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Commodore 64

Index Commodore 64

The Commodore 64, also known as the C64 or the CBM 64, is an 8-bit home computer introduced in January 1982 by Commodore International (first shown at the Consumer Electronics Show, in Las Vegas, January 7–10, 1982). [1]

295 relations: Accolade (company), Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, Alan Miller (game designer), Alarm clock, Alternating current, Amiga, Amiga Format, Amiga Halfbrite mode, Amstrad CPC 464, AOL, Apple II series, Apple Inc., Arpeggio, ASCII, Atari, Atari 2600, Atari 8-bit computer peripherals, Atari 8-bit family, Atari joystick port, Avalon Hill, Band-pass filter, Band-stop filter, Bank switching, BASIC, Baud, BBC, BBC Micro, BBC News, Ben Daglish, Bil Herd, Blue Board (software), Breadbox, Bulletin board system, Byte, Byte (magazine), C (programming language), C-One, C64 Direct-to-TV, Calculator, Cathode ray tube, CCS64, CEBIT, Chaos Communication Congress, Charge pump, Chris Huelsbeck, Christmas, Clock signal, CNN, Code name, Color64, ..., Commodore 128, Commodore 1351, Commodore 1541, Commodore 1581, Commodore 64 demos, Commodore 64 Games System, Commodore 64x, Commodore 65, Commodore BASIC, Commodore bus, Commodore CDTV, Commodore Datasette, Commodore Educator 64, Commodore International, Commodore MAX Machine, Commodore PET, Commodore Plus/4, Commodore REU, Commodore SX-64, Commodore USA, Commodore VIC-20, Composite video, Compunet, CompuServe, Compute!, Computer Chronicles, Computer Gaming World, Consumer electronics, Consumer Electronics Show, Contiki, CP/M, Creative Computing (magazine), Creative Micro Designs, D-subminiature, Danielle Bunten Berry, Data Becker, Data-rate units, David Shannon Morse, David Whittaker (video game composer), DC-to-DC converter, Demoscene, Depletion-load NMOS logic, DIN connector, Diode, Direct current, Disk operating system, Do It (Nelly Furtado song), Dot matrix printer, Dual in-line package, Dynamic random-access memory, Edge connector, Electromagnetic shielding, Electronic filter, Electronic oscillator, Elektron SidStation, Emulator, Ensoniq, Epoxy, Epyx, Ethernet, Europe, Flash memory, Floppy disk, Ford Model T, Forth (programming language), Fortran, Game controller, Gamereactor, GeckOS, General-purpose input/output, GEOS (16-bit operating system), GEOS (8-bit operating system), Germany, Graphical user interface, Guinness World Records, Habitat (video game), Handheld TV game, Hanover, Hard disk drive, HDMI, Heat sink, High-pass filter, History of personal computers, Home computer, Hong Kong, IBM PC compatible, IDE64, IEEE-488, Imagic, Individual Computers, Integrated circuit, Intellivision, Internet appliance, Irving Gould, Jack Tramiel, Japan, Jeri Ellsworth, Jeroen Tel, Joystick, Jumper (computing), KERNAL, Kilobit, Kilobyte, KoalaPad, Light pen, List of Commodore 64 games, Logo (programming language), Low-pass filter, LucasArts, LUnix, Macintosh, Malicious compliance, Manufacturing cost, Martin Galway, Master System, Mattel, Mean time between failures, Megabyte, Memory-mapped I/O, Micrometre, Microprocessor, MicroProse, MIDI, Minitel, Modem, MOS Technology, MOS Technology 6502, MOS Technology 6510, MOS Technology CIA, MOS Technology SID, MOS Technology VIC, MOS Technology VIC-II, Motherboard, Nelly Furtado, Nibble, Nintendo Entertainment System, NMOS logic, NTSC, Octave, Online service provider, Open architecture, Open world, Open-source model, Original Chip Set, Origins Game Fair, Oscillator sync, Pac-Man, Paddle (game controller), PAL, Pascal (programming language), PEEK and POKE, PETSCII, Pixel, PlayNET, Plug compatible, Portable computer, Power supply, Price war, Printed circuit board, Programmable logic array, PS/2 port, Quantum Link, QVC, Radio frequency, RadioShack, Random-access memory, Raster interrupt, RCA connector, Read-only memory, Rebate (marketing), Resistor, Retr0bright, Retrocomputing, RF modulator, Ring modulation, Rob Hubbard, Robert Yannes, ROM cartridge, RS-232, S-Video, Sawtooth wave, Scan line, Scrolling, SD Times, Semiconductor device fabrication, Semiconductor fabrication plant, Shell (computing), Shiraz Shivji, Sid Meier, Simons' BASIC, Sine wave, Software, Software cracking, Sprite (computer graphics), Square wave, Strategic Simulations, Subculture, Super Expander 64, SuperCPU, Switched-mode power supply, Synthesizer, Sysop, Telnet, Texas Instruments, Texas Instruments TI-99/4A, Thanksgiving (United States), The Daily Telegraph, The New York Times, The Register, The Source (online service), The Washington Post, Timbaland, Timbaland plagiarism controversy, Timex Group USA, Timex Sinclair 1000, Trademark, Transistor–transistor logic, Triangle wave, Trip Hawkins, TRS-80, Tulip Computers, Ultima (series), Ultima VI: The False Prophet, United States dollar, USB, User interface, Vaporware, Vertical integration, VICE, Video display controller, Video game, Video game console, Video game crash of 1983, Vienna, Virginia, Virtual Console, Volt, Waveform, Wheels (operating system), White noise, Wii, Windows 3.1x, X86, Zero insertion force, ZX Spectrum, 8-bit. Expand index (245 more) »

