318 relations: Abington School District v. Schempp, Act of Parliament, Acts of Union 1707, Ad hoc, Administrative law, Administrative Procedure Act (United States), Admiralty law, Adversarial system, Alfred the Great, Alimony, All England Law Reports, American Law Institute, Analogy, Anglo-America, Anglo-Saxon law, Appellate court, Archbishop of Canterbury, Arraignment, Arthashastra, Assizes, Belize, Benjamin N. Cardozo, Black's Law Dictionary, Books of authority, Botswana, Boydell & Brewer, Brandeis Brief, British Empire, British Mandate for Palestine (legal instrument), California, California Civil Code, California Codes, Canon law, Canon law of the Catholic Church, Case law, Case-based reasoning, Casuistry, Catholic Church, Cause of action, Choice of law, Circuit court, Civil and political rights, Civil law (legal system), Civil procedure, Clearfield Trust Co. v. United States, Code of Virginia, Codification (law), Commentaries on the Laws of England, Commercial law, Common law offence, ..., Common-law marriage, Commonwealth of Nations, Community property, Comparative negligence, Constitution, Constitution of Canada, Constitution of India, Constitution of Israel, Constitutional law, Constitutions of Clarendon, Continental Europe, Contract, Contributory negligence, Corporate law, Corpus Juris Civilis, Corpus Juris Secundum, Council of India, Court, Court of Chancery, Court of Common Pleas (England), Court of equity, Court order, Criminal law, Custom (law), Damages, David Dudley Field II, David Ibbetson, Delaware, Delaware Court of Chancery, Diversity jurisdiction, Donoghue v Stevenson, Doom book, Dr. Bonham's Case, Dutch colonization of the Americas, Early Irish law, East India Company, Eastern Bloc, Edward Coke, Edward I of England, England and Wales, English law, English-speaking world, Environmental law, Equity (law), Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins, Estate (law), European Court of Justice, Evidence (law), Ex post facto law, Executive (government), Federal common law, Federal Court of Appeal (Canada), Federal judiciary of the United States, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Federal Rules of Evidence, Fee simple, Feudalism, Form of action, Frederic William Maitland, Freedom of speech, Future interest, Goa, Government of India Act 1858, Governor-General of India, Grand jury, Gupta Empire, Halsbury's Laws of England, Henry de Bracton, Henry II of England, Henry John Stephen, High Court of Justiciary, History of India, House of Lords, House of Plantagenet, Hugo Grotius, Hundred (county division), In personam, In rem jurisdiction, Incrementalism, Indian Rebellion of 1857, Injunction, Inquisitorial system, Institutes of the Lawes of England, Intellectual property, Intentional tort, International human rights law, International News Service v. Associated Press, International trade law, Israeli law, James Barr Ames, James Bradley Thayer, Johannes Voet, John Chipman Gray, Joseph Chitty, Judge, Judicature Acts, Judicial activism, Judicial functions of the House of Lords, Jurisdiction, Jurisprudence, Jurisprudence constante, Jury, Jury trial, Jus commune, K. G. Balakrishnan, Knesset, Law of Australia, Law of Canada, Law of France, Law of Hong Kong, Law of India, Law of Louisiana, Law of Malaysia, Law of New Zealand, Law of Pakistan, Law of Singapore, Law of South Africa, Law of Spain, Law of the Republic of Ireland, Law of the United States, Law report, Law school, Law school in the United States, Laws in Bangladesh, Lawsuit, Legal history, Legal institutions of Scotland in the High Middle Ages, Legal opinion, Legal year, Legislature, Lesotho, Li v. Yellow Cab Co., Life estate, List of landmark court decisions in the United States, List of national legal systems, Lists of case law, London, Lord Chancellor, Louis Brandeis, Louisiana Purchase, MacPherson v. Buick Motor Co., Magna Carta, Malta, Manu (Hinduism), Manusmriti, Marbury v. Madison, Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, Matthew Hale (jurist), Mechanisms of the English common law, Member of parliament, Mergers and acquisitions, Michigan, Mississippi, Model Penal Code, Mosquito Coast, Muslim world, Namibia, Napoleonic Code, National Labor Relations Board, Natural justice, Negligence, Negotiable instrument, Nemo iudex in causa sua, New Netherland, New York (state), Nicaragua, Norman conquest of England, Northern Ireland law, Obergefell v. Hodges, Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr., Oxford University Press, Parliament of England, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliamentary sovereignty, Patroon, Peter Birks, Plea rolls, Pluralism (political philosophy), Precedent, Presidencies and provinces of British India, Primary and secondary