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Communalism (South Asia)

Index Communalism (South Asia)

Communalism is a term used in South Asia to denote attempts to construct religious or ethnic identity, incite strife between people identified as different communities, and to stimulate communal violence between those groups. [1]

87 relations: Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha, Al-Shams (East Pakistan), All-India Muslim League, Anti-Hindu sentiment, Asghar Ali Engineer, Ayodhya dispute, Bajrang Dal, Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami, Bharatiya Janata Party, Bombay riots, Caste, Chittisinghpura massacre, Christian fundamentalism, Communal violence, Dalit, Dalit Freedom Network, Dalit Voice, Definitions of terrorism, Deobandi, Direct Action Day, Fairazi movement, Godhra train burning, Graham Staines, Hate group, Hindu, Hindu nationalism, India, India Tribune, Indian National Congress, Indian nationalism, Indian Union Muslim League, Indira Gandhi, Indore, Insurgency in Northeast India, Islamic fundamentalism, Islamic terrorism, Jamaat-e-Islami Hind, Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan, Kanpur, Khairlanji massacre, Khalistan movement, Malabar rebellion, Manzilgah, Marad massacre, Martin E. Marty, Massacre, Muslim, Muslim nationalism in South Asia, Nagaland conflict, National Development Front, ..., National Liberation Front of Tripura, NCERT textbook controversies, Pakistan, Pakistani nationalism, Partition of India, Persecution of Hindus, Persecution of Muslims, Popular Front of India, Razakar (Pakistan), Religion in India, Religious violence in Odisha, Saffronisation, Sectarianism, Self-Respect Movement, Shiromani Akali Dal, Shiv Sena, Sikh, Sind Province (1936–55), South Asia, Students Islamic Movement of India, Students Islamic Organisation of India, Sukkur, Tablighi Jamaat, Tamil Nadu Muslim Munnetra Kazagham, Terrorism, Terrorism in India, Tripura Baptist Christian Union, Varanasi, Vishva Hindu Parishad, Wahhabism, 1971 Bangladesh genocide, 1984 anti-Sikh riots, 1998 Wandhama massacre, 2002 Gujarat riots, 2002 Kaluchak massacre, 2010 Deganga riots, 2012 Assam violence. Expand index (37 more) »

Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha

The Akhil Bhāratiya Hindū Mahāsabhā (translation: All-India Hindu Grand-Assembly) is a right wing Hindu nationalist political party in India.

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Al-Shams (East Pakistan)

The Al-Shams (আল শামস) was an anti-Bangladesh paramilitary wing of several Islamist parties in East Pakistan composed of local Bengalis and Biharis that along with the Pakistan Army and the Al-Badr, is accused of conducting a mass killing campaign against Bengali nationalists, civilians, religious and ethnic minorities during 1971.

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All-India Muslim League

The All-India Muslim League (popularised as Muslim League) was a political party established during the early years of the 20th century in the British Indian Empire.

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Anti-Hindu sentiment

Anti-Hindu sentiment is a negative perception or any sentiment against the practice and practitioners of Hinduism.

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Asghar Ali Engineer

Asghar Ali Engineer (10 March 1939 – 14 May 2013) was an Indian reformist-writer and social activist.

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Ayodhya dispute

The Ayodhya dispute is a political, historical and socio-religious debate in India, centred on a plot of land in the city of Ayodhya, located in Faizabad district, Uttar Pradesh.

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Bajrang Dal

The Bajrang Dal is a religious militant organisation that forms the youth wing of the Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP).

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Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami

Bangladesh Jamaat-e-Islami (বাংলাদেশ জামায়াতে ইসলামী), previously known as Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, or Jamaat for short, is the largest Islamist political party in Bangladesh.

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Bharatiya Janata Party

The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.

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Bombay riots

The Bombay Riots usually refers to the riots in Mumbai, in December 1992 and January 1993, in which around 900 people died.

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Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.

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Chittisinghpura massacre

The Chittisinghpura massacre refers to the fatal shooting of 35 Sikhs on 20 March 2000, in the Anantnag district of the State of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

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Christian fundamentalism

Christian fundamentalism began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries among British and American Protestants at merriam-webster.com.

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Communal violence

Communal violence is a form of violence that is perpetrated across ethnic or communal lines, the violent parties feel solidarity for their respective groups, and victims are chosen based upon group membership.

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Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term mostly used for the castes in India that have been subjected to untouchability.

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Dalit Freedom Network

Dalit Freedom Network is an evangelical Christian "The All India Christian Council has continued to make the Dalit freedom struggle their focus.

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Dalit Voice

Dalit Voice was a political magazine published in Bangalore, India.

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Definitions of terrorism

There is no universal agreement on the definition of terrorism.

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Deobandi (Pashto and دیو بندی, دیو بندی, দেওবন্দী, देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam.

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Direct Action Day

Direct Action Day (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread communal rioting between Muslims and Hindus in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India.