Accolade (company)

Infogrames North America, Inc. (formerly Accolade, Inc.) was an American video game developer and publisher based in San Jose, California.

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Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) (chemical formula (C8H8)x·(C4H6)y·(C3H3N)z) is a common thermoplastic polymer.

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Alan Miller (game designer)

Alan Miller is an early game designer and programmer for the Atari 2600 who co-founded video game companies Activision and Accolade.

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Alarm clock

An alarm clock (or sometimes just an alarm) is a clock that is designed to alert an individual or group of individuals at specified time.

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Alternating current

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.

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The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985.

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Amiga Format

Amiga Format was a British computer magazine for Amiga computers, published by Future plc.

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Amiga Halfbrite mode

Extra Half-Brite (EHB) mode is a planar display mode of the Commodore Amiga computer.

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Amstrad CPC 464

The CPC 464 was the first personal home computer built by Amstrad in 1984.

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AOL (formerly a company known as AOL Inc., originally known as America Online, and stylized as Aol.) is a web portal and online service provider based in New York.

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Apple II series

The Apple II series (trademarked with square brackets as "Apple.

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Apple Inc.

Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.

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A broken chord is a chord broken into a sequence of notes.

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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

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Atari is a corporate and brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972, currently by Atari Interactive, a subsidiary of the French publisher Atari, SA.

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Atari 2600

The Atari 2600 (or Atari Video Computer System before November 1982) is a home video game console from Atari, Inc. Released on September 11, 1977, it is credited with popularizing the use of microprocessor-based hardware and games contained on ROM cartridges, a format first used with the Fairchild Channel F in 1976.

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Atari 8-bit computer peripherals

This article covers the range of peripherals available for Atari's 8-bit home computer range (including the 400/800, XL and XE series machines).

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Atari 8-bit family

The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers introduced by Atari, Inc. in 1979 and manufactured until 1992.

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Atari joystick port

The Atari joystick port is a widely used computer port used to connect various gaming controllers to game console and home computer systems.

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Avalon Hill

Avalon Hill Games Inc. is a game company that specializes in wargames and strategic board games.

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Band-pass filter

A band-pass filter, also bandpass filter or BPF, is a device that passes frequencies within a certain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside that range.

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Band-stop filter

In signal processing, a band-stop filter or band-rejection filter is a filter that passes most frequencies unaltered, but attenuates those in a specific range to very low levels.

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Bank switching

Bank switching is a technique used in computer design to increase the amount of usable memory beyond the amount directly addressable by the processor.

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BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.

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In telecommunication and electronics, baud (symbol: Bd) is a common measure of the speed of communication over a data channel.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC Micro

The British Broadcasting Corporation Microcomputer System, or BBC Micro, is a series of microcomputers and associated peripherals designed and built by the Acorn Computer company for the BBC Computer Literacy Project, operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Ben Daglish

Ben Daglish (born 31 July 1966, London) is a composer and musician.

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Bil Herd

Bil Herd is a computer engineer who created several designs for 8-bit home computers while working for Commodore Business Machines in the early to mid-1980s.

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Blue Board (software)

Blue Board is a BBS software system created by Martin Sikes (1968–2007) for the Commodore 64 in the 1980s in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, and sold worldwide.

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A breadbox (chiefly American) or a bread bin (chiefly British) is a container for storing bread and other baked goods to keep them fresh.

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Bulletin board system

A bulletin board system or BBS (also called Computer Bulletin Board Service, CBBS) is a computer server running software that allows users to connect to the system using a terminal program.

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The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.

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Byte (magazine)

Byte was an American microcomputer magazine, influential in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s because of its wide-ranging editorial coverage.

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C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

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The C-One is a single-board computer (SBC) created in 2002 as an enhanced version of the Commodore 64, a home computer popular in the 1980s.

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C64 Direct-to-TV

The C64 Direct-to-TV, called C64DTV for short, is a single-chip implementation of the Commodore 64 computer, contained in a joystick (modeled after the mid-1980s Competition Pro joystick), with 30 built-in games.

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An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.

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Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.

