188 relations: Administrative division, Age of Enlightenment, Agglomeration communities in France, Ainhoa, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Alès, Alpes-Maritimes, Alsace, Arles, Arrondissements of France, Austronesian languages, Baden-Württemberg, Banyuls-dels-Aspres, Basque language, Bastille, Battle of Verdun, Bayonne, Beaujeu-Saint-Vallier-Pierrejux-et-Quitteur, Beaumont-en-Verdunois, Belgium, Bezonvaux, Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes, Bordeaux, Brest, France, Breton language, Calvi, Haute-Corse, Camargue, Castelmoron-d'Albret, Catalan language, Chamonix, Champagne (province), Charles V of France, Charter, China, Civil parish, Civil township, Civil war, Clipperton Island, Collectivity of Saint Martin, Communauté de communes, Communauté urbaine, Commune, Comorian language, Comune, Consortium, Corsica, Corsican language, Corvée, Court of Audit (France), Coustouges, ..., Cumières-le-Mort-Homme, Defensive wall, Departments of France, Districts of England, Documentation française, Drôme, Dunkirk, Dutch language, England, European Union, Fleury-devant-Douaumont, France, Francis I of France, Franco-Provençal language, French Guiana, French Revolution, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Gemeinde, German language, Germany, Government of France, Guadeloupe, Hamlet (place), Haumont-près-Samogneux, Haute-Saône, Haute-Savoie, Hitiaa O Te Ra, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Industrial Revolution, INSEE code, Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, Italy, Jacobin (politics), Jacques de Flesselles, Jurat, Juridical person, Kouaoua, Kourou, L'Île-des-Pins, Lamanère, Latin, Leménil-Mitry, Lille, List of comuni of Italy, List of French villages destroyed in World War I, List of municipalities of the Netherlands, List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe, List of submerged places in France, Lists of communes of France, Loi relative au renforcement et à la simplification de la coopération intercommunale, Lorraine, Louis XVI of France, Louvemont-Côte-du-Poivre, Lyon, M'Tsangamouji, Maripasoula, Marne, Marseille, Mayor, Mayor (France), Métropole, Median, Medieval commune, Medieval Latin, Metropolitan France, Metz, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Meuse (department), Mittelhausbergen, Montpellier, Municipal arrondissements of France, Municipal council, Municipal council (France), Municipalities of Sweden, Municipalities of Switzerland, Municipality, Nancy, France, Napoleon, Napoleon III, National Constituent Assembly (France), Netherlands, New Caledonia, New Hebrides, North Rhine-Westphalia, Occitan language, Oligarchy, Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, Orléans, Overseas collectivity, Overseas country of France, Overseas department, Overseas France, Overseas territory (France), Paris, Paris Commune, Perpignan, Polynesian languages, Postal code, Prefect, Prefect (France), Provost (civil), Rainforest, Raymond Marcellin, Réunion, Regions of France, René Descartes, Rhône, Rhine, Rhineland-Palatinate, River delta, Rochefourchat, Rouen, Rouvroy-Ripont, Rural flight, Saint Barthélemy, Saint-Remy-en-Bouzemont-Saint-Genest-et-Isson, Savoie, Schleswig-Holstein, Seat of local government, Separation of powers, Somme (department), Spain, States of Germany, Steenvoorde, Strasbourg, Sweden, Switzerland, Thuringia, Toulouse, Unincorporated area, United States, Urban area (France), Valenciennes, Wallis and Futuna, West Germany, World war, Y, Somme. Expand index (138 more) » « Shrink index
An administrative division, unit, entity, area or region, also referred to as a subnational entity, statoid, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
An agglomeration community (communauté d'agglomération) is a government structure in France, created by the Chevènement Law of 1999.
Ainhoa is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France.
Alès (Alès) is a commune in the Gard department in the Occitanie region in southern France.
Alpes-Maritimes (Aups Maritims; Alpi Marittime) is a department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in the extreme southeast corner of France.
Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.
Arles (Provençal Arle in both classical and Mistralian norms; Arelate in Classical Latin) is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence.
An arrondissement is a level of administrative division in France.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
Banyuls-dels-Aspres (Banyuls dels Aspres) is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Bastille was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine.
The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun,, Schlacht um Verdun), fought from 21 February to 18 December 1916, was the largest and longest battle of the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies.
Bayonne (Gascon: Baiona; Baiona; Bayona) is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Beaujeu-Saint-Vallier-Pierrejux-et-Quitteur is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.
Beaumont-en-Verdunois is a commune in the Meuse department of the Grand Est region of northeastern France.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Bezonvaux is a commune in the Meuse department in the Grand Est region in northeastern France.
The Bois de Boulogne is a large public park located along the western edge of the 16th arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt and Neuilly-sur-Seine.
The Bois de Vincennes, located on the eastern edge of Paris, is the largest public park in the city.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Brest is a city in the Finistère département in Brittany.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
Calvi is a commune in the Haute-Corse department of France on the island of Corsica.
The Camargue (Provençal Camarga) is a natural region located south of Arles, France, between the Mediterranean Sea and the two arms of the Rhône delta.
