240 relations: A Defence of Common Sense, A priori and a posteriori, Accident (philosophy), Active intellect, Adam Smith, Adolf Eichmann, Advice taker, Aesthetics, Age of Enlightenment, Al-Farabi, Alasdair MacIntyre, Albert O. Hirschman, Albertus Magnus, Alexander of Aphrodisias, American Revolution, Ancien Régime, Andreas Vesalius, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, Antonio Gramsci, Appeal to tradition, Argument from authority, Aristotle, Artificial intelligence, August Immanuel Bekker, Augustine of Hippo, Automated theorem proving, Averroes, Avicenna, Axiom, Étienne Gilson, Baconian method, Baruch Spinoza, Basic belief, Benedetto Croce, Bernard Mandeville, Bernard Williams, C. S. Lewis, Calculus ratiocinator, Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Cambridge University Press, Cartesianism, Characteristica universalis, Charles Darwin, Charles Sanders Peirce, Chicago school of economics, Christian Wolff (philosopher), Cicero, Claude Buffier, Common Sense (pamphlet), Commonsense reasoning, ..., Conscience, Consciousness, Conventional wisdom, Counter-Reformation, Counterintuitive, Cyc, David Hume, De Oratore, Deirdre McCloskey, Discourse on the Method, Doxa, Economics, Eloquence, Empirical evidence, Empiricism, Endoxa, Enthymeme, Epictetus, Epistemology, Error, Essays (Francis Bacon), Ethics, Five wits, Folklore, Four causes, François Fénelon, Francis Bacon, Francis Hutcheson (philosopher), French Revolution, Friedrich Christoph Oetinger, G. E. Moore, Galen, Gary Becker, Géraud de Cordemoy, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, George Berkeley, Giambattista Vico, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Hannah Arendt, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Harvard University Press, Henricus Regius, Historicism, History of Animals, Homo economicus, Horace, House of Bourbon, House of Habsburg, Hugo Grotius, Human nature, Humanitas, Imagination, Immanuel Kant, Inductive reasoning, Intelligence, Internalism and externalism, Intuition, Jacques Rancière, Jürgen Habermas, Jean-François Lyotard, Jean-Marie de Lamennais, Jeremy Bentham, John Locke, John McCarthy (computer scientist), John of Jandun, John Selden, John Stuart Mill, Juvenal, Knowledge, Leo Strauss, Leviathan (Hobbes book), Loeb Classical Library, Logos, Lucretius, Marcus Aurelius, Mathematical economics, Mathematical logic, Matteo Liberatore, Meditations, Meditations on First Philosophy, Merriam-Webster, Metaphysics, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Methodological individualism, Michael Huemer, Middle Ages, Milton Friedman, Montesquieu, Moral imperative, Moral sense theory, Naples, Natural law, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nicolas Malebranche, Nous, Novum Organum, On Memory, On the Soul, Open Mind Common Sense, Parts of Animals, Parva Naturalia, Passions of the Soul, Paul Ricœur, Perception, Peripatetic school, Peter Lang (publisher), Phaedrus (fabulist), Phenomenal conservatism, Phonaesthetics, Phronesis, Pierre Bayle, Pierre Gassendi, Pietism, Pineal gland, Plato, Political philosophy, Posterior Analytics, Postmodernism, Pragmatism, Pre-theoretic belief, Prejudice, Primary/secondary quality distinction, Professor of Moral Philosophy (Glasgow), Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, Protestantism, Prudence, Public opinion, Pyrrhonism, Quintilian, Rationalism, Rationality, Reason, Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange, Relativism, Renaissance humanism, René Descartes, Rhetoric, Rhetoric (Aristotle), Richard A. Lanham, Richard J. Bernstein, Richard Rorty, Robert Boyle, Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, Roman Republic, Rome, Samuel von Pufendorf, Scholasticism, Science, Scientific method, Scottish common sense realism, Seneca the Elder, Seneca the Younger, Sense of community, Shaftesbury, Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, Skepticism, Social norm, Social science, Socratic dialogue, Socratic method, Stoicism, Superstition, Swabia, Syllogism, Sympathy, Tacitean studies, Tacitus, Taste, Taste (sociology), Théodore Simon Jouffroy, The Spirit of the Laws, Theaetetus (dialogue), Themistius, Theory of forms, Thomas Aquinas, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, Thomas Reid, Thomism, Timaeus (dialogue), Truth, Truth and Method, Universal (metaphysics), Ventricular system, Voltaire, Vulgate, Western world, World view, World Wide Web. Expand index (190 more) » « Shrink index
"A Defence of Common Sense" is a 1925 essay by philosopher G. E. Moore.