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CCS64 is a shareware Commodore 64 emulator developed by Per Håkan Sundell of Sweden.

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CeBIT is the largest and most internationally representative computer expo.

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Chaos Communication Congress

The Chaos Communication Congress is an annual conference organized by the Chaos Computer Club.

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Charge pump

A charge pump is a kind of DC to DC converter that uses capacitors for energetic charge storage to raise or lower voltage.

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Chris Huelsbeck

Christopher Hülsbeck (born 2 March 1968), known internationally as Chris Huelsbeck, is a German video game music composer from Kassel, Germany.

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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Clock signal

In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, a clock signal is a particular type of signal that oscillates between a high and a low state and is used like a metronome to coordinate actions of digital circuits.

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Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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Code name

A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person.

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Color64 is a computer BBS system that was very popular for the Commodore 64 during the 1980s.

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Commodore 128

The Commodore 128, also known as the C128, C-128, C.

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Commodore 1351

The Commodore 1351 is a computer mouse made by Commodore in 1986, which can be directly plugged into the 9-pin control port of a Commodore 64 or 128.

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Commodore 1541

The Commodore 1541 (also known as the CBM 1541 and VIC-1541) is a floppy disk drive which was made by Commodore International for the Commodore 64 (C64), Commodore's most popular home computer.

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Commodore 1581

The Commodore 1581 is a 3½-inch double-sided double-density floppy disk drive that was released by Commodore Business Machines (CBM) in 1987, primarily for its C64 and C128 home/personal computers.

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Commodore 64 demos

The Commodore 64 (C64) demos are demonstrations of what can be done to push the limits of the Commodore 64 computer, made by programmers, musicians and artists.

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Commodore 64 Games System

The Commodore 64 Games System (often abbreviated C64GS) is the cartridge-based home video game console version of the popular Commodore 64 home computer.

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Commodore 64x

The Commodore 64x is a replica PC based on the original Commodore 64, powered by standard x86 Intel processors ranging from the Intel Atom to the Intel Core i7.

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Commodore 65

The Commodore 65 (also known as the C64DX) is a prototype computer created at Commodore Business Machines in 1990-1991.

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Commodore BASIC

Commodore BASIC, also known as PET BASIC, is the dialect of the BASIC programming language used in Commodore International's 8-bit home computer line, stretching from the PET of 1977 to the C128 of 1985.

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Commodore bus

No description.

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Commodore CDTV

The CDTV (from Commodore Dynamic Total Vision, later treated as a backronym for Compact Disc Television) is a home multimedia entertainment and video game console – convertible into a full-fledged personal computer by the addition of optional peripherals – developed by Commodore International and launched in March 1991.

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Commodore Datasette

The Commodore 1530 (C2N) Datasette, later also Datassette (a portmanteau of data and cassette) is Commodore's dedicated magnetic tape data storage device.

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Commodore Educator 64

The Educator 64, also known as the PET 64 and Model 4064, was a microcomputer made by Commodore Business Machines in 1983.

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Commodore International

Commodore International (or Commodore International Limited) was an American home computer and electronics manufacturer founded by Jack Tramiel.

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Commodore MAX Machine

The Commodore MAX Machine, also known as Ultimax in the United States and VC-10 in Germany, is a home computer designed and sold by Commodore International in Japan, beginning in early 1982, a predecessor to the popular Commodore 64.

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Commodore PET

The Commodore PET (Personal Electronic Transactor) is a line of home/personal computers produced starting in 1977 by Commodore International.

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Commodore Plus/4

The Commodore Plus/4 is a home computer released by Commodore International in 1984.

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Commodore REU

Commodore's RAM Expansion Unit (REU) range of external RAM add-ons for their Commodore 64/128 home computers was announced at the same time as the C128.

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Commodore SX-64

The Commodore SX-64, also known as the Executive 64, or VIP-64 in Europe, is a portable, briefcase/suitcase-size "luggable" version of the popular Commodore 64 home computer and the first full-color portable computer.

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Commodore USA

Commodore USA, LLC was a computer company based in Pompano Beach, Florida, with additional facilities in Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

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Commodore VIC-20

The VIC-20 (in Germany: VC-20; In Japan: VIC-1001) is an 8-bit home computer that was sold by Commodore Business Machines.

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Composite video

Composite video (one channel) is an analog video transmission (without audio) that carries standard definition video typically at 480i or 576i resolution.

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Compunet was a United Kingdom based interactive service provider, catering primarily for the Commodore 64 but later for the Commodore Amiga and Atari ST.

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CompuServe (CompuServe Information Service, also known by its initialism CIS) was the first major commercial online service provider in the United States.

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Compute!, often stylized as COMPUTE!, was an American home computer magazine that was published from 1979 to 1994.

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Computer Chronicles

Computer Chronicles was an American half-hour television series, broadcast from 1983 to 2002 on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) public television, which documented the rise of the personal computer from its infancy to the immense market at the turn of the 21st century.