legislation, Privity of contract, Procedural law, Property, Property law, Provinces and territories of Canada, Quality of life, Quasi-judicial body, Quebec law, Question of law, Ranulf de Glanvill, Ratio decidendi, Real property, Reception statute, Regulation, Religious Freedom Restoration Act, Restatements of the Law, Roman law, Roman-Dutch law, Roper v. Simmons, Rule against perpetuities, Rule in Shelley's Case, S. F. C. Milsom, Scotland, Scots law, Second Anglo-Dutch War, Secretary of State for India, Selden Society, Seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution, Sharia, Shire, Sir Frederick Pollock, 1st Baronet, Slavery at common law, Social philosophy, Socialist law, Solemnization, Somoza family, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka, Statute, Statutory law, Substantive law, Supreme Court of California, Supreme Court of Canada, Supreme Court of Israel, Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, Supreme Court of the United States, Swaziland, Tennessee, The Common Law (Holmes), The Crown, The Federalist Papers, The National Archives (United Kingdom), Theodore Plucknett, Thomas Becket, Thomas v. Winchester, Time immemorial, Title (property), Tort, Tradition, Traditional knowledge, Tribunal, Trust law, U.S. state, Uncodified constitution, Uniform civil code, Uniform Commercial Code, United Nations, United States Constitution, United States courts of appeals, United States Patent and Trademark Office, United States v. Hudson, University of Cambridge, University of Oxford, Unjust enrichment, Verdict, West (publisher), Western United States, William Blackstone, William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, William Walker (filibuster), Winterbottom v Wright, Woodbridge, Suffolk, World Digital Library, Writ, Wrongful death claim, Year Books, Zimbabwe. Expand index (268 more) » « Shrink index
Abington School District v. Schempp,,. was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court decided 8–1 in favor of the respondent, Edward Schempp, and declared school-sponsored Bible reading in public schools in the United States to be unconstitutional.
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".
Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government.
The Administrative Procedure Act (APA),, is the United States federal statute that governs the way in which administrative agencies of the federal government of the United States may propose and establish regulations.
Admiralty law or maritime law is a body of law that governs nautical issues and private maritime disputes.
The adversarial system or adversary system is a legal system used in the common law countries where two advocates represent their parties' case or position before an impartial person or group of people, usually a jury or judge, who attempt to determine the truth and pass judgment accordingly.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
Alimony (also called aliment (Scotland), maintenance (England, Ireland, Northern Ireland, Wales, Canada), spousal support (U.S., Canada) and spouse maintenance (Australia)) is a legal obligation on a person to provide financial support to their spouse before or after marital separation or divorce.
The All England Law Reports (abbreviated in citations to All ER) are a long-running series of law reports covering cases from the court system in England and Wales.
The American Law Institute (ALI) was established in 1923 to promote the clarification and simplification of United States common law and its adaptation to changing social needs.
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
Anglo-America most often refers to a region in the Americas in which English is a main language and British culture and the British Empire have had significant historical, ethnic, linguistic and cultural impact.
Anglo-Saxon law (Old English ǣ, later lagu "law"; dōm "decree, judgment") is a body of written rules and customs that were in place during the Anglo-Saxon period in England, before the Norman conquest.
An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury.
Arraignment is a formal reading of a criminal charging document in the presence of the defendant to inform the defendant of the charges against them.
The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.
The courts of assize, or assizes, were periodic courts held around England and Wales until 1972, when together with the quarter sessions they were abolished by the Courts Act 1971 and replaced by a single permanent Crown Court.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
Benjamin Nathan Cardozo (May 24, 1870 – July 9, 1938) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Black's Law is the most widely used law dictionary in the United States.
