405 relations: Acetate, Adenosine triphosphate, Africa, African wild dog, Agriculture, Agritourism, Air sac, Alaska, Aldosterone, Algeria, Allometry, Alula, Analogy, Anatolia, Anatomical terms of location, Angiogenesis, Angiotensin, Angola, Antelope, Antibody, Appendage, Arabian ostrich, Arabian Peninsula, Arsinoe II, Artery, Asian ostrich, Atrioventricular node, Atrium (heart), Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Basal metabolic rate, Beak, Beef, Benin, Binomial nomenclature, Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Bird, Bird anatomy, Bird feet and legs, Bird of prey, BirdLife International, Birds of the World: Recommended English Names, Blood plasma, Blood vessel, Blood–air barrier, Bolus (digestion), Botswana, Bronchus, Buff (colour), Bundle of His, Burkina Faso, ..., Burundi, Calorie, Camel racing, Cameroon, Canterbury Park, Cape Province, Cape Town, Capillary, Carbohydrate, Cardiac cycle, Carl Linnaeus, Cassowary, Catabolism, Cecum, Central African Republic, Cerebral arteries, Chad, Chandler, Arizona, Cheetah, Chicken, China, Chloride, Circulatory system, CITES, City Pages, Clavicle, Clearance (pharmacology), Cloaca, Common carotid artery, Cone, Convective heat transfer, Convergent evolution, Coronary, Coronary sulcus, Countercurrent exchange, Crane (bird), Creatinine, Critically endangered, Crop (anatomy), Culture of South Africa, Cunene River, Dahlak Archipelago, Dehydration, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Diepkloof Rock Shelter, Dinornis, Dipsogen, Disembowelment, Dissipation, Diurnality, Djibouti, Dmanisi, Dotdash, Down feather, East Africa, East African Rift, Eastern Christianity, Egg, Egg incubation, Egypt, Egyptian vulture, Electrical conduction system of the heart, Electrolyte, Elephant bird, Ellis Park Race Course, Embryo, Emu, Endocardium, Endotherm, English people, Enzyme kinetics, Eocene, Eogruidae, Epithelium, Eremopezus, Eritrea, Esophagus, Ethiopia, Euphorbia heterochroma, Evansville Courier & Press, Excretion, Extracellular fluid, Fair Grounds Race Course, Fashion, Feather duster, Feces, Fermentation, Fick principle, Flightless bird, Fossil, Fowl, Frank G. Carpenter, Gallbladder, Gas exchange, Gastrolith, Genus, Ghana, Gizzard, Goose bumps, Grazing, Gular skin, Haaretz, Hagen–Poiseuille equation, Haplotype, Hat, Heart, Heart valve, Heat exchanger, Heat transfer, Hematocrit, Hemoglobin, Hemoglobin E, Henry's law, Heterothermy, History of Florida, Holocene, Homeostasis, Homeothermy, Hoof, Horn of Africa, Horse racing, Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World, Howiesons Poort, Hunter-gatherer, Hyperpnea, Hyperthermia, Hypothalamus, Hypovolemia, Ichnotaxon, Incubation period, Indio, California, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Interventricular septum, Invertebrate, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Israel, IUCN Red List, Jackal, Jacksonville, Florida, John Henry Gurney Sr., Jordan, Kalahari Desert, Karoo, Keel (bird anatomy), Kentucky, Kenya, Kidney, Kiwi, Kleiber's law, Kuwait, Laminar flow, Large intestine, Largest organisms, Larynx, Last glacial period, Latin, Least-concern species, Leopard, Libya, Lion, List of common misconceptions, Locust, Louisiana, Lung, Lung volumes, Lysosome, Madagascar, Mali, Masai ostrich, Mauritania, Mechanix Illustrated, Mesentery, Mesopotamia, Metabolic waste, Metabolic water, Metabolism, Middle East, Middle Stone Age, Minnesota, Miocene, Miombo, Mitochondrial DNA, Moa, Moderator band (heart), Molality, Mongoose, Morocco, Mouth, Mucous membrane, Myofibril, Myogenic mechanism, Nail (anatomy), Namibia, National Geographic Society, National Wildlife, National Wildlife Federation, Nephron, Nevada, New Orleans, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Nomad, North Africa, North African ostrich, OC Weekly, Oman, Ophthalmic artery, Order (biology), Oscar Neumann, Osmotic concentration, Ostrich leather, Ostrich stew, Oudtshoorn, Oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve, P50 (pressure), Palaeognathae, Palaeotis, Palate, Passerine, Perfusion, Pericardium, Peritoneum, Petroglyph, Phacochoerus, Phagocyte, Phylogenetics, Plasma osmolality, Pliny the Elder, Polyphosphate, Posterior nasal