The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
An accident, in philosophy, is an attribute that may or may not belong to a subject, without affecting its essence.
The active intellect (Latin: intellectus agens; also translated as agent intellect, active intelligence, active reason, or productive intellect) is a concept in classical and medieval philosophy.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
Otto Adolf Eichmann (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.
The advice taker was a hypothetical computer program, proposed by John McCarthy in his 1958 paper "Programs with Common Sense".
Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Al-Farabi (known in the West as Alpharabius; c. 872 – between 14 December, 950 and 12 January, 951) was a renowned philosopher and jurist who wrote in the fields of political philosophy, metaphysics, ethics and logic.
Alasdair Chalmers MacIntyre (born 12 January 1929) is a Scottish philosopher, primarily known for his contribution to moral and political philosophy, but also known for his work in history of philosophy and theology.
Albert Otto Hirschman (born Otto-Albert Hirschmann; April 7, 1915 – December 10, 2012) was an influential economist and the author of several books on political economy and political ideology.
Albertus Magnus, O.P. (c. 1200 – November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a German Catholic Dominican friar and bishop.
Alexander of Aphrodisias (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀφροδισιεύς; fl. 200 AD) was a Peripatetic philosopher and the most celebrated of the Ancient Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury Bt (26 February 1671 – 16 February 1713) was an English politician, philosopher and writer.
Antonio Francesco Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher and politician.
Appeal to tradition (also known as argumentum ad antiquitatem, appeal to antiquity, or appeal to common practice) is an argument in which a thesis is deemed correct on the basis that it is correlated with some past or present tradition.
An argument from authority, also called an appeal to authority, or argumentum ad verecundiam is a form of defeasible argument in which a claimed authority's support is used as evidence for an argument's conclusion.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
August Immanuel Bekker (21 May 17857 June 1871) was a German philologist and critic.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Automated theorem proving (also known as ATP or automated deduction) is a subfield of automated reasoning and mathematical logic dealing with proving mathematical theorems by computer programs.
Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.
Étienne Gilson (13 June 1884 – 19 September 1978) was a French philosopher and historian of philosophy.
The Baconian method is the investigative method developed by Sir Francis Bacon.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Basic beliefs (also commonly called foundational beliefs or core beliefs) are, under the epistemological view called foundationalism, the axioms of a belief system.
Benedetto Croce (25 February 1866 – 20 November 1952) was an Italian idealist philosopher, historian and politician, who wrote on numerous topics, including philosophy, history, historiography and aesthetics.
Bernard Mandeville, or Bernard de Mandeville (15 November 1670 – 21 January 1733), was an Anglo-Dutch philosopher, political economist and satirist.
Sir Bernard Arthur Owen Williams, FBA (21 September 1929 – 10 June 2003) was an English moral philosopher.
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
The Calculus ratiocinator is a theoretical universal logical calculation framework, a concept described in the writings of Gottfried Leibniz, usually paired with his more frequently mentioned characteristica universalis, a universal conceptual language.
Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary, abbreviated CALD) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by the Cambridge University Press.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cartesianism is the philosophical and scientific system of René Descartes and its subsequent development by other seventeenth century thinkers, most notably Nicolas Malebranche and Baruch Spinoza.