Books of authority is a term used by legal writers to refer to a number of early legal textbooks that are excepted from the rule that textbooks (and all books other than statute or law report) are not treated as authorities by the courts of England and Wales and other common law jurisdictions.
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
Boydell & Brewer is an academic press based in Woodbridge, Suffolk, England that specializes in publishing historical and critical works.
The Brandeis Brief was a pioneering legal brief that was the first in United States legal history to rely more on a compilation of scientific information and social science than on legal citations.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Mandate for Palestine (valid 29 September 1923 - 15 May 1948), also known as the Mandate for Palestine or the Palestine Mandate, was a "Class A" League of Nations mandate for the territories of Mandatory Palestine – in which the Balfour Declaration's "national home for the Jewish people" was to be established – and a separate Arab Emirate of Transjordan, both of which were conceded by the Ottoman Empire under the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
The Civil Code of California is a collection of statutes for the State of California.
The California Codes are 29 legal codes enacted by the California State Legislature, which together form the general statutory law of California.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
The canon law of the Catholic Church is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organization and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the Church.
Case law is a set of past rulings by tribunals that meet their respective jurisdictions' rules to be cited as precedent.
Case-based reasoning (CBR), broadly construed, is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems.
Casuistry is a method in applied ethics and jurisprudence, often characterised as a critique of principle - or rule-based reasoning.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
A cause of action, in law, is a set of facts sufficient to justify a right to sue to obtain money, property, or the enforcement of a right against another party.
Choice of law is a procedural stage in the litigation of a case involving the conflict of laws when it is necessary to reconcile the differences between the laws of different legal jurisdictions, such as sovereign states, federated states (as in the US), or provinces.
Circuit courts are court systems in several common law jurisdictions.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the rules and standards that courts follow when adjudicating civil lawsuits (as opposed to procedures in criminal law matters).
Clearfield Trust Co.
The Code of Virginia is the statutory law of the U.S. state of Virginia, and consists of the codified legislation of the Virginia General Assembly.
In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.
The Commentaries on the Laws of England are an influential 18th-century treatise on the common law of England by Sir William Blackstone, originally published by the Clarendon Press at Oxford, 1765–1769.
Commercial law, also known as trade law, is the body of law that applies to the rights, relations, and conduct of persons and businesses engaged in commerce, merchandising, trade, and sales.
Common law offences are crimes under English criminal law and the related criminal law of other Commonwealth countries.
Common-law marriage, also known as sui iuris marriage, informal marriage, marriage by habit and repute, or marriage in fact, is a legal framework in a limited number of jurisdictions where a couple is legally considered married, without that couple having formally registered their relation as a civil or religious marriage.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Community property is a marital property regime under which most property acquired during the marriage (except for gifts or inheritances), the community, or communio bonorum, is owned jointly by both spouses and is divided upon divorce, annulment, or death.
Comparative negligence, or non-absolute contributory negligence outside the United States, is a partial legal defense that reduces the amount of damages that a plaintiff can recover in a negligence-based claim, based upon the degree to which the plaintiff's own negligence contributed to cause the injury.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada; the country's constitution is an amalgamation of codified acts and uncodified traditions and conventions.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
The State of Israel has an unwritten constitution.
Constitutional law is a body of law which defines the role, powers, and structure of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the parliament or legislature, and the judiciary; as well as the basic rights of citizens and, in federal countries such as the United States and Canada, the relationship between the central government and state, provincial, or territorial governments.
The Constitutions of Clarendon were a set of legislative procedures passed by Henry II of England in 1164.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Contributory negligence in common law jurisdictions is generally a defense to a claim based on negligence, an action in tort.
Corporate law (also known as business law or enterprise law or sometimes company law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses.
The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor.
Corpus Juris Secundum (CJS) (Meaning, "Second Body of the Law") is an encyclopedia of United States law at the federal and state levels.
The Council of India was the name given at different times to two separate bodies associated with British rule in India.