apertures, Potassium, Prairie Meadows, Predation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Pubis (bone), Pulmonary circulation, Pulmonary vein, Purkinje fibers, Qatar, Racing, Ratite, Río de Oro, Rectum, Red blood cell, Red Sea, Redox, Remiornis, Renal function, Respiration (physiology), Respiration rate, Respiratory alkalosis, Rhea (bird), Roman Empire, Room temperature, Rwanda, Sahara, Sahel, Salt gland, Saudi Arabia, Savanna, Seasonal breeder, Secretarybird, Secretion, Semelparity and iteroparity, Senegal, Septum, Sexual maturity, Shivering, Shoebill, Short-chain fatty acid, Shunt (medical), Sinoatrial node, Sodium, Solar irradiance, Solution, Somali ostrich, Somalia, South Africa, South African ostrich, South Sudan, Southern Africa, Species, Sphenoid bone, Spotted hyena, Sternum, Struthio, Struthio coppensi, Struthio dmanisensis, Struthio linxiaensis, Struthio orlovi, Struthio wimani, Struthionidae, Subspecies, Sudan, Surface-area-to-volume ratio, Sweat gland, Sweden, Syria, Syrinx (bird anatomy), Systema Naturae, Tanzania, Tarsus (skeleton), Temperature gradient, Territory (animal), Tetramer, The Auk, The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, Thermal conduction, Thermal neutral zone, Thermodynamic equilibrium, Thermoregulation, Thoracic diaphragm, Thorax, Tidal volume, Tinamou, Togo, Tonicity, Tourist attraction, Trace fossil classification, Trachea, Tree of Life Web Project, Tunisia, Turbulence, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, United States, Ureter, Uric acid, Urine, Urine flow rate, Urine osmolality, Vasoconstriction, Vasodilation, Vasopressin, Venatio, Ventricle (heart), Virginia City, Nevada, Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, Warm-blooded, West Africa, Western Asia, Wing chord (biology), World Digital Library, World War I, Xerocole, Year, Yemen, Zambezi, Zambia, Zebra, Zimbabwe, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. 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An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), also known as African hunting dog, African painted dog, painted hunting dog, or painted wolf, is a canid native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Agritourism or agrotourism, as it is defined most broadly, involves any agriculturally based operation or activity that brings visitors to a farm or ranch.
Air sacs are spaces within an organism where there is the constant presence of air.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Allometry is the study of the relationship of body size to shape, anatomy, physiology and finally behaviour, first outlined by Otto Snell in 1892, by D'Arcy Thompson in 1917 in On Growth and Form and by Julian Huxley in 1932.
The alula, or bastard wing, (plural alulae) is a small projection on the anterior edge of the wing of modern birds and a few non-avian dinosaurs.
Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
An antelope is a member of a number of even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In invertebrate biology, an appendage (or outgrowth) is an external body part, or natural prolongation, that protrudes from an organism's body (in vertebrate biology, an example would be a vertebrate's limbs).
The Arabian ostrich or Syrian ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus) is an extinct subspecies of the ostrich that lived on the Arabian Peninsula and in the Near East until the mid-20th century.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arsinoë II (Ἀρσινόη, 316 BC – unknown date between July 270 and 260 BC) was a Ptolemaic Queen and co-regent of Ancient Egypt.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
The Asian or Asiatic ostrich (Struthio asiaticus), is an extinct species of ostrich that ranged from Morocco, the Middle East to China and Mongolia.
The atrioventricular node, or AV node is a part of the electrical conduction system of the heart that coordinates the top of the heart.
The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
The beak, bill, or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds that is used for eating and for preening, manipulating objects, killing prey, fighting, probing for food, courtship and feeding young.
Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
The Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany (acronym BSIP) is an autonomous institute constituted under the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bird anatomy, or the physiological structure of birds' bodies, shows many unique adaptations, mostly aiding flight.
The anatomy of bird legs and feet is diverse, encompassing many accommodations to perform a wide variety of functions.
A bird of prey, predatory bird, or raptor is any of several species of bird that hunts and feeds on rodents and other animals.
BirdLife International (formerly the International Council for Bird Preservation) is a global partnership of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds, their habitats, and global biodiversity, working with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources.
Birds of the World: Recommended English Names is a paperback book, written by Frank Gill and Minturn Wright on behalf of the International Ornithologists' Union.
Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
The blood–air barrier (alveolar–capillary barrier or membrane) exists in the gas exchanging region of the lungs.
In digestion, a bolus (from Latin bolus, "ball") is a ball-like mixture of food and saliva that forms in the mouth during the process of chewing (which is largely an adaptation for plant-eating mammals).
Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.
A bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs.
Buff is the pale yellow-brown colour of the undyed leather of several animals.
The bundle of His or His bundle is a collection of heart muscle cells specialized for electrical conduction.
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
A calorie is a unit of energy.
Camel racing is a popular sport in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Bahrain, Jordan, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Australia, and Mongolia.
Canterbury Park is a horse racing track in Shakopee, Minnesota, USA.
The Province of the Cape of Good Hope (Provinsie van die Kaap die Goeie Hoop), commonly referred to as the Cape Province (Kaapprovinsie) and colloquially as The Cape (Die Kaap), was a province in the Union of South Africa and subsequently the Republic of South Africa.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Cassowaries, genus Casuarius, are ratites (flightless birds without a keel on their sternum bone) that are native to the tropical forests of New Guinea (Papua New Guinea and Indonesia), nearby islands, and northeastern Australia.
Catabolism (from Greek κάτω kato, "downward" and βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units that are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions.
The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Cerebral arteries describe three main pairs of arteries and their branches, which perfuse the cerebrum of the brain.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Chandler is a city in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States, and a prominent suburb of the Phoenix, Arizona, Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA).
List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, also known as the Washington Convention) is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals.
City Pages is an alternative newspaper serving the Minneapolis–St. Paul metropolitan area.
The clavicle or collarbone is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the sternum or breastbone.
In pharmacology, the clearance is a pharmacokinetic measurement of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed per unit time; the usual units are mL/min.
In animal anatomy, a cloaca (plural cloacae or) is the posterior orifice that serves as the only opening for the digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts (if present) of many vertebrate animals, opening at the vent.
In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.
A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.
Convective heat transfer, often referred to simply as convection, is the transfer of heat from one place to another by the movement of fluids.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Coronary may, as shorthand in English, be used to mean: to coronate or cremate a body.
The atria of the heart are separated from the ventricles by the coronary sulcus (also called coronary groove, auriculoventricular groove, atrioventricular groove, AV groove); this contains the trunks of the nutrient vessels of the heart, and is deficient in front, where it is crossed by the root of the pulmonary trunk.
Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some component, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each other.
Cranes are a family, Gruidae, of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the group Gruiformes.
Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).
A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
A crop (sometimes also called a croup or a craw, or ingluvies) is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion.
The culture of South Africa is known for its ethnic and cultural diversity.
The Cunene River (Portuguese spelling) or Kunene River (Namibian spelling) is a river in Southern Africa.
The Dahlak Archipelago (أرخبيل دهلك, Ge'ez: ዳህላክ) is an island group located in the Red Sea near Massawa, Eritrea.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Diepkloof Rock Shelter is a rock shelter in Western Cape, South Africa in which has been found some of the earliest evidence of the human use of symbols, in the form of patterns engraved upon ostrich eggshell water containers.
The giant moa (Dinornis) is an extinct genus of birds belonging to the moa family.
A dipsogen is an agent that causes thirst.
Disembowelment or evisceration is the removal of some or all of the organs of the gastrointestinal tract (the bowels, or viscera), usually through a horizontal incision made across the abdominal area.
Dissipation is the result of an irreversible process that takes place in homogeneous thermodynamic systems.