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Computer Gaming World

Computer Gaming World (CGW) was an American computer game magazine published between 1981 and 2006.

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Consumer electronics

Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipments intended for everyday use, typically in private homes.

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Consumer Electronics Show

CES (formerly an acronym for Consumer Electronics Show but now the official name) is an annual trade show organized by the Consumer Technology Association.

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Contiki is an operating system for networked, memory-constrained systems with a focus on low-power wireless Internet of Things devices.

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CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, is a mass-market operating system created for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.

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Creative Computing (magazine)

Creative Computing was one of the earliest magazines covering the microcomputer revolution.

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Creative Micro Designs

Creative Micro Designs (CMD) was founded in 1987 by Doug Cotton and Mark Fellows.

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The D-subminiature or D-sub is a common type of electrical connector.

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Danielle Bunten Berry

Danielle Bunten Berry (February 19, 1949 – July 3, 1998), born Daniel Paul Bunten, and also known as Dan Bunten, was an American game designer and programmer, known for the 1983 game M.U.L.E. (one of the first influential multiplayer games), and 1984's The Seven Cities of Gold.

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Data Becker

Data Becker GmbH & Co.

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Data-rate units

In telecommunications, data-transfer rate is the average number of bits (bitrate), characters or symbols (baudrate), or data blocks per unit time passing through a communication link in a data-transmission system.

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David Shannon Morse

David Shannon Morse (April 15, 1943 – November 2, 2007) was the cofounder of Amiga.

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David Whittaker (video game composer)

David Whittaker (born 24 April 1957 in Bury, England) is known for numerous video game music which he wrote in most of the 1980s and early 1990s, for many different formats.

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DC-to-DC converter

A DC-to-DC converter is an electronic circuit or electromechanical device that converts a source of direct current (DC) from one voltage level to another.

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The demoscene is an international computer art subculture focused on producing demos: self-contained, sometimes extremely small, computer programs that produce audio-visual presentations.

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Depletion-load NMOS logic

In integrated circuits, depletion-load NMOS is a form of digital logic family that uses only a single power supply voltage, unlike earlier nMOS logic families that needed more than one different power supply voltage.

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DIN connector

A DIN connector is an electrical connector that was originally standardized in the early 1970s by the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN), the German national standards organization.

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A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.

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Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.

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Disk operating system

A disk operating system (abbreviated DOS) is a computer operating system that can use a disk storage device, such as a floppy disk, hard disk drive, or optical disc.

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Do It (Nelly Furtado song)

"Do It" is a song by Canadian singer Nelly Furtado from her third studio album Loose (2006).

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Dot matrix printer

A dot matrix printer is an impact printer that prints using a fixed number of pins or wires.

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Dual in-line package

In microelectronics, a dual in-line package (DIP or DIL), or dual in-line pin package (DIPP) is an electronic component package with a rectangular housing and two parallel rows of electrical connecting pins.

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Dynamic random-access memory

Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.

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Edge connector

An edge connector is the portion of a printed circuit board (PCB) consisting of traces leading to the edge of the board that are intended to plug into a matching socket.

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Electromagnetic shielding

Electromagnetic shielding is the practice of reducing the electromagnetic field in a space by blocking the field with barriers made of conductive or magnetic materials.

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Electronic filter

Electronic filters are circuits which perform signal processing functions, specifically to remove unwanted frequency components from the signal, to enhance wanted ones, or both.

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Electronic oscillator

An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave.

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Elektron SidStation

The Elektron SidStation is a musical synthesizer sound module, built around the MOS Technology SID mixed-mode synthesizer chip originally used in the Commodore 64 home computer.

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In computing, an emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system (called the host) to behave like another computer system (called the guest).

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Ensoniq Corp. was an American electronics manufacturer, best known throughout the mid-1980s and 1990s for its musical instruments, principally samplers and synthesizers.

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Epoxy is either any of the basic components or the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group.

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Epyx, Inc. was a video game developer and publisher active in the late 1970s and 1980s.

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Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Flash memory

Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

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Floppy disk

A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.

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Ford Model T

The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Leaping Lena, or flivver) is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.

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Forth (programming language)

Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.

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Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.

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Game controller

A game controller is a device used with games or entertainment systems to provide input to a video game, typically to control an object or character in the game.

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Gamereactor is an international online network covering video games on consoles, PC and mobile.

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GeckOS is an experimental operating system for MOS 6502 and compatible processors.

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General-purpose input/output

A general-purpose input/output (GPIO) is an uncommitted digital signal pin on an integrated circuit or electronic circuit board whose behavior—including whether it acts an input or output—is controllable by the user at run time.

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GEOS (16-bit operating system)

GEOS (also later known as Geoworks Ensemble, NewDeal Office and Breadbox Ensemble) is a computer operating environment, graphical user interface, and suite of application software.

