126 relations: Afforestation, African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, Agenda 2000, Agricultural diversification, Agricultural subsidy, Agriculture and Fisheries Council, André Sapir, Appellate Body, Bean, Beef, Bombyx mori, Brazil, Budget of the European Union, Buffer stock scheme, Butter mountain, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Cereal, Collective farming, Common Fisheries Policy, Cotton, Country Land and Business Association, Dairy product, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diet (nutrition), Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development, Doha Development Round, Duty-free shop, Economies of scale, Egg as food, Environmental protection, EU Rural Development Policy, European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development, European Agricultural Guarantee Fund, European Commission, European Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development, European Economic Area, European Economic Community, European Health Forum Gastein, European Parliament Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development, European Union, European Union Association Agreement, European Union legislative procedure, Euroscepticism, Everything but Arms, Extensive farming, Flax, Flower, Fodder, ..., Food and Agriculture Organization, Food coloring, Food prices, Food processing, Franz Fischler, Fruit, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Geographical indications and traditional specialities in the European Union, Great bustard, Green pound, Greening, Hemp, Honey, Hops, Hormone, Illegal logging, India, Intensive animal farming, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, Journal of European Integration, Lamb and mutton, Land allocation decision support system, Least Developed Countries, Lobbying in the United Kingdom, Lomé Convention, Lupinus angustifolius, Market access, Milk, Milk quota, National Farmers' Union of England and Wales, News, Non-communicable disease, Nutrition, Obesity, Oil, Olive, Overproduction, Pea, Peter Nedergaard, Plant, Pork, Potato, Poultry, Preservative, Production quota, Public health, Rational choice theory, Ray MacSharry, Rice, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Rural Payments Agency, Saturated fat, Seed, Set-aside, Sicco Mansholt, Single Payment Scheme, Sugar, Sugar beet, Sugarcane, Taylor & Francis, The Independent, Tobacco, Tomato, Tonne, Trade agreement, Treaty of Rome, UK rebate, United States farm bill, Uruguay Round, Veal, Vegetable, Vitamin deficiency, Wine lake, Working group, World Trade Organization, 2007–08 world food price crisis. Expand index (76 more) » « Shrink index
Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (forestation) in an area where there was no previous tree cover.
The African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States (ACP) is a group of countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific that was created by the Georgetown Agreement in 1975.
Agenda 2000 was an action programme of the European Union whose main objectives were to reform the Common Agricultural Policy and Regional policy, and establish a new financial framework for the years 2000–06 with a view to the then upcoming Eastern Enlargement of the European Union.
In the agricultural context, diversification can be regarded as the re-allocation of some of a farm's productive resources, such as land, capital, farm equipment and pices to other farmers and, particularly in richer countries, non-farming activities such as restaurants and shops.
An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to agribusinesses, agricultural organizations and farms to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities.
The Agriculture and Fisheries Council (AGRIFISH) is one of the configurations of the Council of the European Union and is composed of the agriculture and fisheries ministers of the 28 European Union member states.
André Sapir is a Belgian Economist and Professor at the Solvay Brussels School of Economics & Management (Université Libre de Bruxelles).
The Appellate Body of the World Trade Organization is a standing body of seven persons that hears appeals from reports issued by panels in disputes brought on by WTO members.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The European Union has a budget to pay for policies carried out at European level (such as agriculture, assistance to poorer regions, trans-European networks, research, some overseas development aid) and for its administration, including a parliament, executive branch, and judiciary that are distinct from those of the member states.
A buffer stock scheme (commonly implemented as intervention storage, the "ever-normal granary") is an attempt to use commodity storage for the purposes of stabilising prices in an entire economy or, more commonly, an individual (commodity) market.
The Butter mountain refers to the supply surplus of butter produced in the European Economic Community due to government interventionism, beginning in the 1970s.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the fisheries policy of the European Union (EU).
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
The Country Land and Business Association (CLA) is a membership organisation for owners of land, property and businesses in rural England and Wales.
Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
The Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development or DG AGRI is a Directorate-General of the European Commission.
The Doha Development Round or Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is the trade-negotiation round of the World Trade Organization (WTO) which commenced in November 2001 under then director-general Mike Moore.
Duty-free shops (or stores) are retail outlets that are exempt from the payment of certain local or national taxes and duties, on the requirement that the goods sold will be sold to travelers who will take them out of the country.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, mammals, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.
Environmental protection is a practice of protecting the natural environment on individual, organization controlled or governmental levels, for the benefit of both the environment and humans.
Rural development is a vitally important policy area in the European Union.
The European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) is a European agricultural fund which was set up for the financing of Rural Development Programme (RDP) actions by European Union Council Regulation (EC) No 1290/2005 of 21 June 2005 on the financing of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).
The European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF) consumes a large part of the general budget of the European Union.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development is a member of the European Commission.
The European Economic Area (EEA) is the area in which the Agreement on the EEA provides for the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the European Single Market, including the freedom to choose residence in any country within this area.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Health Forum Gastein (EHFG) is organised by the International Forum Gastein (IFG), a non-profit and non-partisan association led by Professor Helmut Brand (President) and Dorli Kahr-Gottlieb (Secretary General).
The Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development (AGRI) is a committee of the European Parliament.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
A European Union Association Agreement (for short, Association Agreement or AA) is a treaty between the European Union (EU), its Member States and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them.
