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Commonwealth of Nations

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The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire. [1]

367 relations: A Bend in the River, Adama Barrow, Aden, Alan Paton, Alexander Downer, Amateur, Ambassador, American Journal of International Law, Anglo-Irish Treaty, Anglosphere, Anthony Eden, Apartheid, Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, Arnold Smith, Aso Rock, Associated state, Association football, Association of Commonwealth Universities, Athol Fugard, Australia, Australian literature, Bahrain, Balfour Declaration of 1926, Bangladesh, Ben Pimlott, Birmingham, Booker Prize, Bowls, British Empire, British nationality law and the Republic of Ireland, British Overseas Territories, British Somaliland, Brunei, Canada, Canada Day, Canadian Confederation, CANZUK International, Caribbean, Caribbean literature, Central Intelligence Agency, Chandigarh, Charles de Gaulle, Charles, Prince of Wales, Charter of the Commonwealth, Chief Minister of the Isle of Man, Chinua Achebe, Civil liberties, Civil Service (United Kingdom), Cold War, Committee on Commonwealth Membership, ..., Common law, Commonwealth, Commonwealth (disambiguation), Commonwealth Chair-in-Office, Commonwealth Day, Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group, Commonwealth Family, Commonwealth Fencing Championships, Commonwealth Foundation, Commonwealth Foundation prizes, Commonwealth Games, Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 1973, Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 1995, Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2007, Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2009, Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2011, Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2013, Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2018, Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2020, Commonwealth Judo Championships, Commonwealth Lawyers Association, Commonwealth Local Government Forum, Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group, Commonwealth of Independent States, Commonwealth Parliamentary Association, Commonwealth Pool Lifesaving Championships, Commonwealth realm, Commonwealth Rowing Championships, Commonwealth Sailing Championships, Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan, Commonwealth Secretariat, Commonwealth Secretary-General, Commonwealth Shooting Championships, Commonwealth Taekwondo Championships, Commonwealth Youth Programme, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, Constitution of Pakistan, Constitutional monarchy, Consular assistance, Continent, Cricket, Cross of Sacrifice, Crown dependencies, Cry, the Beloved Country, David Cameron, David Davies, 1st Baron Davies, Decolonization, Deepak Obhrai, Democracy, Derek Walcott, Developing country, Dominica, Dominion of Newfoundland, Don McKinnon, Doris Lessing, Edinburgh Declaration, Egalitarianism, Egypt, Elizabeth II, Emeka Anyaoku, England, English in the Commonwealth of Nations, English language, English law, English-speaking world, European Communities Act 1972 (UK), European Economic Community, European Union, Fiji, Fijian general election, 2014, First Colonial Conference, Flag of Canada, Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations, Forced marriage, Francis Chichester, Free trade, Gambian presidential election, 2016, George VI, Georgetown, Guyana, Ghana, Glasgow, Gleneagles Agreement, Gold Coast, Queensland, Good governance, Graham Greene, Gross domestic product, Gross world product, Gulu, Guy Mollet, Guyana, Harare Declaration, Head of government, Head of state, Head of the Commonwealth, Headquarters, High commissioner (Commonwealth), High Court of Australia, Homosexuality, Honiara, Horticulture, Human rights, Immigration, Imperial Conference, India, Indian English literature, Indians in Fiji, Intergovernmental organization, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, International Monetary Fund, Iraq, Irish Free State, Isle of Man Government, Israel, Italian Somaliland, J. 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A Bend in the River

A Bend in the River is a 1979 novel by Nobel laureate V. S. Naipaul.

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Adama Barrow

Adama Barrow (born 16 February 1965) is a Gambian politician and real estate developer who is the third and current President of the Gambia, in office since 2017.

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Aden

Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.

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Alan Paton

Alan Stewart Paton (11 January 1903 – 12 April 1988) was a South African author and anti-apartheid activist.

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Alexander Downer

Alexander John Gosse Downer AC (born 9 September 1951) is a former Australian politician and diplomat who was leader of the Liberal Party from 1994 to 1995, Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1996 to 2007, and High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 2014 to 2018.

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Amateur

An amateur (French amateur "lover of", from Old French and ultimately from Latin amatorem nom. amator, "lover") is generally considered a person who pursues a particular activity or field of study independently from their source of income.

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Ambassador

An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.

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American Journal of International Law

The American Journal of International Law is an English-language scholarly journal focusing on international law and international relations.

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Anglo-Irish Treaty

The Anglo-Irish Treaty (An Conradh Angla-Éireannach), commonly known as The Treaty and officially the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was an agreement between the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and representatives of the Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence.

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Anglosphere

The Anglosphere is a set of English-speaking nations which share common roots in British culture and history, which today maintain close cultural, political, diplomatic and military cooperation.

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Anthony Eden

Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.

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Apartheid

Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.

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Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery

Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1st Earl of Midlothian, (7 May 1847 – 21 May 1929) was a British Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from March 1894 to June 1895.

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Arnold Smith

Arnold Cantwell Smith (January 18, 1915 – February 7, 1994) was a Canadian diplomat.