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Dmanisi (tr) is a town and archaeological site in the Kvemo Kartli region of Georgia approximately 93 km southwest of the nation’s capital Tbilisi in the river valley of Mashavera.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.
Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Eastern Catholic churches (that are in communion with Rome but still maintain Eastern liturgies), and the denominations descended from the Church of the East.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
Incubation refers to the process by which certain oviparous (egg-laying) animals hatch their eggs; it also refers to the development of the embryo within the egg.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), also called the white scavenger vulture or pharaoh's chicken, is a small Old World vulture and the only member of the genus Neophron.
The electrical conduction system of the heart transmits signals generated usually by the sinoatrial node to cause contraction of the heart muscle.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Elephant birds are members of the extinct family Aepyornithidae.
Ellis Park is a thoroughbred racetrack in Henderson, Kentucky, just south of Evansville, Indiana.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is the second-largest living bird by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich.
The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart.
An endotherm (from Greek ἔνδον endon "within" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is an organism that maintains its body at a metabolically favorable temperature, largely by the use of heat set free by its internal bodily functions instead of relying almost purely on ambient heat.
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
Eogruidae (also spelled Eogruiidae in some publications) is a family of large, flightless birds that occurred across Eurasia from the Eocene to Pliocene epochs.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
Eremopezus is a prehistoric bird genus, possibly a palaeognath.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Euphorbia heterochroma is a species of flowering plant in the Euphorbiaceae family.
The Courier & Press is a local newspaper in Evansville, Indiana.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.
Fair Grounds Race Course, often known as New Orleans Fair Grounds, is a thoroughbred racetrack and racino in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Fashion is a popular style, especially in clothing, footwear, lifestyle products, accessories, makeup, hairstyle and body.
A feather duster is an implement used for cleaning.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Developed by Adolf Eugen Fick (1829–1901), the Fick principle has been applied to the measurement of cardiac output.
Flightless birds are birds that through evolution lost the ability to fly.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Fowl are birds belonging to one of two biological orders, namely the gamefowl or landfowl (Galliformes) and the waterfowl (Anseriformes).
Frank George Carpenter (Mansfield, Ohio, May 8, 1855, – Nanking, June 18, 1924) was a journalist, traveler, travel writer, photographer, lecturer.
In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.
Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.
A gastrolith, also called a stomach stone or gizzard stones, is a rock held inside a gastrointestinal tract.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
The gizzard, also referred to as the ventriculus, gastric mill, and gigerium, is an organ found in the digestive tract of some animals, including archosaurs (pterosaurs, crocodiles, alligators, and dinosaurs, including birds), earthworms, some gastropods, some fish, and some crustaceans.
Goose bumps are the bumps on a person's skin at the base of body hairs which may involuntarily develop when a person is cold or experiences strong emotions such as fear, euphoria or sexual arousal.
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.
Gular skin (throat skin), in ornithology, is an area of featherless skin on birds that joins the lower mandible of the beak (or bill) to the bird's neck.
Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.
In nonideal fluid dynamics, the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, also known as the Hagen–Poiseuille law, Poiseuille law or Poiseuille equation, is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section.
A haplotype (haploid genotype) is a group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent.
A hat is a head covering which is worn for various reasons, including protection against weather conditions, ceremonial reasons such as university graduation, religious reasons, safety, or as a fashion accessory.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart.
A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between two or more fluids.
Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems.
The hematocrit (Ht or HCT), also known by several other names, is the volume percentage (vol%) of red blood cells in blood.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
Hemoglobin E or haemoglobin E (HbE) is an abnormal hemoglobin with a single point mutation in the β chain.
In chemistry, Henry's law is a gas law that states that the amount of dissolved gas is proportional to its partial pressure in the gas phase.
Heterothermy or heterothermia (from Greek ἕτερος heteros "other" and θέρμη thermē "heat") is a physiological term for animals that exhibit characteristics of both poikilothermy and homeothermy.
The history of Florida can be traced to when the first Native Americans began to inhabit the peninsula as early as 14,000 years ago.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
Homeothermy or homothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence.
A hoof, plural hooves or hoofs, is the tip of a toe of an ungulate mammal, strengthened by a thick, horny, keratin covering.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport, typically involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys (or sometimes driven without riders) over a set distance for competition.