Castelmoron-d'Albret is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in south-western France.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Champagne is a historical province in the northeast of France, now best known as the Champagne wine region for the sparkling white wine that bears its name.
Charles V (21 January 1338 – 16 September 1380), called "the Wise" (le Sage; Sapiens), was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 1364 to his death.
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
In England, a civil parish is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority.
A civil township is a widely used unit of local government in the United States, subordinate to a county.
A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country.
Clipperton Island (Île de Clipperton or Île de la Passion; Isla de la Pasión) is an uninhabited coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Central America.
Saint Martin (Saint-Martin), officially the Collectivity of Saint Martin (Collectivité de Saint-Martin) is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies in the Caribbean.
A communauté de communes ("community of communes") is a federation of municipalities (communes) in France.
Communauté urbaine (French for "urban community") is the second most integrated form of intercommunality in France, after the Metropolis (métropole).
A commune (the French word appearing in the 12th century from Medieval Latin communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, things held in common) is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work, income or assets.
Comorian (Shikomori or Shimasiwa, the "language of islands") is an official language in the Comoros (an independent country of islands in the Indian Ocean, off Mozambique and Madagascar) and widely spoken on the disputed territory of Mayotte, claimed by both France and Comoros.
The comune (plural: comuni) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
A consortium is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or governments (or any combination of these entities) with the objective of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources for achieving a common goal.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is a Romance language within the Italo-Dalmatian subfamily.
Corvée is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days' work each year.
The Court of Auditors (in French Cour des comptes) is a French administrative court charged with conducting financial and legislative audits of most public institutions and some private institutions, including the central Government, national public corporations, social security agencies (since 1950), and public services (since 1976).
Coustouges (Costoja) is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
Cumières-le-Mort-Homme is a ghost commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
In the administrative divisions of France, the department (département) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune.
The districts of England (also known as local authority districts or local government districts to distinguish from unofficial city districts) are a level of subnational division of England used for the purposes of local government.
La Documentation française is a French public publishing service of general documentation on major newsworthy problems for French administrations and the French public.
Drôme (Droma in Occitan, Drôma in Arpitan) is a department in southeastern France named after the Drôme River.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fleury-devant-Douaumont is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis I (François Ier) (12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547) was the first King of France from the Angoulême branch of the House of Valois, reigning from 1515 until his death.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises, TAAF) is an overseas territory (Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) of France.
Gemeinde (plural: Gemeinden) in Germany, Austria and Switzerland is the smallest administrative division of local government having corporate status and powers of self-government.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
A hamlet is a small human settlement.
Haumont-près-Samogneux is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Haute-Saône (Arpitan: Hiôta-Sona) is a French department of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region named after the Saône River.
Haute-Savoie (Savouè d’Amont or Hiôta-Savouè; Upper Savoy; Obersavoyen or Hochsavoyen; Alta Savoia) is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-eastern France, bordering both Switzerland and Italy.
Hitiaa O Te Ra is a commune of French Polynesia, an overseas territory of France in the Pacific Ocean.
Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Count of Mirabeau (9 March 17492 April 1791) was a leader of the early stages of the French Revolution.
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The INSEE code is a numerical indexing code used by the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) to identify various entities, including communes, départements.
The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
A Jacobin was a member of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary political movement that was the most famous political club during the French Revolution (1789–99).
Jacques de Flesselles (11 November 173014 July 1789) was a French official and one of the early victims of the French Revolution.
The jurats are lay people in Guernsey and Jersey who act as judges of fact rather than law, though they preside over land conveyances and liquor licensing.
A juridical person is a non-human legal entity, in other words any organization that is not a single natural person but is authorized by law with duties and rights and is recognized as a legal person and as having a distinct identity.
Kouaoua is a commune in the North Province of New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France in the Pacific Ocean.
Kourou is a commune in French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.
L'Île-des-Pins is a commune in the South Province of New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France in the Pacific Ocean.
Lamanère (La Menera) is a commune in the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leménil-Mitry is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern metropolitan France.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
In Italy, the Comune (plural Comuni) is the basic administrative division, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality.
During the First World War, specifically at the time of the Battle of Verdun in 1916, many villages in the French département of Meuse were destroyed by the fighting.
As of January 2018, there are 380 municipalities (Dutch: gemeenten) and 3 public bodies (openbare lichamen), also referred to as special municipalities (bijzondere gemeenten), in the Netherlands.
The list below includes all entities falling even partially under any of the various common definitions of Europe, geographical or political.
This is a list of submerged places in France.
The following lists give the communes of France within each department.
The loi n° 99-586 du 12 juillet 1999 relative au renforcement et à la simplification de la coopération intercommunale ("Law 99-586 of 12 July 1999 relating to the improvement and simplification of inter-communal cooperation"), commonly called the loi Chevènement ("Chevènement law") after its proposer Jean-Pierre Chevènement, is one of the principal laws encouraging inter-municipal cooperation in France.
Lorraine (Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine Franconian: Lottringe; German:; Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est.
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.