A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.
The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness (or "inequity") of the common law.
The Court of Common Pleas, or Common Bench, was a common law court in the English legal system that covered "common pleas"; actions between subject and subject, which did not concern the king.
A court of equity, equity court or chancery court is a court that is authorized to apply principles of equity, as opposed to 'law', to cases brought before it.
A court order is an official proclamation by a judge (or panel of judges) that defines the legal relationships between the parties to a hearing, a trial, an appeal or other court proceedings.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Custom in law is the established pattern of behavior that can be objectively verified within a particular social setting.
In law, damages are an award, typically of money, to be paid to a person as compensation for loss or injury.
David Dudley Field II (February 13, 1805April 13, 1894) was an American lawyer and law reformer who made major contributions to the development of American civil procedure.
David John Ibbetson, FBA is a British legal scholar.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
The Delaware Court of Chancery is a court of equity in the American state of Delaware.
In the law of the United States, diversity jurisdiction is a form of subject-matter jurisdiction in civil procedure in which a United States district court in the federal judiciary has the power to hear a civil case when the amount in controversy exceeds $75,000 and where the persons that are parties are "diverse" in citizenship or state of incorporation (for corporations being legal persons), which generally indicates that they differ in state and/or nationality.
was a landmark court decision in Scots delict law and English tort law by the House of Lords.
The Doom Book, Code of Alfred or Legal Code of Ælfred the Great was the code of laws ("dooms" being laws or judgments) compiled by Alfred the Great (893 AD).
Thomas Bonham v College of Physicians, commonly known as Dr.
The Dutch colonization of the Americas began with the establishment of Dutch trading posts and plantations in the Americas, which preceded the much wider known colonisation activities of the Dutch in Asia.
Early Irish law, also called Brehon law, comprised the statutes which governed everyday life in Early Medieval Ireland.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Sir Edward Coke ("cook", formerly; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.
Environmental law, also known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective term describing the network of treaties, statutes, regulations, common and customary laws addressing the effects of human activity on the natural environment.
In jurisdictions following the English common law system, equity is the body of law which was developed in the English Court of Chancery and which is now administered concurrently with the common law.
Erie Railroad Co.
An estate, in common law, is the net worth of a person at any point in time alive or dead.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The law of evidence, also known as the rules of evidence, encompasses the rules and legal principles that govern the proof of facts in a legal proceeding.
An ex post facto law (corrupted from) is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences (or status) of actions that were committed, or relationships that existed, before the enactment of the law.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Federal common law is a term of United States law used to describe common law that is developed by the federal courts, instead of by the courts of the various states.
The Federal Court of Appeal (Cour d'appel fédérale) is a Canadian appellate court that hears cases concerning federal matters.
The federal judiciary of the United States is one of the three co-equal branches of the federal government of the United States organized under the United States Constitution and laws of the federal government.
The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (officially abbreviated Fed. R. Civ. P.; colloquially FRCP) govern civil procedure (i.e. for civil lawsuits) in United States district (federal) courts.
First adopted in 1975, the Federal Rules of Evidence codify the evidence law that applies in United States federal courts.
In English law, a fee simple or fee simple absolute is an estate in land, a form of freehold ownership.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The forms of action were the different procedures by which a legal claim could be made during much of the history of the English common law.
Frederic William Maitland, FBA (28 May 1850 – 19 December 1906) was an English historian and lawyer who is generally regarded as the modern father of English legal history.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
In property law and real estate, a future interest is a legal right to property ownership that does not include the right to present possession or enjoyment of the property.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (21 & 22 Vict. c. 106) passed on August 2, 1858.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Halsbury's Laws of England is a uniquely comprehensive encyclopaedia of law, and provides the only complete narrative statement of law in England and Wales.
Henry of Bracton, also Henry de Bracton, also Henricus Bracton, or Henry Bratton also Henry Bretton (c. 1210 – c. 1268) was an English cleric and jurist.
Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.
Henry John Stephen (1787–1864) was an English legal writer and serjeant-at-law.
The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Plantagenet was a royal house which originated from the lands of Anjou in France.