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GEOS (8-bit operating system)

GEOS (Graphic Environment Operating System) is a discontinued operating system from Berkeley Softworks (later GeoWorks).

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Graphical user interface

The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

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Guinness World Records

Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.

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Habitat (video game)

Habitat is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by LucasArts.

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Handheld TV game

A handheld TV game or just TV game or a plug and play game is an interactive entertainment device designed for use on a television set that integrates the video game console with the game controller.

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Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).

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Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

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HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device.

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Heat sink

A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.

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High-pass filter

A high-pass filter (HPF) is an electronic filter that passes signals with a frequency higher than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency.

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History of personal computers

The history of the personal computer as a mass-market consumer electronic device began with the microcomputer revolution of the 1980s.

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Home computer

Home computers were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.

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IBM PC compatible

IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards.

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The IDE64 interface cartridge is an expansion port device for connecting ATA(PI) devices to the C64 or C128 computers.

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IEEE 488 is a short-range digital communications 8-bit parallel multi-master interface bus specification.

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Imagic was a short-lived American video game developer and publisher that created games initially for the Atari 2600 and later for other consoles.

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Individual Computers

Individual Computers is a German computer hardware company specializing in retrocomputing accessories for the Commodore 64, Amiga, and PC platforms.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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The Intellivision is a home video game console released by Mattel Electronics in 1979.

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Internet appliance

An Internet appliance is a consumer device whose main function is easy access to Internet services such as WWW or e-mail.

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Irving Gould

Irving Gould (1919–2004) was a Canadian businessperson credited with both saving and sinking Commodore.

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Jack Tramiel

Jack Tramiel (born Idek Trzmiel; December 13, 1928 – April 8, 2012) was a Polish American businessman, best known for founding Commodore International.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jeri Ellsworth

Jeri Janet Ellsworth is an American entrepreneur and an autodidact computer chip designer and inventor.

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Jeroen Tel

Jeroen Godfried Tel (born 19 May 1972), also known as WAVE, is a Dutch composer.

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A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling.

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Jumper (computing)

In electronics and particularly computing, a jumper is a short length of conductor used to close, open or bypass part of an electronic circuit.

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KERNAL is Commodore's name for the ROM-resident operating system core in its 8-bit home computers; from the original PET of 1977, followed by the extended but strongly related versions used in its successors: the VIC-20, Commodore 64, Plus/4, C16, and C128.

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The kilobit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.

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The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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The KoalaPad is a graphics tablet produced from 1983 by U.S. company Koala Technologies for the Apple II, TRS-80 Color Computer (as the TRS-80 Touch Pad), Atari 8-bit family, and Commodore 64, as well as for the IBM PC.

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Light pen

A light pen is a computer input device in the form of a light-sensitive wand used in conjunction with a computer's CRT display.

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List of Commodore 64 games

This is a list of games for the Commodore 64 personal computer system, sorted alphabetically.

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Logo (programming language)

Logo is an educational programming language, designed in 1967 by Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert and Cynthia Solomon.

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Low-pass filter

A low-pass filter (LPF) is a filter that passes signals with a frequency lower than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency.

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LucasArts Entertainment Company, LLC is an American video game publisher and licensor.

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LUnix, short for "Little Unix", is a Unix-like multi-tasking operating system designed to run natively on the Commodore 64 and Commodore 128 home computer systems.

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The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.

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Malicious compliance

Malicious compliance is the behaviour of intentionally inflicting harm by strictly following the orders of a superior knowing that compliance with the orders will not have the intended result.

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Manufacturing cost

Manufacturing cost is the sum of costs of all resources consumed in the process of making a product.

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Martin Galway

Martin Galway (born 3 January 1966, Belfast, Northern Ireland) is one of the best known composers of chiptune video game music for the Commodore 64 sound chip, the SID soundchip, and for the Sinclair ZX Spectrum.

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Master System

The is a third-generation home video game console that was manufactured by Sega.

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Mattel, Inc. is an American multinational toy manufacturing company founded in 1945 with headquarters in El Segundo, California.

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Mean time between failures

Mean time between failures (MTBF) is the predicted elapsed time between inherent failures of a mechanical or electronic system, during normal system operation.

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The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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Memory-mapped I/O

Memory-mapped I/O (MMIO) and port-mapped I/O (PMIO) (which is also called isolated I/O) are two complementary methods of performing input/output (I/O) between the central processing unit (CPU) and peripheral devices in a computer.

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The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

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MicroProse Software Inc. was an American video game publisher and developer founded by "Wild" Bill Stealey and Sid Meier in 1982.

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MIDI (short for Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is a technical standard that describes a communications protocol, digital interface, and electrical connectors that connect a wide variety of electronic musical instruments, computers, and related music and audio devices.

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The Minitel was a Videotex online service accessible through telephone lines, and is considered one of the world's most successful pre-World Wide Web online services.

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A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.