The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World is a book by Richard Howard and Alick Moore which presents a list of the bird species of the world.
Howiesons Poort (also called HP) is a lithic technology cultural period in the Middle Stone Age in Africa named after the Howieson’s Poort Shelter archeological site near Grahamstown in South Africa.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hyperpnea or hyperpnoea is increased depth and rate of breathing.
Hyperthermia is elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation that occurs when a body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates.
The hypothalamus(from Greek ὑπό, "under" and θάλαμος, thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions.
Hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma.
An ichnotaxon (plural ichnotaxa) is defined by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as "a taxon based on the fossilized work of an organism", that is, the non-human equivalent of an artifact.
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, a chemical, or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
Indio is a city in Riverside County, California, United States, located in the Coachella Valley of Southern California's Colorado Desert region.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
The interventricular septum (IVS, or ventricular septum, or during development septum inferius), is the stout wall separating the lower chambers (the ventricles) of the heart from one another.
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
Jackals are medium-sized omnivorous mammals of the genus Canis, which also includes wolves, coyotes and the domestic dog.
Jacksonville is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Florida and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States.
John Henry Gurney (4 July 1819 – 20 April 1890) was an English banker, amateur ornithologist, and Liberal Party politician of the Gurney family.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa extending for, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia and regions of South Africa.
The Karoo (from a Khoikhoi word, possibly garo "desert") is a semidesert natural region of South Africa.
A keel or carina (plural carinae) in bird anatomy is an extension of the sternum (breastbone) which runs axially along the midline of the sternum and extends outward, perpendicular to the plane of the ribs.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kiwi or kiwis are flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae.
Kleiber's law, named after Max Kleiber for his biology work in the early 1930s, is the observation that, for the vast majority of animals, an animal's metabolic rate scales to the ¾ power of the animal's mass.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
The largest organisms found on Earth can be determined according to various aspects of an organism's size, such as: mass, volume, area, length, height, or even genome size.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A least concern (LC) species is a species which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as evaluated but not qualified for any other category.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).
This list of common misconceptions corrects erroneous beliefs that are currently widely held about notable topics.
Locusts are certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae that have a swarming phase.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lung volumes and lung capacities refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
The Masai ostrich (Struthio camelus massaicus), also known as the pink-necked ostrich or East African ostrich, is a large subspecies of the common ostrich native to East Africa.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Mechanix Illustrated is an American magazine published by John August Media, LLC, and hosted at TechnicaCuriosa.com.
The mesentery is a continuous set of tissues that attaches the intestines to the abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Metabolic wastes or excretes are substances left over from metabolic processes (such as cellular respiration) which cannot be used by the organism (they are surplus or toxic), and must therefore be excreted.
Metabolic water refers to water created inside a living organism through their metabolism, by oxidizing energy-containing substances in their food.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Middle Stone Age (or MSA) was a period of African prehistory between the Early Stone Age and the Later Stone Age.
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Miombo is the vernacular word for Brachystegia, a genus of tree comprising a large number of tree species together with Julbernadia species in woodlands.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The moa were nine species (in six genera) of flightless birds endemic to New Zealand.
The moderator band (also known as septomarginal trabecula) is a muscular band of heart tissue found in the right ventricle of the heart.
Molality, also called molal concentration, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution in terms of amount of substance in a specified amount of mass of the solvent.
Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.
A myofibril (also known as a muscle fibril) is a basic rod-like unit of a muscle cell.
The myogenic mechanism is how arteries and arterioles react to an increase or decrease of blood pressure to keep the blood flow within the blood vessel constant.
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
National Wildlife is an American magazine published bi-monthly by the National Wildlife Federation (NWF), a nonprofit conservation group.
The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) is the United States' largest private, nonprofit conservation education and advocacy organization, with over six million members and supporters, and 51 state and territorial affiliated organizations (including Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands).
The nephron (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, meaning "kidney") is the microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The North African ostrich or red-necked ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus), also known as the Barbary ostrich, is the nominate subspecies of the common ostrich from West and North Africa.
OC Weekly is a free weekly paper (an alternative weekly) distributed in Orange County and Long Beach, California.
Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.