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
A hundred is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region.
In personam is a Latin phrase meaning "directed toward a particular person".
In rem jurisdiction ("power about or against 'the thing) is a legal term describing the power a court may exercise over property (either real or personal) or a "status" against a person over whom the court does not have in personam jurisdiction.
Incrementalism is a method of working by adding to a project using many small incremental changes instead of a few (extensively planned) large jumps.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that compels a party to do or refrain from specific acts.
An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in investigating the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is primarily that of an impartial referee between the prosecution and the defense.
The Institutes of the Lawes of England are a series of legal treatises written by Sir Edward Coke.
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect, and primarily encompasses copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
An intentional tort is a category of torts that describes a civil wrong resulting from an intentional act on the part of the tortfeasor (alleged wrongdoer).
International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.
International News Service v. Associated Press, 248 U.S. 215 (1918), also known as INS v. AP or simply the INS case, is a 1918 decision of the United States Supreme Court that enunciated the misappropriation doctrine of federal intellectual property common law—that a "quasi-property right" may be created against others by one's investment of effort and money in an intangible thing, such as information or a design.
International trade law includes the appropriate rules and customs for handling trade between countries.
Israeli law is based mostly on a common law legal system, though it also reflects the diverse history of the territory of the State of Israel throughout the last hundred years (which was at various times prior to independence under Ottoman, then British sovereignty), as well as the legal systems of its major religious communities.
James Barr Ames (June 22, 1846 – January 8, 1910) was an American law educator, who popularized the "case-study" method of teaching law.
James Bradley Thayer (January 15, 1831 – February 14, 1902) was an American legal writer and educationist.
Johannes Voet (3 October 1647 in Utrecht – 11 September 1713 in Leiden) was a Dutch jurist.
John Chipman Gray (July 14, 1839 – February 25, 1915) was an American scholar of property law and professor at Harvard Law School.
Joseph Chitty (12 March 1775 – 17 February 1841) was an English lawyer and legal writer, author of some of the earliest practitioners' texts and founder of an important dynasty of lawyers.
A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges.
The Judicature Acts are a series of Acts of Parliament, beginning in the 1870s, which aimed to fuse the hitherto split system of courts in England and Wales.
Judicial activism refers to judicial rulings that are suspected of being based on personal opinion, rather than on existing law.
The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
Jurisprudence or legal theory is the theoretical study of law, principally by philosophers but, from the twentieth century, also by social scientists.
Jurisprudence constante (French for "stable jurisprudence", or literally, "constant jurisprudence") is a legal doctrine according to which a long series of previous decisions applying a particular legal principle or rule is highly persuasive but not controlling in subsequent cases dealing with similar or identical issues of law.
A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.
A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact.
Jus commune or ius commune is Latin for "common law" in certain jurisdictions.
Konakuppakatil Gopinathan Balakrishnan (K. G. Balakrishnan) (b. 12 May 1945) was the former Chairperson of the National Human Rights Commission of India.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
The law of Australia comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law.
The Canadian legal system has its foundation in the English common law system, inherited from being a former colony of the United Kingdom and later a Commonwealth Realm member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
In academic terms, French law can be divided into two main categories: private law ("droit privé") and public law ("droit public").
The law of Hong Kong is based on the rule of law and the independence of the judiciary.
Law of India refers to the system of law in modern India.
Law in the state of Louisiana is based on a more diverse set of sources than the laws of the other forty-nine states of the United States.
The law of Malaysia is mainly based on the common law legal system.
The law of New Zealand can be found in several sources.
The Law of Pakistan is the law and legal system existing in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
The legal system of Singapore is based on the English common law system.
South Africa has a 'hybrid' or 'mixed' legal system, formed by the interweaving of a number of distinct legal traditions: a civil law system inherited from the Dutch, a common law system inherited from the British, and a customary law system inherited from indigenous Africans (often termed African Customary Law, of which there are many variations depending on the tribal origin).
The Law of Spain is the legislation in force in the Kingdom of Spain, which is understood to mean Spanish territory, Spanish waters, consulates and embassies, and ships flying the Spanish flag in international waters.
