117 relations: Acute (medicine), Adenoviridae, Allergic rhinitis, Alternative treatments used for the common cold, American College of Sports Medicine, Analgesic, Anorexia (symptom), Anosmia, Antibiotic, Antihistamine, Antimicrobial resistance, Antipyretic, Antiviral drug, Asymptomatic, Breastfeeding, Bronchitis, Bronchus, Cadherin related family member 3, Chest rub, Child care, Common Cold Unit, Coronavirus, Corticosteroid, Cough, Cough medicine, Croup, Cure, Dextromethorphan, Disease, DRACO, Ebers Papyrus, Echinacea, Enterovirus, Epithelium, Exercise, Fatigue, Fever, Fomite, Gargling, Garlic, Genome, Hand washing, Head, Headache, Herd immunity, Honey, Human metapneumovirus, Human parainfluenza viruses, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Hypothermia, ..., Ibuprofen, ICAM-1, Immunity (medical), Immunosuppression, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Inflammation, Influenza, Insomnia, Interferon, Inuit, Ipratropium bromide, Larynx, Lower respiratory tract infection, Malnutrition, Mayo Clinic, Medical Research Council (United Kingdom), Myalgia, Nasal congestion, Nasal irrigation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Nose, Orthomyxoviridae, Otitis media, Over-the-counter drug, Paracetamol, Paranasal sinuses, Pharyngitis, Picornavirus, Placebo, Pleconaril, PLOS One, Pneumonia, Post-viral cough, Preventive healthcare, Pseudoephedrine, Psychological stress, Quarantine, Respiratory tract, Rhinitis, Rhinorrhea, Rhinovirus, Serotype, Sinusitis, Sleep deprivation, Sneeze, Social distance, Sore throat, Sputum, Strain (biology), Surgical mask, Symptomatic treatment, The New York Times, Throat, Tissue (biology), Topical decongestant, Trachea, Upper respiratory tract infection, Vaccination, Vaccine, Viral evolution, Virus, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Whooping cough, Zinc. Expand index (67 more) » « Shrink index
In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.
Alternative treatments used for the common cold include numerous home remedies and alternative medicines.
The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, is a large sports medicine and exercise science membership organization.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.
Anosmia is the inability to perceive odor or a lack of functioning olfaction—the loss of the sense of smell.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Cadherin related family member 3 (CDHR3), also known as CDH28 or its abbreviation CDHR3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDHR3 gene.
Chest rub, cold rub, or vapor/vapour rub is a mentholated topical petrolatum-based gel intended to assist with minor medical conditions that temporarily impair breathing, including the common cold.
Child care, or otherwise known as daycare, is the care and supervision of a child or multiple children at a time.
In Britain, the Common Cold Unit (CCU), also known as the Common Cold Research Unit (CCRU), was set up by the civilian Medical Research Council (MRC) in 1946 on the site of a former military hospital, the Harvard Hospital, at Harnham Down near Salisbury in Wiltshire.
Coronaviruses are species of virus belonging to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
Croup, also known as laryngotracheobronchitis, is a type of respiratory infection that is usually caused by a virus.
A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
DRACO (double-stranded RNA activated caspase oligomerizer) is a group of experimental antiviral drugs formerly under development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.
Echinacea is a genus, or group of herbaceous flowering plants in the daisy family.
Enteroviruses are a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
A fomes (pronounced) or fomite is any nonliving object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms, such as viruses or bacteria, and hence transferring them from one individual to another.
Gargling (same root as 'gurgle') is the act of bubbling liquid in the mouth.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms.
A head is the part of an organism which usually includes the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, each of which aid in various sensory functions such as sight, hearing, smell, and taste, respectively.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Pneumoviridae and is closely related to the avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroup C. It was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR (RNA arbitrarily primed PCR) technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells.
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a syncytial virus that causes respiratory tract infections.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
ICAM-1 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1) also known as CD54 (Cluster of Differentiation 54) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ICAM1 gene.
In biology, immunity is the balanced state of multicellular organisms having adequate biological defenses to fight infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion, while having adequate tolerance to avoid allergy, and autoimmune diseases.
Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Ipratropium bromide, sold under the trade name Atrovent among others, is a medication which opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
The Medical Research Council (MRC) is responsible for co-coordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom.
Myalgia, or muscle pain, is a symptom of many diseases and disorders.
Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels.
Nasal irrigation, or nasal lavage or nasal douche, is a personal hygiene practice in which the nasal cavity is washed to flush out mucus and debris from the nose and sinuses.
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is one of the 27 institutes and centers that make up the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
A nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which receive and expel air for respiration alongside the mouth.
The Orthomyxoviruses (ὀρθός, orthós, Greek for "straight"; μύξα, mýxa, Greek for "mucus") are a family of RNA viruses that includes seven genera: Influenza virus A, Influenza virus B, Influenza virus C, Influenza virus D, Isavirus, Thogotovirus and Quaranjavirus.
Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Paranasal sinuses are a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity.
Pharyngitis is inflammation of the back of the throat, known as the pharynx.
A picornavirus is a virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae, a family of viruses in the order Picornavirales.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Pleconaril (Picovir) is an antiviral drug that was being developed by Schering-Plough for prevention of asthma exacerbations and common cold symptoms in patients exposed to picornavirus respiratory infections.
PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
A post-viral cough is a lingering cough that follows a viral respiratory tract infection, such as a common cold or flu and lasting up to eight weeks.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Rhinitis, also known as coryza, is irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane inside the nose.
Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid.
The rhinovirus (from the Greek ῥίς rhis "nose", ῥινός rhinos "of the nose", and the Latin vīrus) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold.
A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different individuals.
Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.
Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.
A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa.
Social distance describes the distance between different groups in society and is opposed to ''locational distance''.
Sore throat, also known as throat pain, is pain or irritation of the throat.
Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
A surgical mask, also known as a procedure mask, is intended to be worn by health professionals during surgery and during nursing to catch the bacteria shed in liquid droplets and aerosols from the wearer's mouth and nose.
Symptomatic treatment is any medical therapy of a disease that only affects its symptoms, not its cause, i.e., its etiology.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Topical decongestants are decongestants applied directly to the nasal cavity.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract including the nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Viral evolution is a subfield of evolutionary biology and virology that is specifically concerned with the evolution of viruses.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
Whooping cough (also known as pertussis or 100-day cough) is a highly contagious bacterial disease.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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