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Aso Rock

Aso Rock is a large outcrop of granitic rock located on the outskirts of Abuja, the capital of Nigeria.

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Associated state

An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free relationship between a political territory with a degree of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no other specific term, such as protectorate, is adopted.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Association of Commonwealth Universities

The Association of Commonwealth Universities (ACU) was established in 1913, and has over 500 member institutions in over 50 countries across the Commonwealth.

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Athol Fugard

Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard OIS (born 11 June 1932) is a South African playwright, novelist, actor, and director who writes in South African English.

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Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian literature

Australian literature is the written or literary work produced in the area or by the people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding colonies.

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Bahrain

Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.

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Balfour Declaration of 1926

The Balfour Declaration of 1926, issued by the 1926 Imperial Conference of British Empire leaders in London, was named after Lord President of the Council (and former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) Arthur Balfour.

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Bangladesh

Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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Ben Pimlott

Benjamin John Pimlott FBA (4 July 1945 – 10 April 2004), known as Ben Pimlott, was a British historian of the post-war period in Britain.

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Birmingham

Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Booker Prize

The Man Booker Prize for Fiction (formerly known as the Booker–McConnell Prize and commonly known simply as the Booker Prize) is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel written in the English language and published in the UK.

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Bowls

Bowls or lawn bowls is a sport in which the objective is to roll biased balls called woods so that they stop close to a smaller ball called a "jack" or "kitty".

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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British nationality law and the Republic of Ireland

This article is about British nationality law in respect of citizens of Ireland.

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British Overseas Territories

The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.

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British Somaliland

British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, translit) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia.

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Brunei

Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.

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Canada

Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Canada Day

Canada Day (Fête du Canada) is the national day of Canada.

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Canadian Confederation

Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.

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CANZUK International

CANZUK International, formerly known as The Commonwealth Freedom of Movement Organisation (commonly abbreviated as the "CFMO") is a non-profit international organisation which aims to achieve the free movement of citizens, free trade agreements and foreign policy cooperation between Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom through intergovernmental action and the formation of a proposed personal union known as CANZUK.

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Caribbean

The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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Caribbean literature

Caribbean literature is the term generally accepted for the literature of the various territories of the Caribbean region.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Chandigarh

Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab.

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Charles de Gaulle

Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.

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Charles, Prince of Wales

Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest child of Queen Elizabeth II.

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Charter of the Commonwealth

The Charter of the Commonwealth is a charter setting out the values of the Commonwealth of Nations as well as the commitment of its 52 member states to equal rights, democracy and so on.

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Chief Minister of the Isle of Man

The Chief Minister (Manx: Ard-shirveishagh) is the executive head of the Isle of Man Government.

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Chinua Achebe

Chinua Achebe (born Albert Chinụalụmọgụ Achebe, 16 November 1930 – 21 March 2013) was a Nigerian novelist, poet, professor, and critic.

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Civil liberties

Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.

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Civil Service (United Kingdom)

Her Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, which is composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Committee on Commonwealth Membership

The Committee on Commonwealth Membership (CCM) was a committee convened by the Commonwealth Secretariat in 2006 to examine and report on prospective changes to the membership criteria of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Commonwealth

A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good.

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Commonwealth (disambiguation)

Commonwealth is a term meaning a political community.

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Commonwealth Chair-in-Office

The Commonwealth Chair-in-Office (CIO) is the Chair-in-Office of the Commonwealth of Nations, and is one of the main leadership positions in the Commonwealth.

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Commonwealth Day

Commonwealth Day, formerly Empire Day, is the annual celebration of the Commonwealth of Nations, often held on the second Monday in March.

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Commonwealth Eminent Persons Group

Several Eminent Persons Groups, abbreviated to EPG, have been founded by Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Family

The Commonwealth Family is a network of associations, organisations, and charities affiliated to the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Fencing Championships

The Commonwealth Fencing Championships is one of the older sport-specific sporting events held in the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Foundation

The Commonwealth Foundation (CF) is an intergovernmental organisation that was established by the Commonwealth Heads of Government in 1966, a year after its sister organisation, the Commonwealth Secretariat.

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Commonwealth Foundation prizes

Commonwealth Foundation presented a number of prizes between 1987 and 2011.

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Commonwealth Games

The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM; or) is a biennial summit meeting of the heads of government from all Commonwealth nations.

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Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 1973

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 1973 was the second Meeting of the Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 1995

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 1995 was the fourteenth Meeting of the Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2007

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2007 was the twentieth Meeting of the Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2009

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2009 was the twenty-first Meeting of the Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2011

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2011, commonly known as CHOGM 2011, was the twenty-second Meeting of the Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations. Held in Perth, Western Australia, between 28 and 30 October 2011 and hosted by the Prime Minister Julia Gillard.

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Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2013

The 23rd Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) was held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, from 15 to 17 November 2013.