The European Union adopts legislation through a variety of legislative procedures.
Euroscepticism (also known as EU-scepticism) means criticism of the European Union (EU) and European integration.
Everything but Arms (EBA) is an initiative of the European Union under which all imports to the EU from the Least Developed Countries are duty-free and quota-free, with the exception of armaments.
Extensive farming or extensive agriculture (as opposed to intensive farming) is an agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labor, fertilizers, and capital, relative to the land area being farmed.
Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
Food prices refer to the (averaged) price level for food in particular countries or regions or on a global scale.
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
Franz Fischler (born 23 September 1946) is an Austrian politician from the Christian-conservative People's Party (ÖVP).
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas.
Three European Union schemes of geographical indications and traditional specialties, known as protected designation of origin (PDO), protected geographical indication (PGI), and traditional specialities guaranteed (TSG), promote and protect names of quality agricultural products and foodstuffs.
The great bustard (Otis tarda) is a bird in the bustard family, the only member of the genus Otis.
In the United Kingdom, the green pound was the common name for an exchange rate that was used to calculate the value of financial support within the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy until 1999.
Greening is the process of transforming artifacts such as a space, a lifestyle or a brand image into a more environmentally friendly version (i.e. 'greening your home' or 'greening your office').
Hemp, or industrial hemp (from Old English hænep), typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
Hops are the flowers (also called seed cones or strobiles) of the hop plant Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart bitter, zesty, or citric flavours; though they are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Intensive animal farming or industrial livestock production, also known as factory farming, is a production approach towards farm animals in order to maximize production output, while minimizing production costs.
The is an independent think-and-do-tank, engaged in the provision of information, research and analysis, and policy and multistakeholder dialogue, as a not-for-profit organisation based in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Journal of European Integration (Revue d'Intégration Européenne) is a peer-reviewed academic journal published seven times a year with a focus on European integration via an inter-disciplinary perspective particularly in regards to European political economy, law, history, and sociology.
Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
LADSS, or land allocation decision support system, is an agricultural land-use planning tool developed at The Macaulay Institute.
The Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.
Lobbying in the United Kingdom plays a significant role in the formation of legislation and a wide variety of commercial organisations, lobby groups 'lobby' for particular policies and decisions by Parliament and other political organs at national, regional and local levels.
The Lomé Convention is a trade and aid agreement between the European Economic Community (EEC) and 71 African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries, first signed in February 1975 in Lomé, Togo.
Lupinus angustifolius is a species of lupin known by many common names, including narrowleaf lupin, narrow-leaved lupin and blue lupin.
Market access for goods means the conditions, tariff and Non-tariff measures (NTMs), set by countries for the entry of specific goods into their markets.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
A milk quota (or more accurately dairy produce quota) was one of the measures used by governments in the European Union to intervene in agriculture.
The National Farmers' Union (NFU) is a member organisation/industry association for farmers in England and Wales.
News is information about current events.
A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
In economics, overproduction, oversupply, excess of supply or glut refers to excess of supply over demand of products being offered to the market.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
Peter Nedergaard (born October 31, 1957) is a Danish professor of political science who has been employed at the Department of Political Science at the University of Copenhagen since 2008.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
A production quota is a goal for the production of a good.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.
Raymond MacSharry (born 29 April 1938) is a former Irish Fianna Fáil politician who served as Tánaiste from March 1982 to December 1982, European Commissioner for Agriculture and Rural Development from 1989 to 1993, Minister for the Public Service in 1987, Minister for Finance from March 1982 to December 1982 and 1987 to 1988, Minister for Agriculture from 1979 to 1981, Minister of State at the Department of the Public Service 1978 to 1979.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland.
The Rural Payments Agency (RPA) is an executive agency of the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Set-aside was a scheme introduced by the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1988 (Regulation (EEC) 1272/88), to (i) help reduce the large and costly surpluses produced in Europe under the guaranteed price system of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP); and (ii) to deliver some environmental benefits following considerable damage to agricultural ecosystems and wildlife as a result of the intensification of agriculture.
Sicco Leendert Mansholt (13 September 1908 – 29 June 1995) was a Dutch politician who served as the 4th President of the European Commission from 1972 to 1973.
On 26 June 2003, EU farm ministers adopted a fundamental reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and introduced a new Single Payment Scheme (or Single Farm Payment, SPS) for direct subsidy payments to landowners.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red, fruit/berry of the plant Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A trade agreement (also known as trade pact) is a wide ranging taxes, tariff and trade treaty that often includes investment guarantees.
The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome) is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht).
The UK rebate (or UK correction) is a financial mechanism that reduces the United Kingdom's contribution to the EU budget in effect since 1985.
In the United States, the farm bill is the primary agricultural and food policy tool of the federal government.
The Uruguay Round was the 8th round of multilateral trade negotiations (MTN) conducted within the framework of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), spanning from 1986 to 1994 and embracing 123 countries as "contracting parties".
Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle.
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.
A vitamin deficiency can cause a disease or syndrome known as an avitaminosis or hypovitaminosis.
The wine lake refers to the continuing supply surplus of wine produced in the European Union.
A working group or working party is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World food prices increased dramatically in 2007 and the first and second quarter of 2008, creating a global crisis and causing political and economic instability and social unrest in both poor and developed nations.