The Latin term characteristica universalis, commonly interpreted as universal characteristic, or universal character in English, is a universal and formal language imagined by the German polymathic genius, mathematician, scientist and philosopher Gottfried Leibniz able to express mathematical, scientific, and metaphysical concepts.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".
The Chicago school of economics is a neoclassical school of economic thought associated with the work of the faculty at the University of Chicago, some of whom have constructed and popularized its principles.
Christian Wolff (less correctly Wolf,; also known as Wolfius; ennobled as Christian Freiherr von Wolff; 24 January 1679 – 9 April 1754) was a German philosopher.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Claude Buffier (25 May 1661 – 17 May 1737), French philosopher, historian and teacher, was born in Poland of French parents, who returned to France and settled at Rouen soon after his birth.
Common Sense is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775–76 advocating independence from Great Britain to people in the Thirteen Colonies.
Commonsense reasoning is one of the branches of artificial intelligence (AI) that is concerned with simulating the human ability to make presumptions about the type and essence of ordinary situations they encounter every day.
Conscience is an aptitude, faculty, intuition or judgment that assists in distinguishing right from wrong.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Conventional wisdom is the body of ideas or explanations generally accepted as true by the public and/or by experts in a field.
The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
A counterintuitive proposition is one that does not seem likely to be true when assessed using intuition, common sense, or gut feelings.
Cyc is the world's longest-lived artificial intelligence project, attempting to assemble a comprehensive ontology and knowledge base that spans the basic concepts and "rules of thumb" about how the world works (think common sense knowledge but focusing more on things that rarely get written down or said, in contrast with facts one might find somewhere on the internet or retrieve via Google or Wikipedia), with the goal of enabling AI applications to perform human-like reasoning and be less "brittle" when confronted with novel situations that were not preconceived.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
De Oratore (On the Orator; not to be confused with Orator) is a dialogue written by Cicero in 55 BCE.
Deirdre Nansen McCloskey (born September 11, 1942), born Donald N. McCloskey, is the Distinguished Professor of Economics, History, English, and Communication at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC).
The Discourse on the Method (Discours de la méthode) is a philosophical and autobiographical treatise published by René Descartes in 1637.
Doxa (ancient Greek δόξα; from verb δοκεῖν dokein, "to appear", "to seem", "to think" and "to accept") is a Greek word meaning common belief or popular opinion.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Eloquence (from French eloquence from Latin eloquentia) is fluent, forcible, elegant or persuasive speaking.
Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
Endoxa (ἔνδοξα) derives from the word doxa (δόξα, meaning "beliefs", "opinions").
An enthymeme (ἐνθύμημα, enthumēma) is a rhetorical syllogism (a three-part deductive argument) used in oratorical practice.
Epictetus (Ἐπίκτητος, Epíktētos; 55 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
An error (from the Latin error, meaning "wandering") is an action which is inaccurate or incorrect.
Essayes: Religious Meditations.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
In the time of William Shakespeare, there were commonly reckoned to be five wits and five senses.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
The "four causes" are elements of an influential principle in Aristotelian thought whereby explanations of change or movement are classified into four fundamental types of answer to the question "why?".
François de Salignac de la Mothe-Fénelon, more commonly known as François Fénelon (6 August 1651 – 7 January 1715), was a French Roman Catholic archbishop, theologian, poet and writer.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Francis Hutcheson (8 August 1694 – 8 August 1746) was an Irish philosopher born in Ulster to a family of Scottish Presbyterians who became known as one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Christoph Oetinger (2 May 1702 – 10 February 1782) was a German Lutheran theologian and theosopher.
George Edward Moore (4 November 1873 – 24 October 1958), usually cited as G. E. Moore, was an English philosopher.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Gary Stanley Becker (December 2, 1930 – May 3, 2014) was an American economist and empiricist.
Géraud de Cordemoy (6 October 1626 in Paris – 15 October 1684 in Paris) was a French philosopher, historian and lawyer.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).