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Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2018

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2018, also known as CHOGM 2018, was the 25th meeting of the heads of government of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2020

The Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2020, also known as CHOGM 2020, will be the 26th meeting of the heads of government of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Judo Championships

The Commonwealth Judo Championships are an international judo competition, open to countries of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Lawyers Association

The Commonwealth Lawyers Association (CLA) is an organisation of lawyers, law societies and bar associations across the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Local Government Forum

The Commonwealth Local Government Forum (CLGF) is a global local government organisation, bringing together local authorities, their national associations and the ministries responsible for local government in the member countries of the Commonwealth.

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Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group

The Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group on the Harare Declaration, abbreviated to CMAG, is a group of representatives of members of the Commonwealth of Nations that is responsible for upholding the Harare Declaration.

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Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Commonwealth Parliamentary Association

The Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA), previously known as the Empire Parliamentary Association, is an organisation which works to support good governance, democracy and human rights.

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Commonwealth Pool Lifesaving Championships

The Commonwealth Pool Lifesaving Championships is an international event where swimmers from around the Commonwealth take part in lifesaving sport events.

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Commonwealth realm

A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.

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Commonwealth Rowing Championships

The Commonwealth Rowing Championships are a regatta for rowers from Commonwealth nations held in conjunction with the Commonwealth Games.

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Commonwealth Sailing Championships

The inaugural Commonwealth Sailing Championships were held in Port Phillip, Melbourne in January 2003.

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Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan

The Commonwealth Scholarship and Fellowship Plan (CSFP) is an international programme under which Commonwealth governments offer scholarships and fellowships to citizens of other Commonwealth countries.

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Commonwealth Secretariat

The Commonwealth Secretariat is the main intergovernmental agency and central institution of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Commonwealth Secretary-General

The Commonwealth Secretary-General is the head of the Commonwealth Secretariat, the central body which has served the Commonwealth of Nations since its establishment in 1965, and responsible for representing the Commonwealth publicly.

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Commonwealth Shooting Championships

The Commonwealth Shooting Federation Championships is a shooting championship for Commonwealth countries.

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Commonwealth Taekwondo Championships

The Commonwealth Taekwondo Championships are held every two years, in every year the Commonwealth and Olympic Games are held.

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Commonwealth Youth Programme

The Commonwealth Youth Programme, also known as CYP, is an international development agency working with young people between the ages of 15 and 29.

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Community of Portuguese Language Countries

The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa; abbreviated as CPLP), occasionally known in English as the Lusophone Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organization of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language, mostly of former colonies of the Portuguese Empire.

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Constitution of Pakistan

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu), also known as the 1973 Constitution is the supreme law of Pakistan.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Consular assistance

Consular assistance is help and advice provided by the diplomatic agents of a country to citizens of that country who are living or traveling overseas.

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Continent

A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Cricket

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).

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Cross of Sacrifice

The Cross of Sacrifice is a Commonwealth war memorial designed in 1918 by Sir Reginald Blomfield for the Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission).

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Crown dependencies

Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.

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Cry, the Beloved Country

Cry, the Beloved Country is a novel by Alan Paton, published in 1948.

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David Cameron

David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.

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David Davies, 1st Baron Davies

David Davies, 1st Baron Davies (11 May 1880 – 16 June 1944), was a Welsh Liberal politician and public benefactor, the grandson of the industrialist, David Davies "Llandinam".

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Decolonization

Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.

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Deepak Obhrai

Deepak Obhrai, (born July 5, 1950) Canadian politician of Indo-Tanzanian origin, representing the riding of Calgary Forest Lawn for the Conservative Party of Canada.

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Democracy

Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Derek Walcott

Sir Derek Alton Walcott, KCSL, OBE, OCC (23 January 1930 – 17 March 2017) was a Saint Lucian poet and playwright.

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Developing country

A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dominica

Dominica (Island Carib), officially the Commonwealth of Dominica, is an island republic in the West Indies.

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Dominion of Newfoundland

Newfoundland was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949.

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Don McKinnon

Sir Donald Charles McKinnon (born 27 February 1939) is a former Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of New Zealand.

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Doris Lessing

Doris May Lessing (22 October 1919 – 17 November 2013) was a British novelist, poet, playwright, librettist, biographer and short story writer.

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Edinburgh Declaration

The Edinburgh Declaration was a declaration by the heads of government of the Commonwealth of Nations concerning the organisation's membership criteria.

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Egalitarianism

Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Elizabeth II

Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

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Emeka Anyaoku

Chief Emeka Anyaoku, GCVO, CFR, CON (born 18 January 1933)"Anyaoku, Eleazar Chukwuemeka", in Africa Who's Who, London: Africa Journal for Africa Books Ltd, 1981, p. 137.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English in the Commonwealth of Nations

The use of the English language in most member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations was inherited from British colonisation.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English law

English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.

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English-speaking world

Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.

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European Communities Act 1972 (UK)

The European Communities Act 1972 (c. 68) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which made legal provision for the accession of the United Kingdom to the three European Communities, namely the EEC (or "Common Market"), Euratom, and the (now defunct) Coal & Steel Community.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Fiji

Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.