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MOS Technology

MOS Technology, Inc. ("MOS" being short for Metal Oxide Semiconductor), also known as CSG (Commodore Semiconductor Group), was a semiconductor design and fabrication company based in Norristown, Pennsylvania, in the United States.

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MOS Technology 6502

The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".

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MOS Technology 6510

6581 SID. The production week/year (WWYY) of each chip is given below its name. The MOS Technology 6510 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by MOS Technology.

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MOS Technology CIA

The 6526/8521 Complex Interface Adapter (CIA) was an integrated circuit made by MOS Technology.

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MOS Technology SID

The MOS Technology 6581/8580 SID (Sound Interface Device) is the built-in Programmable Sound Generator chip of Commodore's CBM-II, Commodore 64, Commodore 128 and Commodore MAX Machine home computers.

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MOS Technology VIC

The VIC (Video Interface Chip), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6560 (NTSC version) / 6561 (PAL version), is the integrated circuit chip responsible for generating video graphics and sound in the Commodore VIC-20 home computer.

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MOS Technology VIC-II

The VIC-II (Video Interface Chip II), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6567/8562/8564 (NTSC versions), 6569/8565/8566 (PAL), is the microchip tasked with generating Y/C video signals (combined to composite video in the RF modulator) and DRAM refresh signals in the Commodore 64 and C128 home computers.

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A motherboard (sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard, system board, baseboard, planar board or logic board, or colloquially, a mobo) is the main printed circuit board (PCB) found in general purpose microcomputers and other expandable systems.

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Nelly Furtado

Nelly Kim Furtado ComIH (born December 2, 1978) is a Portuguese-Canadian singer and songwriter.

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In computing, a nibble (occasionally nybble or nyble to match the spelling of byte) is a four-bit aggregation, or half an octet.

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Nintendo Entertainment System

The Nintendo Entertainment System (commonly abbreviated as NES) is an 8-bit home video game console that was developed and manufactured by Nintendo.

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NMOS logic

N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor logic uses n-type field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to implement logic gates and other digital circuits.

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NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,National Television System Committee (1951–1953),, 17 v. illus., diagrs., tables.

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In music, an octave (octavus: eighth) or perfect octave is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency.

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Online service provider

An online service provider can, for example, be an Internet service provider, an email provider, a news provider (press), an entertainment provider (music, movies), a search engine, an e-commerce site, an online banking site, a health site, an official government site, social media, a wiki, or a Usenet newsgroup.

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Open architecture

Open architecture is a type of computer architecture or software architecture that is designed to make adding, upgrading and swapping components easy.

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Open world

An open world in video games is a virtual world in which the player can explore and approach objectives freely, as opposed to a world with more linear gameplay.

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Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.

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Original Chip Set

The Original Chip Set (OCS) is a chipset used in the earliest Commodore Amiga computers and defined the Amiga's graphics and sound capabilities.

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Origins Game Fair

Origins Game Fair is an annual gaming convention that was first held in 1975.

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Oscillator sync

Oscillator sync is a feature in some synthesizers with two or more VCOs, DCOs, or "virtual" oscillators.

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, stylized as PAC-MAN, is an arcade game developed by Namco and first released in Japan as Puck Man in May 1980.

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Paddle (game controller)

A paddle is a game controller with a round wheel and one or more fire buttons, where the wheel is typically used to control movement of the player object along one axis of the video screen.

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Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a color encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).

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Pascal (programming language)

Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.

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In computing, PEEK and POKE are commands used in some high-level programming languages for accessing the contents of a specific memory cell referenced by its memory address.

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PETSCII (PET Standard Code of Information Interchange), also known as CBM ASCII, is the character set used in Commodore Business Machines (CBM)'s 8-bit home computers, starting with the PET from 1977 and including the C16, C64, C116, C128, CBM-II, Plus/4, and VIC-20.

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In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.

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PlayNet (or PlayNET) was a U.S. online service for Commodore 64 personal computers that operated from 1984 to 1987.

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Plug compatible

Plug compatible refers to "hardware that is designed to perform exactly like another vendor's product." The term PCM can refer to.

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Portable computer

A portable computer was a computer designed to be easily moved from one place to another and included a display and keyboard.

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Power supply

A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load.

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Price war

Price war is "commercial competition characterized by the repeated cutting of prices below those of competitors".

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Printed circuit board

A printed circuit board (PCB) mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components or electrical components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from one or more sheet layers of copper laminated onto and/or between sheet layers of a non-conductive substrate.

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Programmable logic array

A programmable logic array (PLA) is a kind of programmable logic device used to implement combinational logic circuits.

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PS/2 port

The PS/2 port is a 6-pin mini-DIN connector used for connecting keyboards and mice to a PC compatible computer system.

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Quantum Link

Quantum Link (or Q-Link) was a U.S. and Canadian online service for Commodore 64 and 128 personal computers that operated starting November 5, 1985.