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Fairazi movement

The Fairazi movement was a movement in Bangladesh in the 18th century started by the Islamic reformer Haji Shariatullah.

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Godhra train burning

The Godhra train burning was an incident that occurred on the morning of 27 February 2002, in which 59 people died in a fire inside the Sabarmati Express train near the Godhra railway station in the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Graham Staines

Graham Stuart Staines (1941 – 23 January 1999) was an Australian Christian missionary who, along with his two sons Philip (aged 10) and Timothy (aged 6), was burnt to death by a gang of Hindu Bajrang Dal fundamentalists while sleeping in his station wagon at Manoharpur village in Kendujhar district in Odisha, India on 23 January 1999.

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Hate group

A hate group is a social group that advocates and practices hatred, hostility, or violence towards members of a race, ethnicity, nation, religion, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation or any other designated sector of society.

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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hindu nationalism

Hindu nationalism has been collectively referred to as the expressions of social and political thought, based on the native spiritual and cultural traditions of the Indian subcontinent.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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India Tribune

India Tribune is a Chicago-based weekly in newspaper format, covering community affairs of the Americans from Indian descent, as well as news from India.

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Indian National Congress

The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.

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Indian nationalism

Indian nationalism developed as a concept during the Indian independence movement fought against the colonial British Raj.

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Indian Union Muslim League

The Indian Union Muslim League (IUML) (commonly referred to as the League) is a political party in India.

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Indira Gandhi

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.

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Indore is the most populous and the largest city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

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Insurgency in Northeast India

Insurgency in Northeast India involves multiple armed factions operating in India's northeastern states, which are connected to the rest of India by the Siliguri Corridor, a strip of land as narrow as wide.

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Islamic fundamentalism

Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who think back to earlier times and seek to return to the fundamentals of the religion and live similarly to how the prophet Muhammad and his companions lived.

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Islamic terrorism

Islamic terrorism, Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism is defined as any terrorist act, set of acts or campaign committed by groups or individuals who profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals.

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Jamaat-e-Islami Hind

Jamaat-e-Islami Hind (JIH) is an Islamic organisation in India, founded as an offshoot of the Jamaat-e-Islami, which split into separate independent organisations in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Jammu & Kashmir following the Partition of India in 1947.

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Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan

Jamaat-e-Islami, (Urdu:; meaning "Islamic Congress") abbreviated JI, is a socially conservative and Islamist political party based in Pakistan.

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Kanpur (formerly Cawnpore) is the 12th most populous city in India and the second largest city in the state of Uttar Pradesh after Lucknow.

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Khairlanji massacre

The Kherlanji massacre (or Khairlanji massacre) refers to the 2006 murders of Scheduled Caste citizens by members of the politically dominant Kunbi caste.

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Khalistan movement

The Khalistan movement is a Sikh separatist movement, which seeks to create a separate country called Khalistān (ਖ਼ਾਲਿਸਤਾਨ, "The Land of the Pure") in the Punjab region of South Asia to serve as a homeland for Sikhs.

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Malabar rebellion

The Malabar rebellion (also known as the Moplah rebellion and Māppila Lahaḷa in Malayalam) was a mass uprising to form an independent state of decolonised India.It was a lahala against British authority in the Malabar region of Southern India by Mappilas and the culmination of a series of Mappila revolts that recurred throughout the 19th century and early 20th century.

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Manzilgah was originally a mosque built by Mughal emperor Akbar the Great in 1007 AH.

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Marad massacre

The Marad massacre was the killing of eight Hindus by a Muslim mob on 2 May 2003 at the Marad Beach of the Kozhikode district, Kerala, India.

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Martin E. Marty

Martin Emil Marty (born February 5, 1928 in West Point, Nebraska) is an American Lutheran religious scholar who has written extensively on religion in the United States.

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A massacre is a killing, typically of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Muslim nationalism in South Asia

Muslim nationalism in South Asia is the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of South Asia.

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Nagaland conflict

The ethnic conflict in Nagaland, in northeastern India, is an ongoing conflict fought between the ethnic Nagas and the governments of India and Myanmar.

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National Development Front

The National Development Front (NDF) was a Muslim organisation set up in Kerala.

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National Liberation Front of Tripura

The National Liberation Front of Tripura (abbreviated NLFT) is a Tripuri nationalist organisation based in Tripura, India.

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NCERT textbook controversies

The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an apex resource organisation set up by the Government of India to assist and advise the central and state governments on academic matters related to school education.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pakistani nationalism

Pakistani nationalism refers to the political, cultural, linguistic, historical, religious and geographical expression of patriotism by the people of Pakistan, of pride in the history, heritage and identity of Pakistan, and visions for its future.

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Partition of India

The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.

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Persecution of Hindus

Hindus have experienced religious persecution in the form of forceful conversions, documented massacres, demolition and desecrations of temples, as well as the destruction of universities and schools.

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Persecution of Muslims

Persecution of Muslims is the religious persecution inflicted upon followers of Islamic faith.