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Fijian general election, 2014

General elections were held in Fiji on 17 September 2014,, Fiji government website, 1 July 2009 to select the 50 members of the Fijian parliament.

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First Colonial Conference

The First Colonial Conference met in London in 1887 on the occasion of Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee.

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Flag of Canada

The flag of Canada, often referred to as the Canadian flag, or unofficially as the Maple Leaf and l'Unifolié (French for "the one-leafed"), is a national flag consisting of a red field with a white square at its centre in the ratio of 1:2:1, in the middle of which is featured a stylized, red, 11-pointed maple leaf charged in the centre.

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Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations

The flag of the Commonwealth of Nations is the official flag used by and representing the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Forced marriage

Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.

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Francis Chichester

Sir Francis Charles Chichester KBE (17 September 1901 – 26 August 1972) was a pioneering aviator and solo sailor.

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Gambian presidential election, 2016

Presidential elections were held in the Gambia on 1 December 2016.

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George VI

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.

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Georgetown, Guyana

Georgetown is the capital of Guyana, located in Region 4, which is also known as the Demerara-Mahaica region.

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Ghana

Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.

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Glasgow

Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.

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Gleneagles Agreement

In the Gleneagles Agreement, in 1977, Commonwealth Presidents and Prime Ministers agreed, as part of their support for the international campaign against apartheid, to discourage contact and competition between their sportsmen and sporting organisations, teams or individuals from South Africa.

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Gold Coast, Queensland

The Gold Coast is a coastal city in the Australian state of Queensland, approximately south-southeast of the state capital Brisbane and immediately north of the border with New South Wales.

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Good governance

Good governance is an indeterminate term used in the international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources.

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Graham Greene

Henry Graham Greene (2 October 1904 – 3 April 1991), better known by his pen name Graham Greene, was an English novelist regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Gross world product

The gross world product (GWP) is the combined gross national product of all the countries in the world.

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Gulu

Gulu is a city in the Northern Region of Uganda.

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Guy Mollet

Guy Mollet (31 December 1905 – 3 October 1975) was a French politician.

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Guyana

Guyana (pronounced or), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a sovereign state on the northern mainland of South America.

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Harare Declaration

The Harare Commonwealth Declaration was a declaration of the Commonwealth of Nations, setting out the Commonwealth's core principles and values, detailing the Commonwealth's membership criteria, and redefining and reinforcing its purpose.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Head of the Commonwealth

The Head of the Commonwealth is the "symbol of the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations (commonly known as the Commonwealth), an intergovernmental organisation that currently comprises fifty-three sovereign states.

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Headquarters

Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ or HD) is/are the locations where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated.

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High commissioner (Commonwealth)

In the Commonwealth of Nations, a high commissioner is the senior diplomat (generally ranking as an ambassador) in charge of the diplomatic mission of one Commonwealth government to another.

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High Court of Australia

The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.

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Homosexuality

Homosexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction or sexual behavior between members of the same sex or gender.

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Honiara

Honiara is the capital city of the Solomon Islands, situated on the northwestern coast of Guadalcanal.

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Horticulture

Horticulture is the science and art of growing plants (fruits, vegetables, flowers, and any other cultivar).

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Immigration

Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

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Imperial Conference

Imperial Conferences (Colonial Conferences before 1907) were periodic gatherings of government leaders from the self-governing colonies and dominions of the British Empire between 1887 and 1937, before the establishment of regular Meetings of Commonwealth Prime Ministers in 1944.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian English literature

Indian English Literature (IEL) refers to the body of work by writers in India who write in the English language and whose native or co-native language could be one of the numerous languages of India.

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Indians in Fiji

Indo-Fijians are Fiji citizens who are fully or partially of Indian descent, which includes descendants who trace their heritage from various parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Intergovernmental organization

An intergovernmental organization or international governmental organisation (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as member states), or of other intergovernmental organizations.

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International and Comparative Law Quarterly

The International and Comparative Law Quarterly is a law review published quarterly by the British Institute of International and Comparative Law.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Irish Free State

The Irish Free State (Saorstát Éireann; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921.

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Isle of Man Government

The Isle of Man Government (Reiltys Ellan Vannin) is the government of the Isle of Man.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Italian Somaliland

Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.

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J. M. Coetzee

John Maxwell Coetzee (born 9 February 1940) is a South African novelist, essayist, linguist, translator and recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Jan Smuts

Field Marshal Jan Christiaan Smuts (24 May 1870 11 September 1950) was a prominent South African and British Commonwealth statesman, military leader and philosopher.

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Jean Rhys

Jean Rhys, (born Ella Gwendolyn Rees Williams; 24 August 1890 – 14 May 1979) was a mid-20th-century novelist who was born and grew up in the Caribbean island of Dominica, though she was mainly resident in England from the age of 16.

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Jordan

Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.

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Judicial Committee of the Privy Council

The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is the highest court of appeal for certain British territories and Commonwealth countries.

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Kamalesh Sharma

Kamalesh Sharma, GCVO (born 30 September 1941) is an Indian diplomat.