Giambattista Vico (B. Giovan Battista Vico, 23 June 1668 – 23 January 1744) was an Italian political philosopher and rhetorician, historian and jurist, of the Age of Enlightenment.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Johanna "Hannah" Arendt (14 October 1906 – 4 December 1975) was a German-born American philosopher and political theorist.
Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher of the continental tradition, best known for his 1960 magnum opus Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode) on hermeneutics.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Henricus Regius (July 29, 1598 – February 19, 1679) was a Dutch philosopher, physician, and professor of medicine at the University of Utrecht from 1638.
Historicism is the idea of attributing meaningful significance to space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture.
History of Animals (Τῶν περὶ τὰ ζῷα ἱστοριῶν, Ton peri ta zoia historion, "Inquiries on Animals"; Historia Animālium "History of Animals") is one of the major texts on biology by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who had studied at Plato's Academy in Athens.
The term homo economicus, or economic man, is a caricature of economic theory framed as a "mythical species" or word play on homo sapiens, and used in pedagogy.
Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
Human nature is a bundle of fundamental characteristics—including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting—which humans tend to have naturally.
Humanitas is a Latin noun meaning human nature, civilization, and kindness.
Imagination is the capacity to produce images, ideas and sensations in the mind without any immediate input of the senses (such as seeing or hearing).
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
Internalism and externalism are two opposing ways of explaining various subjects in several areas of philosophy.
Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.
Jacques Rancière (born 1940) is a French philosopher, Professor of Philosophy at European Graduate School in Saas-Fee and Emeritus Professor of Philosophy at the University of Paris VIII: Vincennes—Saint-Denis who came to prominence when he co-authored Reading Capital (1968), with the structuralist Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser.
Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
Jean-François Lyotard (10 August 1924 – 21 April 1998) was a French philosopher, sociologist, and literary theorist.
The Very Rev. Canon Jean-Marie-Robert de Lamennais (or de la Mennais) (1780-1860) was a Breton Catholic priest, and brother of the noted philosopher Hugues Felicité Robert de Lamennais, whom he influenced in their youth.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John McCarthy (September 4, 1927 – October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist.
John of Jandun (French Jean de Jandun, Johannes von Jandun, or Johannes de Janduno, circa 1285–1328) was a French philosopher, theologian, and political writer.
John Selden (16 December 1584 – 30 November 1654) was an English jurist, a scholar of England's ancient laws and constitution and scholar of Jewish law.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, known in English as Juvenal, was a Roman poet active in the late first and early second century AD.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Leo Strauss (September 20, 1899 – October 18, 1973) was a German-American political philosopher and classicist who specialized in classical political philosophy.
Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668). Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong, undivided government.
The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Titus Lucretius Carus (15 October 99 BC – c. 55 BC) was a Roman poet and philosopher.
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD) was Roman emperor from, ruling jointly with his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, until Verus' death in 169, and jointly with his son, Commodus, from 177.
Mathematical economics is the application of mathematical methods to represent theories and analyze problems in economics.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
Matteo Liberatore (born at Salerno, Italy, 14 August 1810; died at Rome, 18 October 1892) was an Italian Jesuit philosopher, theologian, and writer.
Meditations (Ta eis heauton, literally "things to one's self") is a series of personal writings by Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 AD, recording his private notes to himself and ideas on Stoic philosophy.
Meditations on First Philosophy —The original Meditations, translated, in its entirety.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
Metaphysics (Greek: τὰ μετὰ τὰ φυσικά; Latin: Metaphysica) is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name.
Methodological individualism is the requirement that causal accounts of social phenomena explain how they result from the motivations and actions of individual agents, at least in principle.
Michael Huemer (born 27 December 1969) is a professor of philosophy at the University of Colorado, Boulder.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
A moral imperative is a strongly-felt principle that compels that person to act.
Moral sense theory (also known as sentimentalism) is a theory in moral epistemology and meta-ethics concerning the discovery of moral truths.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Nicolas Malebranche, Oratory of Jesus (6 August 1638 – 13 October 1715), was a French Oratorian priest and rationalist philosopher.