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Popular Front of India

The Popular Front of India is Islamic fundamentalist organisation in India formed as a successor to National Development Front (NDF) in 2006.

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Razakar (Pakistan)

Razakar (رضاکار, literally "volunteer"; রাজাকার) was an anti-Bangladesh paramilitary force organised by the Pakistan Army in Bangladesh during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.

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Religion in India

Religion in India is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices.

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Religious violence in Odisha

Religious violence in Odisha is civil unrest and riots in the remote forest region surrounding Kandhamal district in western parts of the Indian state of Odisha.

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Saffronisation or Saffronization is an Indian political neologism (named after the saffron robes worn by Hindu sannyasisIn fact, saffron is the colour that represents the very ethos and psyche of this country. Saffronisation means to go back to the holy traditions of this country. Statement by former Indian Human Resource Development Minister, Dr Murli Manohar Joshi) used by critics and others to refer to the policies of right-wing Hindu nationalists (Hindutva) that seek to recall and glorify ancient Hindu cultural history (the term "Hindu" in their view encompassing "dharmic" religions including Hinduism and the Sikh, Jain and Buddhist traditions).

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Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.

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Self-Respect Movement

The Self-Respect Movement is a movement with the aim of achieving a society where backward castes have equal human rights, and encouraging backward castes to have self-respect in the context of a caste-based society that considered them to be a lower end of the hierarchy.

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Shiromani Akali Dal

The Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD), (translation: Supreme Akali Party) is a political party in India.

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Shiv Sena

Shiv Sena (IAST: Śiva Sēnā) (translation; Army of Shivaji), is an Indian far-right regional political party.

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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

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Sind Province (1936–55)

Sind was a province of British India from 1936 to 1947 and Pakistan from 1947 to 1955.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Students Islamic Movement of India

The Students' Islamic Movement of India (abbreviated SIMI) is a banned Islamist organisation that was formed in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, in April 1977.

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Students Islamic Organisation of India

Students Islamic Organisation of India (SIO) is the students' wing of Jamaat-e-Islami Hind.

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Sukkur is a city in the Pakistani province of Sindh along the western bank of the Indus River, directly across from the historic city of Rohri.

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Tablighi Jamaat

Tablighi Jamaat (تبلیغی جماعت, Tablīghī Jamā‘at; جماعة التبليغ, Jamā‘at at-Tablīgh; তাবলীগ জামাত; तबलीग़ी जमात; English: Society for spreading faith) is a non-political global Sunni Islamic missionary movement that focuses on urging Muslims to return to primary Sunni Islam, and particularly in matters of ritual, dress, and personal behavior.

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Tamil Nadu Muslim Munnetra Kazagham

Tamil Nadu Muslim Munnetra Kazhagam (Tamil Nadu Muslim Progress Conference) or TMMK is a Muslim non-governmental organisation established in the state of Tamil Nadu in India in 1995.

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Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.

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Terrorism in India

Terrorism in India, according to the Home Ministry, poses a significant threat to the people of India.

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Tripura Baptist Christian Union

The Tripura Baptist Christian Union (TBCU) is the largest Christian Groups in the Indian state of Tripura.

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Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.

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Vishva Hindu Parishad

The Vishva Hindu Parishad (IAST: Viśva Hindū Pariṣada, pronunciation:, translation: World Hindu Council), abbreviated VHP, is an Indian right-wing Hindu nationalist organisation based on the ideology of Hindutva.

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Wahhabism (الوهابية) is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab.

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1971 Bangladesh genocide

The genocide in Bangladesh began on 26 March 1971 with the launch of Operation Searchlight, as West Pakistan began a military crackdown on the Eastern wing of the nation to suppress Bengali calls for self-determination rights.

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1984 anti-Sikh riots

The 1984 anti-Sikh riots, also known as the 1984 Sikh Massacre, was a series of organised pogroms against Sikhs in India by anti-Sikh mobs (notably Congress Party members and temporarily released convicts) in response to the assassination of Indira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards.

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1998 Wandhama massacre

The 1998 Wandhama killings refers to the murder of 23 Kashmiri Pandit Hindus in the town of Wandhama in Jammu and Kashmir on 25 January 1998.

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2002 Gujarat riots

The 2002 Gujarat riots, also known as the 2002 Gujarat violence and the Gujarat pogrom, was a three-day period of inter-communal violence in the western Indian state of Gujarat.

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2002 Kaluchak massacre

The 2002 Kaluchak Massacre was a terrorist attack on 14 May 2002 near the town of Kaluchak in the Indian state Jammu and Kashmir.

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2010 Deganga riots

The 2010 Deganga riots occurred at Deganga in the district of 24 Pargans(North),West Bengal on 6 September 2010 when Muslim mobs resorted to arson and violence against the local and Hindu community.

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2012 Assam violence

In July 2012, violence in the Indian state of Assam broke out with riots between indigenous Bodos and Bengali speaking Muslims.

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Communalism in South Asia.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communalism_(South_Asia)

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