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Katherine Mansfield

Kathleen Mansfield Murry (née Beauchamp; 14 October 1888 – 9 January 1923) was a prominent New Zealand modernist short story writer who was born and brought up in colonial New Zealand and wrote under the pen name of Katherine Mansfield.

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Ken Saro-Wiwa

Kenule Beeson "Ken" Saro-Wiwa (10 October 1941 – 10 November 1995) was a Nigerian writer, television producer, environmental activist, and winner of the Right Livelihood Award and the Goldman Environmental Prize.

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Kenyan literature

Kenyan literature describes literature which comes from Kenya.

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Kuwait

Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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Langkawi Declaration

The Langkawi Declaration on the Environment was a declaration issued by the assembled Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations on the issue of environmental sustainability.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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League of Nations mandate

A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.

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Left- and right-hand traffic

The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.

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Legal person

A legal person (in legal contexts often simply person, less ambiguously legal entity) is any human or non-human entity, in other words, any human being, firm, or government agency that is recognized as having privileges and obligations, such as having the ability to enter into contracts, to sue, and to be sued.

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Les Murray (poet)

Leslie Allan "Les" Murray AO (born 17 October 1938) is an Australian poet, anthologist and critic.

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Lesotho

Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.

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LGBT rights by country or territory

Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory; everything from the legal recognition of same-sex marriage to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity.

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Liberty

Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.

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List of Commonwealth Boxing Council champions

List of Commonwealth champions is a table showing the Commonwealth champions certificated by the Commonwealth Boxing Council.

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List of Commonwealth heads of government

The Commonwealth Heads of Government (CHOG) is the collective name for the government leaders of the nations with membership in the Commonwealth of Nations.

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List of Commonwealth of Nations countries by GDP

This is a list of Commonwealth of Nations countries by GDP (nominal).

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List of countries by English-speaking population

The following is a list of English-speaking population by country, including information on both native speakers and second-language speakers.

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List of country groupings

Groups of countries or regions are often referred to by a single term (word, phrase, or abbreviation).

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List of multilateral free-trade agreements

This is a list of multilateral free-trade agreements, between several countries all treated equally.

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List of territorial entities where English is an official language

The following is a list of territories where English is an official language, that is, a language used in citizen interactions with government officials.

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List of viceregal representatives of Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth II is sovereign of 16 countries informally known as the Commonwealth realms.

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Local government

A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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London Declaration

The London Declaration was a declaration issued by the 1949 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference on the issue of India's continued membership in the Commonwealth of Nations after its transition to a republican constitution.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Lusaka

Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia.

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Lusaka Declaration

The Lusaka Declaration on the Commonwealth on Racism and Racial Prejudice (short: the Lusaka Declaration) was a declaration of the Commonwealth of Nations on the issues of racism and egalitarianism within and between Commonwealth member states.

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Mahinda Rajapaksa

Percy Mahendra Rajapaksa, MP (පර්සි මහේන්ද්‍ර රාජපක්ෂ; born 18 November 1945), more commonly known as Mahinda Rajapaksa (මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ, மஹிந்த ராஜபக்ஷ) is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the sixth President of Sri Lanka from 19 November 2005 to 9 January 2015.

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Maithripala Sirisena

Pallewatte Gamaralalage Maithripala Yapa Sirisena (මෛත්‍රීපාල සිරිසේන; மைத்திரிபால சிறிசேன; born 3 September 1951) is a Sri Lankan politician and the 7th and current President of Sri Lanka, in office since January 2015.

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Malaysia

Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.

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Malcolm Rifkind

Sir Malcolm Leslie Rifkind (born 21 June 1946) is a British politician who served in various roles as a cabinet minister under Prime Ministers Margaret Thatcher and John Major, including Secretary of State for Scotland (1986–1990), Defence Secretary (1992–1995), and Foreign Secretary (1995–1997).

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Mandatory Palestine

Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.

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Marlborough House

Marlborough House, a Grade I listed mansion in St James's (City of Westminster, Inner London), is the headquarters of the Commonwealth of Nations and the seat of the Commonwealth Secretariat.

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Member state of the European Union

The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.

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Member states of the Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of 53 sovereign states.

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Midnight's Children

Midnight's Children is a 1981 novel by British Indian author Salman Rushdie.

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Migrant literature

Migrant literature is either written by migrants or tells the stories of migrants and their migration.

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Military rank

Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines.

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Millbrook Commonwealth Action Programme

The Millbrook Commonwealth Action Programme on the Harare Declaration, sometimes abbreviated to just Millbrook, is a policy programme of the Commonwealth of Nations, designed to implement and uphold the Harare Declaration, which sets out the basic political membership criteria of the Commonwealth.

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Minister of Foreign Affairs (Maldives)

Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Maldives is a cabinet minister in charge of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Maldives, responsible for conducting foreign relations of the country.

