88 relations: Abstract Syntax Notation One, Abstraction layer, Algorithm, AppleTalk, Application layer, Application programming interface, ARPANET, Asynchronous transfer mode, Augmented Backus–Naur form, AX.25, Collision (telecommunications), Combinatorial explosion, Communicating sequential processes, Communication, Communications system, Compiler, Computer hardware, Concurrent computing, Connection-oriented communication, Connectionless communication, Contention (telecommunications), Data flow diagram, Data structure, De facto standard, Douglas Comer, Duplex (telecommunications), Encyclopædia Britannica, Error detection and correction, Ethernet, Finite-state machine, Gerard J. Holzmann, HTML, IBM, Implementation, Information, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, International Organization for Standardization, International Telecommunication Union, Internet, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet layer, Internet Protocol, Internet protocol suite, Internetworking, IPv4, IPX/SPX, ITU-T, Link layer, Linker (computing), List of ITU-T V-series recommendations, ..., Lists of network protocols, Loader (computing), Marine electronics, Maximum transmission unit, Mealy machine, Medium access control, Moore machine, National Marine Electronics Association, Network congestion, Network layer, Operating system, OSI model, OSI protocols, Physical quantity, Programming language, Protocol stack, Public switched telephone network, Radia Perlman, Radio, Semantics, Shared medium, Shared memory, Software, Standards organization, State (computer science), Synchronization, Syntax, Systems engineering, Technical standard, Technological convergence, Telecommunication, Timeout (computing), Transmission Control Protocol, Transmission medium, Transport layer, Tunneling protocol, World Wide Web Consortium, X.25. Expand index (38 more) » « Shrink index
Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1) is an interface description language for defining data structures that can be serialized and deserialized in a standard, cross-platform way.
In computing, an abstraction layer or abstraction level is a way of hiding the implementation details of a particular set of functionality, allowing the separation of concerns to facilitate interoperability and platform independence.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
AppleTalk was a proprietary suite of networking protocols developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh computers.
An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is, according to the ATM Forum, "a telecommunications concept defined by ANSI and ITU (formerly CCITT) standards for carriage of a complete range of user traffic, including voice, data, and video signals".
In computer science, augmented Backus–Naur form (ABNF) is a metalanguage based on Backus–Naur form (BNF), but consisting of its own syntax and derivation rules.
AX.25 (Amateur X.25) is a data link layer protocol derived from the X.25 protocol suite and designed for use by amateur radio operators.
A collision is the situation that occurs when two or more demands are made simultaneously on equipment that can handle only one at any given instant.
In mathematics, a combinatorial explosion is the rapid growth of the complexity of a problem due to how the combinatorics of the problem is affected by the input, constraints, and bounds of the problem.
In computer science, communicating sequential processes (CSP) is a formal language for describing patterns of interaction in concurrent systems.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
In telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole.
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.
Concurrent computing is a form of computing in which several computations are executed during overlapping time periods—concurrently—instead of sequentially (one completing before the next starts).
Connection-oriented communication is a network communication mode in telecommunications and computer networking, where a communication session or a semi-permanent connection is established before any useful data can be transferred, and where a stream of data is delivered in the same order as it was sent.
Connectionless communication, often referred to as CL-mode communication,Information Processing Systems - Open Systems Interconnection, "Transport Service Definition - Addendum 1: Connectionless-mode Transmission", International Organization for Standardization, International Standard 8072/AD 1, December 1986.
In statistical time division multiplexing, contention is a media access method that is used to share a broadcast medium.
A data flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system, modelling its process aspects.
In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.
A standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market).
Douglas Earl Comer is a professor of computer science at Purdue University, where he teaches courses on operating systems and computer networks.
A duplex communication system is a point-to-point system composed of two or more connected parties or devices that can communicate with one another in both directions.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).
A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton (FSA, plural: automata), finite automaton, or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation.
Gerard J. Holzmann (born 1951) is a Dutch-born American computer scientist and researcher at Bell Labs and NASA, best known as the developer of the SPIN model checker.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model, design, specification, standard, algorithm, or policy.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
The internet layer is a group of internetworking methods, protocols, and specifications in the Internet protocol suite that are used to transport datagrams (packets) from the originating host across network boundaries, if necessary, to the destination host specified by an IP address.
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
Internetworking is the practice of connecting a computer network with other networks through the use of gateways that provide a common method of routing information packets between the networks.
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).
IPX/SPX stands for Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange.
The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU); it coordinates standards for telecommunications.
In computer networking, the link layer is the lowest layer in the Internet Protocol Suite, the networking architecture of the Internet.
In computing, a linker or link editor is a computer utility program that takes one or more object files generated by a compiler and combines them into a single executable file, library file, or another 'object' file.
The ITU-T V-Series Recommendations on Data communication over the telephone network specify the protocols that govern approved modem communication standards and interfaces.
This is a list of articles that list different types or classifications of communication protocols used in computer networks.
In computer systems a loader is the part of an operating system that is responsible for loading programs and libraries.
Marine electronics refers to electronics devices designed and classed for use in the marine environment on board ships and yachts where even small drops of salt water will destroy electronics devices.
In computer networking, the maximum transmission unit (MTU) is the size of the largest protocol data unit (PDU) that can be communicated in a single network layer transaction.
In the theory of computation, a Mealy machine is a finite-state machine whose output values are determined both by its current state and the current inputs.
In IEEE 802 LAN/MAN standards, the medium access control (MAC) sublayer (also known as the media access control sublayer) and the logical link control (LLC) sublayer together make up the data link layer.
In the theory of computation, a Moore machine is a finite-state machine whose output values are determined only by its current state.
The National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA) is a US-based marine electronics trade organization setting standards of communication between marine electronics.
Network congestion in data networking and queueing theory is the reduced quality of service that occurs when a network node or link is carrying more data than it can handle.
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the network layer is layer 3.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.
The Open Systems Interconnection protocols are a family of information exchange standards developed jointly by the ISO and the ITU-T. The standardization process began in 1977.
A physical quantity is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement.or we can say that quantities which we come across during our scientific studies are called as the physical quantities...
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family.
The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is the aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication.
Radia Joy Perlman (born 1951) is an American computer programmer and network engineer.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
In telecommunication, a shared medium is a medium or channel of information transfer that serves more than one user at the same time.
In computer science, shared memory is memory that may be simultaneously accessed by multiple programs with an intent to provide communication among them or avoid redundant copies.
Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.
A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization (SDO), or standards setting organization (SSO) is an organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are intended to address the needs of a group of affected adopters.
In information technology and computer science, a program is described as stateful if it is designed to remember preceding events or user interactions; the remembered information is called the state of the system.
Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over their life cycles.
A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems.
This article describe science and technology convergence, with illustrations to convergence of emerging technologies (NBIC, nano-, bio-, info- and cognitive technologies) and convergence of media technology.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
In telecommunications and related engineering (including computer networking and programming), the term timeout or time-out has several meanings, including.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.
A transmission medium is a material substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) that can propagate energy waves.
In computer networking, the transport layer is a conceptual division of methods in the layered architecture of protocols in the network stack in the Internet Protocol Suite and the OSI model.
In computer networks, a tunneling protocol is a communications protocol that allows for the secure movement of data from one network to another.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
X.25 is an ITU-T standard protocol suite for packet switched wide area network (WAN) communication.
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