The law of Ireland consists of constitutional, statute and common law.
The law of the United States comprises many levels of codified and uncodified forms of law, of which the most important is the United States Constitution, the foundation of the federal government of the United States.
Law reports or reporters are series of books that contain judicial opinions from a selection of case law decided by courts.
A law school (also known as a law centre or college of law) is an institution specializing in legal education, usually involved as part of a process for becoming a lawyer within a given jurisdiction.
In the United States, a law school is an institution where students obtain a professional education in law after first obtaining an undergraduate degree.
Bangladesh is part of the common law jurisdiction.
A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.
Legal history or the history of law is the study of how law has evolved and why it changed.
Scottish legal institutions in the High Middle Ages are, for the purposes of this article, the informal and formal systems which governed and helped to manage Scottish society between the years 900 and 1288, a period roughly corresponding with the general European era usually called the High Middle Ages.
In law, a legal opinion is in certain jurisdictions a written explanation by a judge or group of judges that accompanies an order or ruling in a case, laying out the rationale and legal principles for the ruling.
The legal year, in English law as well as in other common law jurisdictions, is the calendar during which the judges sit in court.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.
Li v. Yellow Cab Co.,, 13 Cal.3d 804 (1975), commonly referred to simply as Li, is a California Supreme Court case that judicially embraced comparative negligence in California tort law, rejecting strict contributory negligence.
In common law and statutory law, a life estate is the ownership of land for the duration of a person's life.
The following is a partial list of landmark court decisions in the United States.
The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.
This list consists of lists of case law.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking even the Prime Minister.
Louis Dembitz Brandeis (November 13, 1856 – October 5, 1941) was an American lawyer and associate justice on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1916 to 1939.
The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.
MacPherson v. Buick Motor Co., is a famous New York Court of Appeals opinion by Judge Benjamin N. Cardozo which removed the requirement of privity of contract for duty in negligence actions.
Magna Carta Libertatum (Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called Magna Carta (also Magna Charta; "Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Manu (मनु) is a term found with various meanings in Hinduism.
The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is an ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.
Marbury v. Madison,, was a U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States, so that American courts have the power to strike down laws, statutes, and executive actions that contravene the U.S. Constitution.
The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) is the highest court in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Sir Matthew Hale (1 November 1609 – 25 December 1676) was an influential English barrister, judge and lawyer most noted for his treatise Historia Placitorum Coronæ, or The History of the Pleas of the Crown.
In the English system of common law, judges have devised a number of mechanisms to allow them to cope with precedent decisions.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States.
Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
The Model Penal Code (MPC) is a text designed to stimulate and assist U.S. state legislatures to update and standardize the penal law of the United States of America.
The Mosquito Coast, also known as the Miskito Coast and the Miskito Kingdom, historically comprised the kingdoms fluctuating area along the eastern coast of present-day Nicaragua and Honduras.
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The Napoleonic Code (officially Code civil des Français, referred to as (le) Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) is an independent US government agency with responsibilities for enforcing US labor law in relation to collective bargaining and unfair labor practices.
In English law, natural justice is technical terminology for the rule against bias (nemo iudex in causa sua) and the right to a fair hearing (audi alteram partem).
Negligence (Lat. negligentia) is a failure to exercise appropriate and or ethical ruled care expected to be exercised amongst specified circumstances.
A negotiable instrument is a document guaranteeing the payment of a specific amount of money, either on demand, or at a set time, with the payer usually named on the document.
Nemo iudex in causa sua (or nemo iudex in sua causa) is a Latin phrase that means, literally, "no-one should be a judge in his own case." It is a principle of natural justice that no person can judge a case in which they have an interest.
New Netherland (Dutch: Nieuw Nederland; Latin: Nova Belgica or Novum Belgium) was a 17th-century colony of the Dutch Republic that was located on the east coast of North America.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, Costa Rica to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
Northern Ireland law refers to the legal system of statute and common law operating in Northern Ireland since the partition of Ireland established Northern Ireland as a separate jurisdiction within the United Kingdom in 1921.