The ophthalmic artery (OA) is the first branch of the internal carotid artery distal to the cavernous sinus.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
Oscar Rudolph Neumann (3 September 1867 – 17 May 1946) was a German ornithologist.
Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity, is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L).
Ostrich leather is the result of tanning skins taken from African ostriches farmed for their feathers, skin and meat.
Ostrich stew is a stew prepared using ostrich meat as a primary ingredient.
Oudtshoorn, the "ostrich capital of the world", is a town in the Western Cape province of South Africa, located between the Swartberg mountains to the north and the Outeniqua Mountains to the south.
2-Hb dissociation curve is a sigmoidal curve that represents the relationship between O2 concentration and the percentage saturation of Hb.
In biochemistry, p50 represents the partial pressure of a gas required to achieve 50% saturation of a particular protein's binding sites.
Palaeognathae, or paleognaths, is one of the two living clades of birds – the other being Neognathae.
Palaeotis is a genus of paleognath birds from the middle Eocene epoch of central Europe.
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.
A passerine is any bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species.
Perfusion is the passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to an organ or a tissue, usually referring to the delivery of blood to a capillary bed in tissue.
The pericardium is a double-walled sac containing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.
The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.
Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, picking, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art.
Phacochoerus is a genus in the family Suidae, commonly known as warthogs.
Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.
Plasma osmolality measures the body's electrolyte-water balance.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Polyphosphates are salts or esters of polymeric oxyanions formed from tetrahedral PO4 (phosphate) structural units linked together by sharing oxygen atoms.
The posterior nasal apertures or internal nostrils are the openings found at the posterior (back part) of the nasal passage between the nasal cavity and the throat in tetrapods with secondary palates, including humans and other mammals (as well as crocodilians and most skinks).
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Prairie Meadows is a Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse racetrack casino located in Altoona, Iowa, United States.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
In vertebrates, the pubic bone is the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis.
The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
The Purkinje fibers (Purkinje tissue or subendocardial branches) are located in the inner ventricular walls of the heart, just beneath the endocardium in a space called the subendocardium.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
In sport, racing is a competition of speed, against an objective criterion, usually a clock or to a specific point.
A ratite is any of a diverse group of flightless and mostly large and long-legged birds of the infraclass Palaeognathae.
Río de Oro (Spanish for "Gold River";, wādī-að-ðahab, often transliterated as Oued Edhahab) was, with Saguia el-Hamra, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish province of Spanish Sahara after 1969; it had been taken as a Spanish colonial possession in the late 19th century.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Remiornis heberti is an extinct species of paleognath bird from the Paleocene of France.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
In physiology, respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.
The respiration rate is a parameter which is used in ecological and agronomical modeling.
Respiratory alkalosis is a medical condition in which increased respiration elevates the blood pH beyond the normal range (7.35–7.45) with a concurrent reduction in arterial levels of carbon dioxide.
The rheas are large ratites (flightless birds without a keel on their sternum bone) in the order Rheiformes, native to South America, distantly related to the ostrich and emu.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Colloquially, room temperature is the range of air temperatures that most people prefer for indoor settings, which feel comfortable when wearing typical indoor clothing.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
The salt gland is an organ for excreting excess salts.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
Seasonal breeders are animal species that successfully mate only during certain times of the year.
The secretarybird or secretary bird (Sagittarius serpentarius) is a very large, mostly terrestrial bird of prey.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Semelparity and iteroparity are two classes of possible reproductive strategies available to living organisms.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.
Sexual maturity is the capability of an organism to reproduce.
Shivering (also called shuddering) is a bodily function in response to cold in warm-blooded animals.
The shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) also known as whalehead, is a very large stork-like bird.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.
In medicine, a shunt is a hole or a small passage which moves, or allows movement of, fluid from one part of the body to another.
The sinoatrial node (SA node), also known as sinus node, is a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
The Somali ostrich (Struthio molybdophanes) also known as the blue-necked ostrich is a large flightless bird native to the Horn of Africa.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South African ostrich (Struthio camelus australis), also known as the black-necked ostrich, Cape ostrich or southern ostrich is a subspecies of the common ostrich endemic to Southern Africa.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The sphenoid bone is an unpaired bone of the neurocranium. It is situated in the middle of the skull towards the front, in front of the temporal bone and the basilar part of the occipital bone. The sphenoid bone is one of the seven bones that articulate to form the orbit. Its shape somewhat resembles that of a butterfly or bat with its wings extended.