Nous, sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a philosophical term for the faculty of the human mind which is described in classical philosophy as necessary for understanding what is true or real.
The Novum Organum, fully Novum Organum Scientiarum ('new instrument of science'), is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620.
On Memory (Greek: Περὶ μνήμης καὶ ἀναμνήσεως; Latin: De memoria et reminiscentia) is one of the short treatises that make up Aristotle's Parva Naturalia.
On the Soul (Greek Περὶ Ψυχῆς, Peri Psychēs; Latin De Anima) is a major treatise written by Aristotle c.350 B.C..
Open Mind Common Sense (OMCS) is an artificial intelligence project based at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Media Lab whose goal is to build and utilize a large commonsense knowledge base from the contributions of many thousands of people across the Web.
Parts of Animals (or On the Parts of Animals; Greek Περὶ ζῴων μορίων; Latin De Partibus Animalium) is one of Aristotle's major texts on biology.
The Parva Naturalia (a conventional Latin title first used by Giles of Rome: "short treatises on nature") are a collection of seven works by Aristotle, which discuss natural phenomena involving the body and the soul.
In the treatise Passions of the Soul (Les passions de l'âme), the last of Descartes' published work, completed in 1649 and dedicated to Queen Christina of Sweden, the author contributes to a long tradition of theorizing "the passions".
Jean Paul Gustave Ricœur (27 February 1913 – 20 May 2005) was a French philosopher best known for combining phenomenological description with hermeneutics.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece.
Peter Lang is an academic publisher specializing in the humanities and social sciences.
Gaius Julius Phaedrus (Φαῖδρος; fl. first century AD), Roman fabulist, was a Latin author and versifier of Aesop's fables.
In epistemology, phenomenal conservatism (PC) holds that it is reasonable to assume that things are as they appear, except when there are positive grounds for doubting this.
Phonaesthetics (from the φωνή phōnē, "voice-sound"; and αἰσθητική aisthētikē, "aesthetics") is a branch of phonetics concerned with "the possible connection between sound sequences and meaning", according to Raymond Hickey.
Phronesis (phrónēsis) is an Ancient Greek word for a type of wisdom or intelligence.
Pierre Bayle (18 November 1647 – 28 December 1706) was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1697.
Pierre Gassendi (also Pierre Gassend, Petrus Gassendi; 22 January 1592 – 24 October 1655) was a French philosopher, priest, astronomer, and mathematician.
Pietism (from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.
The pineal gland, also known as the conarium, kônarion or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
The Posterior Analytics (Ἀναλυτικὰ Ὕστερα; Analytica Posteriora) is a text from Aristotle's Organon that deals with demonstration, definition, and scientific knowledge.
Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.
Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.
Pre-theoretical belief has been an important notion in some areas of linguistics and philosophy, especially phenomenology and older versions of “ordinary language” philosophy.
Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that person's group membership.
The primary/secondary quality distinction is a conceptual distinction in epistemology and metaphysics, concerning the nature of reality.
The Chair of Moral Philosophy is a professorship at the University of Glasgow, Scotland, which was established in 1727.
Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Present Itself as a Science (Prolegomena zu einer jeden künftigen Metaphysik, die als Wissenschaft wird auftreten können) is a book by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, published in 1783, two years after the first edition of his Critique of Pure Reason.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Prudence (prudentia, contracted from providentia meaning "seeing ahead, sagacity") is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason.
Public opinion consists of the desires, wants, and thinking of the majority of the people; it is the collective opinion of the people of a society or state on an issue or problem.
Pyrrhonism was a school of skepticism founded by Pyrrho in the fourth century BC.
Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (35 – 100 AD) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
Réginald Marie Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. (February 21, 1877 – February 15, 1964) was a French Catholic theologian.
Relativism is the idea that views are relative to differences in perception and consideration.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Aristotle's Rhetoric (Rhētorikḗ; Ars Rhetorica) is an ancient Greek treatise on the art of persuasion, dating from the 4th century BC.