Louvemont-Côte-du-Poivre is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
M'Tsangamouji is a commune in the French overseas department of Mayotte, in the Indian Ocean.
Maripasoula is a commune of French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.
Marne is a department in north-eastern France named after the river Marne (Matrona in Roman times) which flows through the department.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
In France, a mayor (maire in French) is chairperson of the municipal council, which organizes the work and deliberates on municipal matters.
A métropole (French for "metropolis") is an administrative entity in France, in which several communes cooperate, and which has the right to levy local tax, an établissement public de coopération intercommunale à fiscalité propre.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.
Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.
Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.
Meurthe-et-Moselle is a department in the Grand Est region of France, named after the Meurthe and Moselle rivers.
Meuse is a department in northeast France, named after the River Meuse.
Mittelhausbergen (Alsatian: Míttelhüsbàrje) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
In France, a municipal arrondissement is a subdivision of the commune, and is used in the country's three largest cities: Paris, Lyon and Marseille.
A municipal council is the local government of a municipality such as city councils and town councils.
In France, a municipal council (French: conseil municipal) is an elected body of the commune responsible for "executing, in its deliberations, the business of the town" (translated).
The municipalities of Sweden (Sveriges kommuner) are its lower-level local government entities.
Municipalities (Gemeinden, Einwohnergemeinden or politische Gemeinden; communes; comuni; vischnancas) are the lowest level of administrative division in Switzerland.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
Nancy (Nanzig) is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, and formerly the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and as Napoleon III the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870.
The National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789 during the first stages of the French Revolution.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
New Hebrides, officially the New Hebrides Condominium (Condominium des Nouvelles-Hébrides, "Condominium of the New Hebrides") and named for the Hebrides Scottish archipelago, was the colonial name for the island group in the South Pacific Ocean that is now Vanuatu.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
The Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts (Ordonnance de Villers-Cotterêts) is an extensive piece of reform legislation signed into law by Francis I of France on August 10, 1539 in the city of Villers-Cotterêts and the oldest French legislation still used partly by French courts.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
The French overseas collectivities (collectivité d'outre-mer or COM), like the French regions, are first-order administrative divisions of France.
Overseas country (Pays d'outre-mer) is the designation for the overseas collectivity of French Polynesia.
An overseas department (département d’outre-mer or DOM) is a department of France that is outside metropolitan France.
Overseas France (France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administerd territories outside the European continent.
The term overseas territory (Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) is an administrative division of France and is currently only applied to the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris) was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871.
Perpignan (Perpinyà) is a city, a commune, and the capital of the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
The Polynesian languages are a language family spoken in geographical Polynesia and on a patchwork of outliers from south central Micronesia to small islands off the northeast of the larger islands of the southeast Solomon Islands and sprinkled through Vanuatu.
A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN Code or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.
Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area.
A prefect (préfet) in France is the State's representative in a department or region.
A provost (introduced into Scots from French) is the ceremonial head of many Scottish local authorities, and under the name prévôt was a governmental position of varying importance in Ancien Régime France.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
Raymond Marcellin (19 August 1914 in Sézanne, Marne – 8 September 2004) was a French politician.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of the 16 states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
Rochefourchat is a commune in the Drôme department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in southeastern France.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Rouvroy-Ripont is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France.
Rural flight (or rural exodus) is the migratory pattern of peoples from rural areas into urban areas.
Saint Barthélemy, officially the Territorial collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Barthélemy), called Ouanalao by the indigenous people, is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies.
Saint-Remy-en-Bouzemont-Saint-Genest-et-Isson is a commune in the Marne department in north-eastern France.
Savoie (Arpitan: Savouè, Italian: Savoia, English: Savoy) is a French department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of the French Alps.
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.
In local government, a city hall, town hall, civic centre, (in the UK or Australia) a guildhall, a Rathaus (German), or (more rarely) a municipal building, is the chief administrative building of a city, town, or other municipality.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Somme is a department of France, located in the north of the country and named after the Somme river.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen states (Land, plural Länder; informally and very commonly Bundesland, plural Bundesländer).
Steenvoorde is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land that is not governed by a local municipal corporation; similarly an unincorporated community is a settlement that is not governed by its own local municipal corporation, but rather is administered as part of larger administrative divisions, such as a township, parish, borough, county, city, canton, state, province or country.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
An aire urbaine (literal and official translation: "urban area") is an INSEE (France's national statistics bureau) statistical concept describing a core of urban development and the extent of its commuter activity.
Valenciennes (Dutch: Valencijn, Latin: Valentianae, Valincyinne) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Wallis and Futuna, officially the Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands (Wallis-et-Futuna or Territoire des îles Wallis-et-Futuna, Fakauvea and Fakafutuna: Uvea mo Futuna), is a French island collectivity in the South Pacific between Tuvalu to the northwest, Fiji to the southwest, Tonga to the southeast, Samoa to the east, and Tokelau to the northeast.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
Y is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France.
Commune (France), Commune française, Commune in France, Commune of France, Commune of france, Communes (France), Communes de France, Communes in France, Communes of france, France communes, French commune, French communes, Intercommunality, Municipalities of France.