Obergefell v. Hodges,, is a landmark civil rights case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in a 5–4 decision that the fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932, and as Acting Chief Justice of the United States from January–February 1930.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Parliamentary sovereignty (also called parliamentary supremacy or legislative supremacy) is a concept in the constitutional law of some parliamentary democracies.
In the United States, a patroon (from Dutch patroon) was a landholder with manorial rights to large tracts of land in the 17th century Dutch colony of New Netherland on the east coast of North America.
Peter Brian Herrenden Birks (3 October 1941 – 6 July 2004) was the Regius Professor of Civil Law at the University of Oxford from 1989 until his death.
Plea rolls are parchment rolls recording details of legal suits or actions in a court of law in England.
Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.
In common law legal systems, a precedent, or authority, is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
In parliamentary systems and presidential systems of government, primary legislation and secondary legislation, the latter also called delegated legislation or subordinate legislation, are two forms of law, created respectively by the legislative and executive branches of government.
The doctrine of privity of contract is a common law principle which provides that a contract cannot confer rights or impose obligations upon any person who is not a party to the contract.
Procedural law, adjective law, or rules of court comprises the rules by which a court hears and determines what happens in civil, lawsuit, criminal or administrative proceedings.
Property, in the abstract, is what belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
Property law is the area of law that governs the various forms of ownership and tenancy in real property (land as distinct from personal or movable possessions) and in personal property, within the common law legal system.
The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
A quasi-judicial body is a non judicial body which can interpret law.
Quebec law is unique in Canada because Quebec is the only province in Canada to have a juridical legal system (pertaining to the administration of justice) under which civil matters are regulated by French-heritage civil law.
In law, a question of law, also known as a point of law, is a question that must be answered by applying relevant legal principles to interpretation of the law.
Ranulf de Glanvill (alias Glanvil, Glanville, Granville, etc., died 1190) was Chief Justiciar of England during the reign of King Henry II (1154–89) and was the probable author of Tractatus de legibus et consuetudinibus regni Anglie (The Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Kingdom of England), the earliest treatise on the laws of England.
Ratio decidendi (Latin plural rationes decidendi) is a Latin phrase meaning "the reason" or "the rationale for the decision".
In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land which is the property of some person and all structures (also called improvements or fixtures) integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, and roads, among other things.
A reception statute is a statutory law adopted as a former British colony becomes independent, by which the new nation adopts (i.e. receives) pre-independence English common law, to the extent not explicitly rejected by the legislative body or constitution of the new nation.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, Pub.
In American jurisprudence, the Restatements of the Law are a set of treatises on legal subjects that seek to inform judges and lawyers about general principles of common law.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Roman-Dutch law (Dutch: Rooms-Hollands recht, Afrikaans: Romeins-Hollandse reg) is an uncodified, scholarship-driven, judge-made legal system based on Roman law as applied in the Netherlands in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005), was a landmark decision in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that it is unconstitutional to impose capital punishment for crimes committed while under the age of 18.
The rule against perpetuities is a rule in the Anglo-American common law that prevents people from using legal instruments (usually a deed or a will) to exert control over the ownership of property for a time long beyond the lives of people living at the time the instrument was written.
The Rule in Shelley's Case is a rule of law that may apply to certain future interests in real property and trusts created in common law jurisdictions.
Stroud Francis Charles Milsom QC FBA FRHistS (2 May 1923 – 24 February 2016) was an English legal historian known for fundamentally revising some of the ideas of F.W. Maitland.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scots law is the legal system of Scotland.
The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.
The Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was the British Cabinet minister and the political head of the India Office responsible for the governance of the British Raj (India), Aden, and Burma.
The Selden Society is a learned society and registered charity concerned with the study of English legal history.
The Seventh Amendment (Amendment VII) to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
A shire is a traditional term for a division of land, found in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and some other English speaking countries.
Sir Jonathan Frederick Pollock, 1st Baronet, PC (23 September 1783 – 28 August 1870) was a British lawyer and Tory politician.