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QVC (an acronym for "Quality Value Convenience") is an American cable, satellite and broadcast television network, and flagship shopping channel specializing in televised home shopping that is owned by Qurate Retail Group.

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Radio frequency

Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.

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RadioShack, formally RadioShack Corporation, is the trade name of an American retailer founded in 1921, which operates a chain of electronics stores.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Raster interrupt

A raster interrupt (also called a horizontal blank interrupt) is a computer interrupt signal that is used for display timing purposes.

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RCA connector

An RCA connector, sometimes called a phono connector or (in other languages) Cinch connector, is a type of electrical connector commonly used to carry audio and video signals.

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Read-only memory

Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.

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Rebate (marketing)

A rebate is an amount paid by way of reduction, return, or refund on what has already been paid or contributed.

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A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

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Retrobright (stylized as Retr0bright) is a chemical mixture used to remove yellowing from ABS plastic computer and electronics cases, including computers that were manufactured by Commodore and Apple in the 1980s and 1990s, and various video game consoles and cartridges.

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Retrocomputing is the use of older computer hardware and software in modern times.

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RF modulator

An RF modulator (or radio frequency modulator) is an electronic device whose input is a baseband signal which is used to modulate a radio frequency source.

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Ring modulation

In electronics, ring modulation is a signal-processing function, an implementation of frequency mixing, performed by multiplying two signals, where one is typically a sine wave or another simple waveform and the other is the signal to be modulated.

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Rob Hubbard

Rob Hubbard (born 1955 in Kingston upon Hull, England) is a British composer best known for his composition of computer game theme music, especially for microcomputers of the 1980s such as the Commodore 64.

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Robert Yannes

Robert Yannes (born 1957) is an American electronic engineer who designed the SID audio generator chip for the Commodore 64 and co-founded digital synthesizer company Ensoniq.

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ROM cartridge

A ROM cartridge, sometimes referred to simply as a cartridge or cart, is a removable enclosure containing ROM designed to be connected to a consumer electronics device such as a home computer, video game console and to a lesser extent, electronic musical instruments.

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In telecommunications, RS-232, Recommended Standard 232 is a standard introduced in 1960 for serial communication transmission of data.

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S-Video (also known as separate video and Y/C) is a signaling standard for standard definition video, typically 480i or 576i.

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Sawtooth wave

The sawtooth wave (or saw wave) is a kind of non-sinusoidal waveform.

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Scan line

A scan line (also scanline) is one line, or row, in a raster scanning pattern, such as a line of video on a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of a television set or computer monitor.

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In computer displays, filmmaking, television production, and other kinetic displays, scrolling is sliding text, images or video across a monitor or display, vertically or horizontally.

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SD Times

Software Development Times, better known as SD Times, is a magazine published by D2 Emerge, in both a print version and an on-line electronic edition.

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Semiconductor device fabrication

Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.

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Semiconductor fabrication plant

In the microelectronics industry a semiconductor fabrication plant (commonly called a fab; sometimes foundry) is a factory where devices such as integrated circuits are manufactured.

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Shell (computing)

In computing, a shell is a user interface for access to an operating system's services.

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Shiraz Shivji

Shiraz Shivji (born 1947 in Tanzania) was the primary designer of the Atari ST computer, and one of the engineers behind the Commodore 64.

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Sid Meier

Sidney K. Meier (born February 24, 1954) is a Canadian-American programmer, designer, and producer of several strategy video games and simulation video games, including the Civilization series.

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Simons' BASIC

Simons' BASIC was an extension to BASIC 2.0 for the Commodore 64 home computer.

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Sine wave

A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.

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Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Software cracking

Software cracking (known as "breaking" in the 1980s) is the modification of software to remove or disable features which are considered undesirable by the person cracking the software, especially copy protection features (including protection against the manipulation of software, serial number, hardware key, date checks and disc check) or software annoyances like nag screens and adware.

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Sprite (computer graphics)

In computer graphics, a sprite is a two-dimensional bitmap that is integrated into a larger scene.

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Square wave

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values, with the same duration at minimum and maximum.

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Strategic Simulations

Strategic Simulations, Inc. (SSI) was a video game developer and publisher with over 100 titles to its credit since its founding in 1979.

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A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.

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Super Expander 64

The Super Expander 64 was a cartridge-based extension to the built in BASIC V2 interpreter of the then immensely popular Commodore 64 home computer: Since the 64 was developed in a hurry, Commodore simply adapted the BASIC V2 from the PET line of computers and the VIC 20 for their new machine, with no support for the advanced sound and graphics capabilities of the 64.

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The SuperCPU is a processor upgrade for the and personal computer platforms.

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Switched-mode power supply

A switched-mode power supply (switching-mode power supply, switch-mode power supply, switched power supply, SMPS, or switcher) is an electronic power supply that incorporates a switching regulator to convert electrical power efficiently.