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Mohamed Nasheed

Mohamed Nasheed, GCSK (Dhivehi: މުހައްމަދު ނަޝީދު; born 17 May 1967) is a Maldivian politician, who served as the fourth President of the Maldives from 2008 to 2012.

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Monarch

A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Mozambique

Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.

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Multi-sport event

A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports among organized teams of athletes from (mostly) nation-states.

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Myanmar

Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Nadine Gordimer

Nadine Gordimer (20 November 1923 – 13 July 2014) was a South African writer, political activist and recipient of the 1991 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Namibia

Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nauru

Nauru (Naoero, or), officially the Republic of Nauru (Repubrikin Naoero) and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific.

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Netball

Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players.

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New Commonwealth Society

The New Commonwealth was an international organization created in London in 1932 with branches in France and Germany.

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New Vision (newspaper)

The New Vision is an English-language newspaper published daily in print form and online.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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New Zealand literature

New Zealand literature is literature written in or by the people of New Zealand.

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New Zealand Parliament

The New Zealand Parliament (Pāremata Aotearoa) is the legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives.

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Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o

Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (born 5 January 1938) is a Kenyan writer, formerly working in English and now working in Gikuyu.

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Nicholas Mansergh

Philip Nicholas Seton Mansergh, OBE (27 June 1910 – 16 January 1991) was a historian of Ireland and the British Commonwealth.

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Nigeria

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

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Nigerian literature

Nigerian literature is the literature of Nigeria which is written by Nigerians, for Nigerians and addresses Nigerian issues.

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Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").

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Noble House

A Noble House is an aristocratic family or kinship group, usually British or European, either currently or historically of national or international significance, and usually associated with one or more hereditary titles, the most senior of which will be held by the "Head of the House" or patriarch.

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Oath of Allegiance (Ireland)

The Irish Oath of Allegiance was a controversial provision in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which Irish TDs (members of the Lower House of the Irish Parliament) and Senators were required to swear before taking their seats in Dáil Éireann (Chamber of Deputies) and Seanad Éireann (Irish Senate) before the 'Constitution (Removal of Oath) Act, 1933' was passed on 3 May 1933.

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Olive Schreiner

Olive Schreiner (24 March 1855 – 11 December 1920) was a South African author, anti-war campaigner and intellectual.

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Oman

Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pakistani state of emergency, 2007

A state of emergency was declared by President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf on 3 November 2007, and lasted until 15 December 2007, during which time the constitution of Pakistan was suspended.

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Pall Mall, London

Pall Mall is a street in the St James's area of the City of Westminster, Central London.

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Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.

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Paris Peace Conference, 1919

The Paris Peace Conference, also known as Versailles Peace Conference, was the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.

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Patricia Scotland

Patricia Janet Scotland, Baroness Scotland of Asthal (born 19 August 1955) is an English politician and barrister who served in ministerial positions within the UK Government, most notably as the Attorney General for England and Wales and Advocate General for Northern Ireland.

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Patrick White

Patrick Victor Martindale White (28 May 191230 September 1990) was an Australian writer who, from 1935 to 1987, published 12 novels, three short-story collections and eight plays.

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Pervez Musharraf

Pervez Musharraf (پرویز مشرف; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008.

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Peter Carey (novelist)

Peter Philip Carey AO (born 7 May 1943) is an Australian novelist.

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Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Post-Soviet states

The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.

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Protectorate

A protectorate, in its inception adopted by modern international law, is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy and some independence while still retaining the suzerainty of a greater sovereign state.

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Provinces and territories of Canada

The provinces and territories of Canada are the sub-national governments within the geographical areas of Canada under the authority of the Canadian Constitution.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Qatar

Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.

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R. K. Narayan

R.

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Racial equality

Racial equality occurs when institutions give equal opportunity to people of all races.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republic

A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Republic of Ireland Act 1948

The Republic of Ireland Act 1948 (No. 22 of 1948) is an Act of the Oireachtas which declared that Ireland may be officially described as the Republic of Ireland, and vested in the President of Ireland the power to exercise the executive authority of the state in its external relations, on the advice of the Government of Ireland.

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Republics in the Commonwealth of Nations

The republics in the Commonwealth of Nations are the sovereign states in the Commonwealth of Nations with a republican form of government.

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Right of foreigners to vote

In most countries, suffrage, the right to vote, is generally limited to citizens of the country.

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RNZ International

This article is about RNZ's international radio channel.

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Robert Mugabe

Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.

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Roger Bannister

Sir Roger Gilbert Bannister (23 March 1929 – 3 March 2018) was a British middle-distance athlete, doctor and academic who ran the first sub-4-minute mile.

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Royal Commonwealth Society

The Royal Commonwealth Society is a non-governmental organisation with a mission to promote the value of the Commonwealth and the values upon which it is based.

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Rugby football

Rugby football refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union.

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Rugby sevens

Rugby sevens (commonly known simply as sevens), and originally known as Seven-a-side rugby is a variant of rugby union in which teams are made up of seven players playing seven minute halves, instead of the usual 15 players playing 40 minute halves.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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Rwanda

Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.