Slavery at common law in former colonies of the British Empire developed slowly over centuries, and was characterised by inconsistent decisions and varying rationales for the treatment of slavery, the slave trade, and the rights of slaves and slave owners.
Social philosophy is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations.
Socialist law or Soviet law denotes a general type of legal system which has been used in communist and formerly communist states.
In the context of marriage, solemnization refers to the performance of a ceremony.
The Somoza family was an influential political dynasty who ruled Nicaragua as a family dictatorship from 1936 to 1979.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country.
Statutory law or statute law is written law set down by a body of legislature or by a singular legislator (in the case of absolute monarchy).
Substantive law is the set of laws that governs how members of a society are to behave.
The Supreme Court of California is the court of last resort in the courts of the State of California.
The Supreme Court of Canada (Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada, the final court of appeals in the Canadian justice system.
The Supreme Court (בית המשפט העליון, Beit HaMishpat HaElyon) is the highest court in Israel.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Common Law is a book that was written by Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. in 1881, 21 years before Holmes became an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
Theodore Frank Thomas Plucknett (2 January 1897 – 14 February 1965) was a British legal historian who was the first ever chair of legal history at the London School of Economics.
Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.
Thomas v. Winchester, 6 N.Y. 397 (1852), which established the "imminent danger to human life" doctrine, was at the head of the cases in assaulting the protective wall of privity in the tort field.
Time immemorial (temps immémorial) is a phrase meaning time extending beyond the reach of memory, record, or tradition, indefinitely ancient, "ancient beyond memory or record".
In property law, a title is a bundle of rights in a piece of property in which a party may own either a legal interest or equitable interest.
A tort, in common law jurisdictions, is a civil wrong that causes a claimant to suffer loss or harm resulting in legal liability for the person who commits the tortious act.
A tradition is a belief or behavior passed down within a group or society with symbolic meaning or special significance with origins in the past.
The terms traditional knowledge, indigenous knowledge and local knowledge generally refer to knowledge systems embedded in the cultural traditions of regional, indigenous, or local communities.
A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title.
A trust is a three-party fiduciary relationship in which the first party, the trustor or settlor, transfers ("settles") a property (often but not necessarily a sum of money) upon the second party (the trustee) for the benefit of the third party, the beneficiary.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
An uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules often take the form of customs, usage, precedent and a variety of statutes and legal instruments.
Uniform civil code is the ongoing point of debate within Indian mandate to replace personal laws based on the scriptures and customs of each major religious community in India with a common set of rules governing every citizen.
The Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), first published in 1952, is one of a number of uniform acts that have been put into law with the goal of harmonizing the law of sales and other commercial transactions across the United States of America (U.S.) through UCC adoption by all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.
United States v. Hudson and Goodwin,, was a case in which the United States Supreme Court held that Congress must first enact a constitutional law criminalizing an activity, attach a penalty, and give the federal courts jurisdiction over the offense in order for the court to render a conviction.
The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
In contract law, unjust enrichment occurs when one person is enriched at the expense of another in circumstances that the law sees as unjust.
In law, a verdict is the formal finding of fact made by a jury on matters or questions submitted to the jury by a judge.
West (also known by its original name, West Publishing) is a business owned by Thomson Reuters that publishes legal, business, and regulatory information in print, and on electronic services such as Westlaw.
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.
William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, PC, SL (2 March 1705 – 20 March 1793) was a British barrister, politician and judge noted for his reform of English law.
William Walker (May 8, 1824 – September 12, 1860) was an American physician, lawyer, journalist and mercenary who organized several private military expeditions into Latin America, with the intention of establishing English-speaking slave colonies under his personal control, an enterprise then known as "filibustering".
Winterbottom v Wright (1842) was an important case in English common law responsible for constraining the law's stance on negligence in the 19th century.
Woodbridge is a town in Suffolk, East Anglia, England, about from the sea coast.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
In common law, a writ (Anglo-Saxon gewrit, Latin breve) is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court.
Wrongful death is a claim against a person who can be held liable for a death.
The Year Books are the modern English name that is now typically given to the earliest law reports of England.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
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