign wealth fund (SWF) or sovereign investment fund is a state-owned investment fund that invests in real and financial assets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, precious metals, or in alternative investments such as private equity fund or hedge funds.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
SPDR Gold Shares (also known as SPDR Gold Trust) is part of the SPDR family of exchange-traded funds (ETFs) managed and marketed by State Street Global Advisors.
In finance, a spot contract, spot transaction, or simply spot, is a contract of buying or selling a commodity, security or currency for immediate settlement (payment and delivery) on the spot date, which is normally two business days after the trade date.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
In finance, the strike price (or exercise price) of an option is the fixed price at which the owner of the option can buy (in the case of a call), or sell (in the case of a put), the underlying security or commodity.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
A swap is a derivative contract where two parties exchange financial instruments.
Terephthalic acid is an organic compound with formula C6H4(CO2H)2.
The Thomson Reuters/CoreCommodity CRB Index (TR/CC CRB) is a commodity futures price index.
A ticker symbol or stock symbol is an abbreviation used to uniquely identify publicly traded shares of a particular stock on a particular stock market.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tokyo Commodity Exchange, Inc.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Triple Point Technology is an American software company dealing in multi-market commodity and enterprise risk management.
Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is an independent agency of the United States federal government.
UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.
In finance, the underlying of a derivative is an asset, basket of assets, index, or even another derivative, such that the cash flows of the (former) derivative depend on the value of this underlying.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns.
West Texas Intermediate (WTI), also known as Texas light sweet, is a grade of crude oil used as a benchmark in oil pricing.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The Winnipeg Commodity Exchange is the former name of a derivatives market based in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada now known as ICE Futures Canada.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Federation of Diamond Bourses, founded in 1947, was created to provide bourses trading in rough and polished diamonds and precious stones with a common set of trading practices.
The World Gold Council is the market development organisation for the gold industry.
The 2012–2013 Cypriot financial crisis was an economic crisis in the Republic of Cyprus that involved the exposure of Cypriot banks to overleveraged local property companies, the Greek government-debt crisis, the downgrading of the Cypriot government's bond credit rating to junk status by international credit rating agencies, the consequential inability to refund its state expenses from the international markets and the reluctance of the government to restructure the troubled Cypriot financial sector.
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