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Rwanda Cricket Association

Rwanda Cricket Association is the official governing body of the sport of cricket in Rwanda.

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Saint Lucia

Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.

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Salman Rushdie

Sir Ahmed Salman Rushdie (born 19 June 1947) is a British Indian novelist and essayist.

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Samoa

Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa (Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; Sāmoa) and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions.

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Self-governance

Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.

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Shridath Ramphal

Sir Shridath Surendranath "Sonny" Ramphal (born 3 October 1928) was the second Commonwealth Secretary-General, from 1975 to 1990.

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Singapore Declaration

The Singapore Declaration of Commonwealth Principles was a declaration issued by the assembled Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations, setting out the core political volunteering values that would form the main part of the Commonwealth's membership criteria.

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Somali Republic

The Somali Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed, Repubblica Somala, جمهورية الصومال) was the official name of Somalia after independence on July 1, 1960, following the unification of the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) and the State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland).

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South African general election, 1994

General elections were held in South Africa between 26 and 29 April 1994.

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South African literature

South African literature is the literature of South Africa, which has 11 national languages: Afrikaans, English, Zulu, Xhosa, Sotho, Pedi, Tswana, Venda, SiSwati, Tsonga, and Ndebele.

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South Sudan

South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.

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Southern Rhodesia

The Colony of Southern Rhodesia was a self-governing British Crown colony in southern Africa from 1923 to 1980, the predecessor state of modern Zimbabwe.

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Special administrative regions of China

The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Communist Party of China.

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Special membership of the Commonwealth of Nations

A special member was a member of the Commonwealth of Nations whose participation was limited in certain functions.

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Special Relationship

The Special Relationship is an unofficial term for the political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military, and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States.

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Sport

Sport (British English) or sports (American English) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Sri Lankan presidential election, 2015

Presidential elections were held in Sri Lanka on 8 January 2015, two years ahead of schedule.

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State of Palestine

Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.

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States of Guernsey

The States of Guernsey (États de Guernesey) is the parliament of the British Crown dependency of Guernsey.

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States of Jersey

The States of Jersey (États de Jersey) is the parliament and government of the British Crown dependency of Jersey.

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Statute of Westminster 1931

The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.

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Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942

The Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 is an Act of the Australian Parliament that formally adopted the Statute of Westminster 1931, an Act of the British Imperial Parliament enabling the legislative independence of the various self-governing Dominions of the British Empire.

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Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947

The Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947 (Public Act no. 38 of 1947) was a constitutional Act of the Parliament of New Zealand that formally accepted the full external autonomy offered by the British Parliament.

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Stephen Harper

Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is a Canadian economist, entrepreneur, and retired politician who served as the 22nd Prime Minister of Canada, from February 6, 2006, to November 4, 2015.

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Stone of Remembrance

The Stone of Remembrance was designed by the British architect Sir Edwin Lutyens for the Imperial War Graves Commission (IWGC).

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Sudan

The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Sue v Hill

Sue v Hill was an Australian court case decided in the High Court of Australia on 23 June 1999.

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Suez Crisis

The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.

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Summer Olympic Games

The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.

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Supreme court

A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions.

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Sustainability

Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.

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Swaziland

Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.

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Territorial evolution of the British Empire

The territorial evolution of the British Empire is considered to have begun with the foundation of the English colonial empire in the late 16th century.

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The Crown

The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Gambia

No description.

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The Globe and Mail

The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.

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The New Times (Rwanda)

The New Times is a national English language newspaper in Rwanda.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Observer

The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.

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The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs

The Round Table: The Commonwealth Journal of International Affairs is a policy matters journal established in 1910 relating to the Commonwealth of Nations.

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The Satanic Verses

The Satanic Verses is Salman Rushdie's fourth novel, first published in 1988 and inspired in part by the life of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam.

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The Story of an African Farm

The Story of an African Farm (published in 1883 under the pseudonym Ralph Iron) was South African author Olive Schreiner's first published novel.

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The Straits Times

The Straits Times is an English-language daily broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore currently owned by Singapore Press Holdings (SPH).

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Theresa May

Theresa Mary May (Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016.

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Tonga

Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.

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Trade

Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.

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Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement

The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement is an arrangement between Australia and New Zealand which allows for the free movement of citizens of one of these countries to the other.

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Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong

The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, referred to as "the Handover" internationally or "the Return" in Mainland China, took place on 1 July 1997.

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Trinidad

Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands of Trinidad and Tobago.

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Truman Doctrine

The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War.

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Tuvalu

Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, about midway between Hawaii and Australia, lying east-northeast of the Santa Cruz Islands (belonging to the Solomons), southeast of Nauru, south of Kiribati, west of Tokelau, northwest of Samoa and Wallis and Futuna and north of Fiji.

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UK Independence Party

The UK Independence Party (UKIP) is a Eurosceptic and right-wing populist political party in the United Kingdom.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom–United States relations

British–American relations, also referred to as Anglo-American relations, encompass many complex relations ranging from two early wars to competition for world markets.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United Nations General Assembly observers

In addition to its UNnum member states, the United Nations General Assembly may grant observer status to an international organization, entity or non-member state, which entitles the entity to participate in the work of the United Nations General Assembly, though with limitations.