Richard A. Lanham (born 1936) is probably most widely known for his textbooks on revising prose to improve style and clarify thought.
Richard Jacob Bernstein (born May 14, 1932) is an American philosopher who teaches at The New School for Social Research, and has written extensively about a broad array of issues and philosophical traditions including Classical American Pragmatism, Neopragmatism, Critical Theory, Deconstruction, Social Philosophy, Political Philosophy, and Hermeneutics.
Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Robert Grosseteste (Robertus Grosseteste; – 9 October 1253) was an English statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian, scientist and Bishop of Lincoln.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Freiherr Samuel von Pufendorf (8 January 1632 – 13 October 1694) was a German jurist, political philosopher, economist and historian.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scottish Common Sense Realism, also known as the Scottish School of Common Sense, is a school of philosophy that originated in the ideas of Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid, Adam Ferguson, James Beattie, and Dugald Stewart during the 18th century Scottish Enlightenment.
Lucius, or Marcus, Annaeus Seneca, known as Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Rhetorician (54 BC – c. 39 AD), was a Roman rhetorician and writer, born of a wealthy equestrian family of Cordoba, Hispania.
Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
Sense of community (or psychological sense of community) is a concept in community psychology, social psychology, and community social work, as well as in several other research disciplines, such as urban sociology, which focuses on the experience of community rather than its structure, formation, setting, or other features.
Shaftesbury is a town and civil parish in Dorset, England.
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (SOED) is an English language dictionary published by the Oxford University Press.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.
Socratic dialogue (Σωκρατικὸς λόγος) is a genre of literary prose developed in Greece at the turn of the fourth century BCE.
The Socratic method, also can be known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions.
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.
Superstition is a pejorative term for any belief or practice that is considered irrational: for example, if it arises from ignorance, a misunderstanding of science or causality, a positive belief in fate or magic, or fear of that which is unknown.
Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.
A syllogism (συλλογισμός syllogismos, "conclusion, inference") is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.
Sympathy (from the Greek words syn "together" and pathos "feeling" which means "fellow-feeling") is the perception, understanding, and reaction to the distress or need of another life form.
Tacitean studies, centred on the work of Tacitus (&ndash) the Ancient Roman historian, constitute an area of scholarship extending beyond the field of history.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
In sociology, taste is an individual's personal and cultural patterns of choice and preference.
Théodore Simon Jouffroy (6 July 1796 – 4 February 1842) was a French philosopher.
The Spirit of the Laws (French: De l'esprit des lois, originally spelled De l'esprit des loix; also sometimes translated The Spirit of Laws) is a treatise on political theory, as well as a pioneering work in comparative law, published in 1748 by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu.
The Theaetetus (Θεαίτητος) is one of Plato's dialogues concerning the nature of knowledge, written circa 369 BC.
Themistius (Θεμίστιος, Themistios; 317, Paphlagonia – c. 390 AD, Constantinople), named εὐφραδής (eloquent), was a statesman, rhetorician, and philosopher.
The theory of Forms or theory of Ideas is Plato's argument that non-physical (but substantial) forms (or ideas) represent the most accurate reality.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Thomas Reid DD FRSE (26 April 1710 – 7 October 1796) was a religiously-trained British philosopher, a contemporary of David Hume as well as "Hume's earliest and fiercest critic".
Thomism is the philosophical school that arose as a legacy of the work and thought of Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church.
Timaeus (Timaios) is one of Plato's dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c. 360 BC.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode) is a 1960 book by Hans-Georg Gadamer, his major philosophical work.
In metaphysics, a universal is what particular things have in common, namely characteristics or qualities.
The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
A world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the whole of the individual's or society's knowledge and point of view.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
Bon sens, Book smart, Book smarts, Common-sense, CommonSense, Commonsense, First sense, Good sense, Koine ennoia, Koinonoēmosunē, Koinos nous, Proton aisthetikon, Ruling sense, Sensus communis, Use common sense.