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A synthesizer (often abbreviated as synth, also spelled synthesiser) is an electronic musical instrument that generates electric signals that are converted to sound through instrument amplifiers and loudspeakers or headphones.

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A sysop (an abbreviation of system operator) is an administrator of a multi-user computer system, such as a bulletin board system (BBS) or an online service virtual community.

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Telnet is a protocol used on the Internet or local area network to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communication facility using a virtual terminal connection.

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Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.

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Texas Instruments TI-99/4A

The Texas Instruments TI-99/4A is a home computer, released June 1981 in the United States at a price of $525 ($ adjusted for inflation).

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Thanksgiving (United States)

Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a public holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November in the United States.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Register

The Register (nicknamed El Reg) is a British technology news and opinion website co-founded in 1994 by Mike Magee, John Lettice and Ross Alderson.

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The Source (online service)

The Source (Source Telecomputing Corporation) was an early online service, one of the first such services to be oriented toward and available to the general public.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Timothy Zachary Mosley (born March 10, 1972), better known by his stage name Timbaland, is an American record producer, rapper, singer, songwriter and DJ.

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Timbaland plagiarism controversy

The 2007 dance-pop song "Do It" performed by Canadian singer-songwriter Nelly Furtado features elements plagiarized from "Acidjazzed Evening", a chiptune-style track composed by the Finnish demoscene artist Janne Suni.

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Timex Group USA

Timex Group USA, Inc. (formerly known as Timex Corporation) is an American manufacturing company founded in 1854.

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Timex Sinclair 1000

The Timex Sinclair 1000 (TS1000) was the first computer produced by Timex Sinclair, a joint venture between Timex Corporation and Sinclair Research.

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A trademark, trade mark, or trade-markThe styling of trademark as a single word is predominantly used in the United States and Philippines only, while the two-word styling trade mark is used in many other countries around the world, including the European Union and Commonwealth and ex-Commonwealth jurisdictions (although Canada officially uses "trade-mark" pursuant to the Trade-mark Act, "trade mark" and "trademark" are also commonly used).

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Transistor–transistor logic

Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors.

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Triangle wave

A triangle wave is a non-sinusoidal waveform named for its triangular shape.

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Trip Hawkins

William Murray "Trip" Hawkins III (born December 28, 1953) is an American entrepreneur and founder of Electronic Arts, The 3DO Company, and Digital Chocolate.

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The TRS-80 Micro Computer System (TRS-80, later renamed the Model I to distinguish it from successors) is a desktop microcomputer launched in 1977 and sold by Tandy Corporation through their Radio Shack stores.

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Tulip Computers

Tulip Computers NV was a Dutch computer manufacturer that manufactured PC clones.

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Ultima (series)

Ultima is a series of open world fantasy role-playing video games from Origin Systems, Inc. Ultima was created by Richard Garriott.

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Ultima VI: The False Prophet

Ultima VI: The False Prophet, released by Origin Systems Inc. in 1990, is the sixth part in the role-playing video game series of Ultima.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.

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User interface

The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.

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In the computer industry, vaporware (alt. vapourware) is a product, typically computer hardware or software, that is announced to the general public but is never actually manufactured nor officially cancelled.

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Vertical integration

In microeconomics and management, vertical integration is an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company.

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The software program VICE, standing for VersatIle Commodore Emulator, is a free and cross platform emulator for Commodore's 8-bit computers.

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Video display controller

A video display controller or VDC (also regularly called display engine, display interface) is an integrated circuit which is the main component in a video signal generator, a device responsible for the production of a TV video signal in a computing or game system.

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Video game

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.

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Video game console

A video game console is an electronic, digital or computer device that outputs a video signal or visual image to display a video game that one or more people can play.

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Video game crash of 1983

The video game crash of 1983 (known as the Atari shock in Japan) was a large-scale recession in the video game industry that occurred from 1983 to 1985, primarily in North America, because of market saturation.

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Vienna, Virginia

Vienna is a town in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.

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Virtual Console

, also abbreviated as VC, is a line of downloadable video games (mostly unaltered) for Nintendo's Wii and Wii U home gaming consoles and the Nintendo 3DS portable gaming console.

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The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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A waveform is the shape and form of a signal such as a wave moving in a physical medium or an abstract representation.

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Wheels (operating system)

Wheels is a defunct operating system for the Commodore 64 and Commodore 128 home computers partially based on and an upgrade from (plus generally backwards compatible with) GEOS.

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White noise

In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.

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The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006.

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Windows 3.1x

Windows 3.1x (codenamed Janus) is a series of 16-bit operating environments produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers.

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x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

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Zero insertion force

Zero insertion force (ZIF) is a type of IC socket or electrical connector that requires very little force for insertion.

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ZX Spectrum

The ZX Spectrum is an 8-bit personal home computer released in the United Kingdom in 1982 by Sinclair Research.

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8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodore_64

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