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United Nations trust territories

United Nations trust territories were the successors of the remaining League of Nations mandates, and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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University of Toronto Press

The University of Toronto Press is a Canadian scholarly publisher and book distributor founded in 1901.

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V. K. Krishna Menon

Vengalil Krishnan Krishna Menon (3 May 1896 – 6 October 1974) was an Indian nationalist, diplomat, and politician, described by some as the second most powerful man in India, after his ally, 1st Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru.

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V. S. Naipaul

Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad "Vidia" Naipaul, TC (born 17 August 1932), is an Indo-Caribbean writer and Nobel Laureate who was born in Trinidad with British citizenship.

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War grave

A war grave is a burial place for members of the armed forces or civilians who died during military campaigns or operations.

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Westminster system

The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.

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White people

White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.

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Wide Sargasso Sea

Wide Sargasso Sea is a 1966 novel by Dominica-born British author Jean Rhys.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Wole Soyinka

Akinwande Oluwole Babatunde Soyinka (Yoruba: Akinwándé Oluwo̩lé Babátúndé S̩óyinká,; born 13 July 1934), known as Wole Soyinka, is a Nigerian playwright, poet and essayist.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World peace

World peace, or peace on Earth, is the concept of an ideal state of happiness, freedom and peace within and among all people and nations on earth.

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World Politics

World Politics is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering political science and international relations.

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World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yahya Jammeh

Yahya Abdul-Aziz Jemus Junkung Jammeh (born 25 May 1965) is a Gambian politician and former military officer who was the leader of the Gambia from 1994 to 2017, firstly as chair of the Armed Forces Provisional Ruling Council (AFPRC) (1994–96) and then as President of the Gambia (1996-2017).

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ZANU–PF

The Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU–PF) has been the ruling party in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980.

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Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.

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1926 Imperial Conference

The 1926 Imperial Conference was the seventh Imperial Conference bringing together the prime ministers of the dominions of the British Empire.

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1953 British Mount Everest expedition

The 1953 British Mount Everest expedition was the ninth mountaineering expedition to attempt the first ascent of Mount Everest, and the first confirmed to have succeeded when Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reached the summit on Friday, 1953.

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1961 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference

The 1961 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference was the eleventh Meeting of the Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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1986 Commonwealth Games

The 1986 Commonwealth Games (Scottish Gaelic: Geamannan a 'Cho-fhlaitheis 1986) were held in Edinburgh, Scotland, between 24 July and 2 August 1986.

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1987 Fijian coups d'état

The Fiji coups of 1987 resulted in the overthrow of the elected government of Fijian Prime Minister Timoci Bavadra, the deposition of Elizabeth II as Queen of Fiji, and in the declaration of a republic.

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1999 Pakistani coup d'état

The 1999 Pakistani coup d'état was a bloodless coup d'état in which the Pakistan Army and then-Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez Musharraf, seized the control of the civilian government of publicly elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on 12 October 1999.

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2000 Fijian coup d'état

The Fiji coup of 2000 was a complicated affair involving a civilian coup d'état by hardline i-Taukei nationalists against the elected government of a Fijian of Indian Descent Prime Minister, Mahendra Chaudhry, on 19 May 2000, the attempt by President Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara to assert executive authority on 27 May, and his own resignation, possibly forced, on 29 May.

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2006 Fijian coup d'état

The Fijian coup d'état of December 2006 occurred as a continuation of the pressure which had been building since the military unrest of the 2000 Fijian coup d'état and 2005–06 Fijian political crisis.

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2014 Commonwealth Games

The 2014 Commonwealth Games (Geamannan a' Cho-fhlaitheis 2014), officially known as the XX Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Glasgow 2014, (Glaschu 2014), was an international multi-sport event celebrated in the tradition of the Commonwealth Games as governed by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF).

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2018 Commonwealth Games

The 2018 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XXI Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Gold Coast 2018, were an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that were held on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, between 4 and 15 April 2018.

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2022 Commonwealth Games

The 2022 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XXII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Birmingham 2022, is an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that is scheduled to be held in Birmingham, England.

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Redirects here:

British Commonwealth, British Commonwealth and Empire, British Commonwealth of Nations, British Commowealth, British commonwealth, Common Wealth Countries, Common Wealth countries, Common wealth countries, Commonwealth (of Nations), Commonwealth Countries, Commonwealth Nation, Commonwealth Nations, Commonwealth countries, Commonwealth nation, Commonwealth of nations, Commonweath of Nations, Councils of the Commonwealth, Nations of the Commonwealth, Nations of the commonwealth, New Commonwealth, Old Commonwealth, Plan G, Royal Commonwealth, Symbols of the Commonwealth, Symbols of the Commonwealth of Nations, The Commonwealth, The Commonwealth of Nations, White Commonwealth.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations

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