The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), also known as the laughing hyena, is a species of hyena, currently classed as the sole member of the genus Crocuta, native to Sub-Saharan Africa.
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
Struthio is a genus of bird in the order Struthioniformes.
Struthio coppensi is an extinct species of ostrich located near Elisabethfeld, Namibia.
Struthio dmanisensis, the giant ostrich, is an extinct Eurasian species of ostrich which lived in the Late Pliocene to the Early Pleistocene of Georgia.
Struthio linxiaensis is an extinct species of ratite from the Miocene of China.
Struthio orlovi is an extinct species of ratite bird from the Miocene of Moldavia.
Struthio wimani is an extinct species of ratite bird from the Pliocene of China.
Struthionidae is a family of flightless ratite birds which first appeared during the Miocene epoch, though various Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene ratites may belong to this group.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
The surface-area-to-volume ratio, also called the surface-to-volume ratio and variously denoted sa/vol or SA:V, is the amount of surface area per unit volume of an object or collection of objects.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The syrinx (Greek σύριγξ for pan pipes) is the vocal organ of birds.
(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
The tarsus is a cluster of seven articulating bones in each foot situated between the lower end of tibia and fibula of the lower leg and the metatarsus.
A temperature gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the temperature changes the most rapidly around a particular location.
In ethology, territory is the sociographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (or, occasionally, animals of other species).
A tetramer (tetra-, "four" + -mer, "parts") is an oligomer formed from four monomers or subunits.
The Auk: Ornithological Advances is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal and the official publication of the American Ornithological Society (AOS).
The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World is a book by Jim Clements which presents a list of the bird species of the world.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
A class of endothermic organisms known as homeotherms maintain internal temperatures, with minimal metabolic regulation, within a range of ambient temperatures called The thermal neutral zone (TNZ).
Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
Tidal volume (symbol VT or TV) is the lung volume representing the normal volume of air displaced between normal inhalation and exhalation when extra effort is not applied.
Tinamous form an order of birds (Tinamiformes), comprising a single family (Tinamidae) with two distinct subfamilies, containing 47 species found in Mexico, Central America, and South America.
Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.
Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient, as defined by the water potential of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement.
Trace fossils are classified in various ways for different purposes.
The trachea, colloquially called the windpipe, is a cartilaginous tube that connects the pharynx and larynx to the lungs, allowing the passage of air, and so is present in almost all air-breathing animals with lungs.
The Tree of Life Web Project is an Internet project providing information about the diversity and phylogeny of life on Earth.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
In human anatomy, the ureters are tubes made of smooth muscle fibers that propel urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Urine flow rate or urinary flow rate is the volumetric flow rate of urine during urination.
Urine osmolality is a measure of urine concentration, in which large values indicate concentrated urine and small values indicate diluted urine.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Vasopressin, also named antidiuretic hormone (ADH), arginine vasopressin (AVP) or argipressin, is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus, and is converted to AVP.
Venatio (venatio, "hunting", plural venationes) was a type of entertainment in Roman amphitheaters involving the hunting and killing of wild animals.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
Virginia City is a census-designated place (CDP) that is the county seat of Storey County, Nevada.
Lionel Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, Baron de Rothschild, (8 February 1868 – 27 August 1937), was a British banker, politician, zoologist and scion of the Rothschild family.
Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Wing chord is an anatomical measurement of a bird's wing.
The World Digital Library (WDL) is an international digital library operated by UNESCO and the United States Library of Congress.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
A xerocole, commonly referred to as a desert animal, is an animal adapted to live in the desert.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Zambezi (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
Zebras are several species of African equids (horse family) united by their distinctive black and white striped coats.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.
Common Ostrich, Osterich, Osterish, Ostrage, Ostrich, Ostrich Egg, Ostrich Racing, Ostrich farm, Ostrich farmer, Ostrich farming, Ostrich farms, Ostrich meat, Ostrich race, Ostriches, Ostridge, Ostrish, Ostritch, Struthio camelus.